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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904926/polychlorinated-biphenyl-bioaccumulation-patterns-among-lake-erie-lower-trophic-level-consumers-reflect-species-ecologies
#1
Jordan A Pitt, Ken G Drouillard, Gordon Paterson
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were quantified in lower trophic level consumers of the Lake Erie western basin food web to assess the capacity of PCBs to discriminate among trophically similar species inhabiting different compartments of the same ecosystem. Zooplankton were characterized by higher proportions of less chlorinated and hydrophobic homologs relative to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), mayfly (Hexagenia limbata) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) samples. PCB biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) differed significantly among species with zebra mussels and emerald shiners having the highest BSAFs...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904922/impacts-of-sediment-organic-matter-content-and-ph-on-ecotoxicity-of-coexposure-of-tio2-nanoparticles-and-cadmium-to-freshwater-snails-bellamya-aeruginosa
#2
Taowu Ma, Meng Wang, Shuangjiao Gong, Bin Tian
The environmental factors are expected to affect the ecotoxicity of heavy metals in the presence of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic ecosystems. However, in sediment scenario, little is known regarding their impacts on the ecotoxicity of co-exposure of sediment-associated heavy metals and NPs. This study evaluated the impacts of different levels of organic matter (OM) (4.8-11.6%) and pH (6-9) on the ecotoxicological effects of co-exposure of sediment-associated titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903801/inhibition-of-an-aquatic-rhabdovirus-demonstrates-promise-of-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-for-use-in-aquaculture
#3
Bethany F Balmer, Rachel L Powers, Ting-Hu Zhang, Jihye Lee, Frederic Vigant, Benhur Lee, Michael E Jung, Maureen K Purcell, Kevin Snekvik, Hector C Aguilar
: Many enveloped viruses cause devastating disease in aquaculture, resulting in significant economic impact. LJ001 is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that inhibits enveloped viral infections by specifically targeting phospholipids in the lipid bilayer via production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This stabilizes positive curvature and decreases membrane fluidity, which inhibits viral-cell membrane fusion during viral entry. Based on previous mammalian studies and the requirement of light for activation of LJ001, we hypothesized that LJ001 may be useful as a preventative and/or therapeutic agent for enveloped viral infections in aquaculture...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902186/multigenetic-characterization-of-candidatus-xenohaliotis-californiensis
#4
Francesco Cicala, James D Moore, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Miguel A Del Río-Portilla, Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares
"Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (or Ca. Xc) is the etiological agent of the withering syndrome (WS), a chronic wasting disease affecting most if not all North American species of abalone, and has been described as a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Genetic data about this species is limited to the 16S rRNA gene. The inability to grow it axenically has hindered its genetic and genomic characterization and, in consequence, a thorough analysis of its systematics. Here, we amplified and sequenced five genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ftsZ, virD4, and virB11) of Ca...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901630/emerging-pollutant-treatments-in-wastewater-cases-of-antibiotics-and-hormones
#5
Erika Méndez, Miguel A González-Fuentes, Georgette Rebollar-Perez, Alia Méndez-Albores, Eduardo Torres
Because of the intensive use of pharmaceutical substances in human life, studies on the detection of these chemical compounds and their metabolites as pollutants in water bodies are continuously reported. Some pharmaceutical agents are associated with adverse effects to aquatic life, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1) to μg L(-1)). For instance, the presence of antibiotics and hormones has been associated with increasing proliferation of antibiotic resistant pathogens and feminization and masculinization of some aquatic organisms...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901507/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-toxoplasma-gondii-in-a-wild-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-and-seroprevalence-in-two-wild-populations
#6
Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#7
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900656/assessment-of-land-use-land-cover-dynamics-of-tso-moriri-lake-a-ramsar-site-in-india
#8
Sharad Kumar Gupta, Dericks Praise Shukla
Wetlands accounts for 6% area of the Earth's land cover and nearly 17% of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. They are of utmost importance to climate dynamics and are critical links between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Despite the need of high attention towards conserving and managing wetland resources, mapping them is a least practiced activity. This study shows the temporal change in land use and land cover pattern of Tso Moriri Lake, the highest altitude lake in India and designated as Ramsar site in year 2002, using multi-sensor and multi-date imagery...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900625/a-comparison-of-trace-metal-bioaccumulation-and-distribution-in-typha-latifolia-and-phragmites-australis-implication-for-phytoremediation
#9
Agnieszka Klink
The aims of the present investigation were to reveal various trace metal accumulation abilities of two common helophytes Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis and to investigate their potential use in the phytoremediation of environmental metal pollution. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni were determined in roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of both species studied as well as in corresponding water and bottom sediments from 19 sites selected within seven lakes in western Poland (Leszczyńskie Lakeland)...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900461/microbial-food-web-drivers-in-tropical-reservoirs
#10
Carolina Davila Domingues, Lucia Helena Sampaio da Silva, Luciana Machado Rangel, Leonardo de Magalhães, Adriana de Melo Rocha, Lúcia Meirelles Lobão, Rafael Paiva, Fábio Roland, Hugo Sarmento
Element cycling in aquatic systems is driven chiefly by planktonic processes, and the structure of the planktonic food web determines the efficiency of carbon transfer through trophic levels. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated all planktonic food-web components in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to unravel the top-down controls (metazooplankton community structure), bottom-up controls (resource availability), and hydrologic (water residence time) and physical (temperature) variables that affect different components of the microbial food web (MFW) carbon stock in tropical reservoirs, through structural equation models (SEM)...
