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pregnancy pancreatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194805/fetal-adaptations-in-insulin-secretion-result-from-high-catecholamines-during-placental-insufficiency
#1
Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176472/suspected-atypical-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-in-two-post-partum-patients-with-foetal-death-in-utero-responding-to-eculizumab
#2
REVIEW
Justin Chua, Kathy Paizis, Simon Z He, Peter Mount
BACKGROUND: Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare condition with the triad of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. Other conditions that present in a similar manner peri-partum include thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura, and pregnancy associated conditions including HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets), severe pre-eclampsia and less commonly acute fatty liver of pregnancy. CASE REPORTS: We describe two cases of suspected aHUS, who presented post-partum with foetal death-in-utero at 33 and 37 weeks respectively...
February 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162192/-the-454th-case-a-29-week-pregnant-woman-with-abdominal-pain-hyperlipemia-and-multiorgan-dysfunction
#3
D Wu, J Xu, J M Peng, L K Ma, S Chen, X G Li, T P Zhang, J M Qian
A 32 year-old woman in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted for severe acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During hospitalization she developed multiorgan dysfunction, infected pancreatic necrosis, abdominal compartment syndrome and intrauterine fetal death. She was successfully treated by multidisciplinary team including department of emergency medicine, ICU, gastroenterology, obstetrics, endocrinology, ultrasonography, radiology, infectious disease, nutrition and surgery.
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#4
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119941/metastatic-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-during-pregnancy
#5
Jessica Davis, Showkat Bashir, Helmae Wubneh, Marie L Borum
We present a rare case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed antepartum. A high index of suspicion must be maintained to diagnose pancreatic cancer during pregnancy. We recommend a thorough history and physical and aggressive pursuit of sensitive imaging in patients with persistent symptoms. If pancreatic adenocarcinoma is diagnosed, a multidisciplinary approach that focuses on patient goals should be undertaken. The effect of pregnancy on tumor growth rates is unknown.
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111236/prevalence-of-prediabetes-risk-in-offspring-born-to-mothers-with-hyperandrogenism
#6
Shen Tian, Xian-Hua Lin, Yi-Meng Xiong, Miao-E Liu, Tian-Tian Yu, Min Lv, Wei Zhao, Gu-Feng Xu, Guo-Lian Ding, Chen-Ming Xu, Min Jin, Chun Feng, Yan-Ting Wu, Ya-Jing Tan, Qian Gao, Jian Zhang, Cheng Li, Jun Ren, Lu-Yang Jin, Bin Chen, Hong Zhu, Xue-Ying Zhang, Song-Chang Chen, Xin-Mei Liu, Ye Liu, Jun-Yu Zhang, Li Wang, Ping Zhang, Xiao-Jun Chen, Li Jin, Xi Chen, Yi-Cong Meng, Dan-Dan Wu, Hui Lin, Qian Yang, Cheng-Liang Zhou, Xin-Zhu Li, Yi-Yu Wang, Yu-Qian Xiang, Zhi-Wei Liu, Ling Gao, Lu-Ting Chen, Hong-Jie Pan, Rong Li, Fang-Hong Zhang, Lan-Feng Xing, Yi-Min Zhu, Christian Klausen, Peter C K Leung, Ju-Xue Li, Fei Sun, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Excessive androgen exposure during pregnancy has been suggested to induce diabetic phenotypes in offspring in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregestational maternal hyperandrogenism in human influenced the glucose metabolism in offspring via epigenetic memory from mother's oocyte to child's somatic cells. METHODS: Of 1782 reproductive-aged women detected pregestational serum androgen, 1406 were pregnant between 2005 and 2010...