November 29, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899915/novel-h7n2-and-h5n6-avian-influenza-a-viruses-in-sentinel-chickens-a-sentinel-chicken-surveillance-study
#11
Teng Zhao, Yan-Hua Qian, Shan-Hui Chen, Guo-Lin Wang, Meng-Na Wu, Yong Huang, Guang-Yuan Ma, Li-Qun Fang, Gregory C Gray, Bing Lu, Yi-Gang Tong, Mai-Juan Ma, Wu-Chun Cao
In 2014, a sentinel chicken surveillance for avian influenza viruses was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Two H7N2, one H5N6, and two H9N2 viruses were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses and H5N6 virus is a reassortant of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses. Substitutions V186 and L226 (H3 numbering) in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene protein was found in two H7N2 viruses but not in the H5N6 virus. Two A138 and A160 mutations were identified in the HA gene protein of all three viruses but a P128 mutation was only observed in the H5N6 virus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899239/avoid-the-pcb-mistakes-a-more-sustainable-future-for-ionic-liquids
#12
REVIEW
Gregory Chatel, Emmanuel Naffrechoux, Micheline Draye
Based on our original knowledge and experience on both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identification in aquatic ecosystems, and use of ionic liquids (ILs) as solvents and/or co-catalysts in green chemistry, we drawn a dared comparison between these two families. Indeed, PCBs has been used during several decades for their new properties, but are now considered as prevalent and persistent pollutants; some toxic effects on environment or human are still revealed. ILs, often designated as "green solvents" are increasingly used in numerous applications, but few studies reported about their environmental impact are still controversial...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898785/diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-as-a-reference-method-for-assessing-soil-phosphorus-by-visual-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Marie van Maarschalkerweerd, Songjuan Gao, Jinshun Bai, Søren Husted, Weidong Cao, Peter E Holm
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a severe challenge in many agricultural areas around the globe, while at the same time, aquatic environments are threatened by leaching and runoff of excess P in other areas. Accurate, cheap, and rapid assessment of crop P needs and risk of P loss is therefore necessary to optimize the use of P fertilizer worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to predict soil P concentrations by visual and near-infrared spectroscopy using reference P concentrations determined by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT); Olsen P results were included for comparison...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898782/prediction-of-pesticide-toxicity-in-midwest-streams
#14
Megan E Shoda, Wesley W Stone, Lisa H Nowell
The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898330/catalytic-degradation-of-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-2-4-d-by-nano-fe2o3-activated-peroxymonosulfate-influential-factors-and-mechanism-determination
#15
Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Farshid Ghanbari, Mehdi Ahmadi
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most applicable herbicides in the world. Therefore, its residue in aquatic environment threatens the human health and ecosystems. In this study, Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (HNPs) were synthesized, and the characteristics of the obtained HNPs were determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, and particle size analyzer (PSA)...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896479/body-size-drives-allochthony-in-food-webs-of-tropical-rivers
#16
Timothy D Jardine, Thomas S Rayner, Neil E Pettit, Dominic Valdez, Douglas P Ward, Garry Lindner, Michael M Douglas, Stuart E Bunn
Food web subsidies from external sources ("allochthony") can support rich biological diversity and high secondary and tertiary production in aquatic systems, even those with low rates of primary production. However, animals vary in their degree of dependence on these subsidies. We examined dietary sources for aquatic animals restricted to refugial habitats (waterholes) during the dry season in Australia's wet-dry tropics, and show that allochthony is strongly size dependent. While small-bodied fishes and invertebrates derived a large proportion of their diet from autochthonous sources within the waterhole (phytoplankton, periphyton, or macrophytes), larger animals, including predatory fishes and crocodiles, demonstrated allochthony from seasonally inundated floodplains, coastal zones or the surrounding savanna...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896068/metagenomic-investigation-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-a-chrysotile-asbestos-mine-pit-pond-lowell-vermont-usa
#17
Heather E Driscoll, James J Vincent, Erika L English, Elizabeth D Dolci
Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and > 26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896024/salinity-modulates-thermotolerance-energy-metabolism-and-stress-response-in-amphipods-gammarus-lacustris
#18
Kseniya P Vereshchagina, Yulia A Lubyaga, Zhanna Shatilina, Daria Bedulina, Anton Gurkov, Denis V Axenov-Gribanov, Boris Baduev, Elizaveta S Kondrateva, Mikhail Gubanov, Egor Zadereev, Inna Sokolova, Maxim Timofeyev
Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase) and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895051/metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-larval-chironomid-tanytarsus-minutipalpus-adjustments-to-diel-variations-in-the-extreme-conditions-of-lake-magadi
#19
Lucas F Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Harold L Bergman, Ora E Johannsson, Pierre Laurent, Claudine Chevalier, Mosiany L Kisipan, Geraldine D Kavembe, Michael B Papah, Kevin V Brix, Gudrun De Boeck, John N Maina, Rodi O Ojoo, Adalto Bianchini
Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893995/combined-effects-of-cadmium-temperature-and-hypoxia-reoxygenation-on-mitochondrial-function-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
John O Onukwufor, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
Although aquatic organisms face multiple environmental stressors that may interact to alter adverse outcomes, our knowledge of stressor-stressor interaction on cellular function is limited. We investigated the combined effects of cadmium (Cd), hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) and temperature on mitochondrial function. Liver mitochondria from juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to Cd (0-20μM) and H-R (0 and 5min) at 5, 13 and 25°C followed by measurements of mitochondrial Cd load, volume, complex І active (A)↔deactive (D) transition, membrane potential, ROS release and ultrastructural changes...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
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