January 11, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100476/chronic-anemic-hypoxemia-attenuates-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-in-fetal-sheep
#7
Joshua S Benjamin, Christine B Culpepper, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Sonnet S Jonker, Melissa Ann Davis, Sean W Limesand, Randall B Wilkening, William W Hay, Paul J Rozance
Fetal insulin secretion is inhibited by acute hypoxemia. The relationship between prolonged hypoxemia and insulin secretion, however, is less well defined. To test the hypothesis that prolonged fetal hypoxemia impairs insulin secretion, studies were performed in sheep fetuses that were bled to anemic conditions for 9 ± 0 days (anemic, n=19) and compared to control fetuses (n=15). Arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 34% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic vs. control fetuses (P<0.0001). Plasma glucose concentrations were 21% higher in the anemic group (P<0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099206/is-a-%C3%AE-cell-a-%C3%AE-cell
#8
Chaoxing Yang, Feorillo Galivo, Craig Dorrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report examines recent publications identifying phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among pancreatic β cells and investigating their potential roles in normal and abnormal islet function. The development of new methods and tools for the study of individual islet cells has produced a surge of interest in this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of β cell maturation and pregnancy-induced proliferation have identified changes in serotonin and transcription factors SIX2/3 expression as markers of temporal heterogeneity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079868/cdc123-camk1d-gene-rs12779790-polymorphism-and-rs10811661-polymorphism-upstream-of-the-cdkn2a-2b-gene-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#9
M Tarnowski, D Malinowski, K Safranow, V Dziedziejko, A Pawlik
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance occurring in pregnant women. CDC123/CAMK1D and CDKN2A/2B are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and may affect pancreatic beta cell function. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CDKN2A/2B rs10811661 and CDC123/CAMK1D rs12779790 gene polymorphisms and GDM. STUDY DESIGN: This study included 411 pregnant women. The diagnosis of GDM was based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049534/case-report-maternal-mosaicism-resulting-in-inheritance-of-a-novel-gata6-mutation-causing-pancreatic-agenesis-and-neonatal-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Daphne Yau, Elisa De Franco, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Miriam Blumenkrantz, John J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Haploinsufficiency of the GATA6 transcription factor gene was recently found to be the most common cause of pancreatic agenesis, a rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Although most cases are de novo, we describe three siblings with inherited GATA6 haploinsufficiency and the rare finding of parental mosaicism. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was born at term with severe intrauterine growth restriction, the first child of non-consanguineous parents...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009296/human-beta-cells-produce-and-release-serotonin-to-inhibit-glucagon-secretion-from-alpha-cells
#11
Joana Almaça, Judith Molina, Danusa Menegaz, Alexey N Pronin, Alejandro Tamayo, Vladlen Slepak, Per-Olof Berggren, Alejandro Caicedo
In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965206/prior-lactation-reduces-future-diabetic-risk-through-sustained-post-weaning-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity
#12
Harpreet Bajaj, Chang Ye, Anthony J Hanley, Phil W Connelly, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman, Ravi Retnakaran
Breastfeeding ≥12 months is recommended for optimal infant nutrition but may hold maternal benefits, as well. Indeed, lactation has been associated with lower long-term risk of diabetes in the mother but the mechanism by which it imparts sustained post-weaning effects on glucose tolerance remains unclear. In this context, we postulated that lactation potentially could induce post-weaning beneficial effects on glucose tolerance by modifying the natural history of insulin sensitivity and/or pancreatic beta-cell function over time...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959892/ffa2-contribution-to-gestational-glucose-tolerance-is-not-disrupted-by-antibiotics
#13
Miles Fuller, Xiaoran Li, Robert Fisch, Moneb Bughara, Barton Wicksteed, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Brian T Layden
During the insulin resistant phase of pregnancy, the mRNA expression of free fatty acid 2 receptor (Ffar2) is upregulated and as we recently reported, this receptor contributes to insulin secretion and pancreatic beta cell mass expansion in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. As impaired gestational glucose levels can affect metabolic health of offspring, we aimed to explore the role of maternal Ffar2 expression during pregnancy on the metabolic health of offspring and also the effects of antibiotics, which have been shown to disrupt gut microbiota fermentative activity (the source of the FFA2 ligands) on gestational glucose homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#14
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920694/pancreatic-and-hepatic-metastasis-of-an-undiagnosed-choriocarcinoma-an-exceptional-cause-of-haemoperitoneum-in-young-women-report-of-a-rare-case
#15
Nishat Fatema, Neeru Vinod Arora, Fatma Majid Al Abri, Yaseer Muhammad Tareq Khan
Haemoperitoneum in women of reproductive age usually suggests either ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cysts. Metastatic choriocarcinoma is considered the least common cause of haemoperitoneum in women of childbearing age. We report a rare case of pancreatic and hepatic metastasis of choriocarcinoma in a young, 30-year-old female who had delivered 10 months prior at term gestation with no previous history of gestational trophoblastic disease or molar pregnancy. She had a short history of fever and pain in the right hypochondrium, with findings of hypovolaemic shock due to intraperitoneal haemorrhage...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888197/islet-adaptations-in-fetal-sheep-persist-following-chronic-exposure-to-high-norepinephrine
#16
Xiaochuan Chen, Amy C Kelly, Dustin T Yates, Antoni R Macko, Ronald M Lynch, Sean W Limesand
Complications in pregnancy elevate fetal norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Previous studies in NE-infused sheep fetuses revealed that sustained exposure to high NE resulted in lower expression of α2-adrenergic receptors in islets and increased insulin secretion responsiveness after acutely terminating the NE infusion. In this study, we determined if the compensatory increase in insulin secretion after chronic elevation of NE is independent of hyperglycemia in sheep fetuses and whether it is persistent in conjunction with islet desensitization to NE...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882764/-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy-complicated-by-rupture-of%C3%A2-aneurysm-of-artery-lienalis
#17
E Hostinská, K Huml, R Pilka
OBJECTIVE: We present a case of pregnant woman with acute pacreatitis in 38th week comlicated by acute rupture of aneurysm of artery lienalis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty Hospital and Palacky University, Olomouc. CASE REPORT: 28-years-old primipara in 38th week of gestation was admitted to our department for acute pancreatitis caused by gallstones. Subsequent conservative treatment was complicated by rupture of aneurysm of lienal artery and haemorrhagic shock...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877217/pregnancy-specific-%C3%AE-1-glycoprotein-1-is-expressed-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-its-subcellular-localization-correlates-with-overall-survival
#18
Jasmin H Shahinian, Hannah Fuellgraf, Stefan Tholen, Justin Mastroianni, Julia Daniela Knopf, Markus Kuehs, Bettina Mayer, Manuel Schlimpert, Birte Kulemann, Simon Kuesters, Jens Hoeppner, Ulrich F Wellner, Martin Werner, Ulrich T Hopt, Robert Zeiser, Peter Bronsert, Oliver Schilling
Proteins of the pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein (PSG) family are renowned for their elevated expression during pregnancy. Only few reports have investigated their expression in adenocarcinomas. We studied the expression of PSG1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In a cohort of 104 patient samples, immunohistochemical analysis determined PSG1 expression in every specimen. PSG1 was found at apical and cytoplasmic localization or solely at cytoplasmic localization, with the latter case being correlated to shortened median survival (25 vs 11 months, logrank p-value < 0...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791421/elevated-plasma-pancreatic-enzyme-concentrations-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-may-indicate-closed-loop-obstruction
#19
K Arapis, P Tammaro, G Goujon, H Becheur, P Augustin, J P Marmuse
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures and most patients are women of reproductive age. Consequently, general surgeons and obstetricians need to be aware that these patients are at risk of bariatric specific surgical complications during their pregnancy. We report a case involving a 32-year-old woman who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 2 years previously. She presented at 25 weeks of gestation with a closed loop obstruction due to a retrograde jejunojejunal intussusception that was initially misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis...
February 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790717/in-utero-coxsackievirus-b4-infection-of-the-mouse-thymus
#20
H Jaïdane, A Halouani, H Jmii, F Elmastour, S Abdelkefi, G Bodart, H Michaux, T Chakroun, F Sane, M Mokni, V Geenen, D Hober, M Aouni
Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis or Sjögren's syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in-utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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