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Flaviviridae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162867/broad-spectrum-antiviral-agents-secreted-phospholipase-a2-targets-viral-envelope-lipid-bilayers-derived-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane
#1
Ming Chen, Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Masanori Kameoka, Lin Deng, Yutaka Terada, Wataru Kamitani, Kei Sato, Yoshio Koyanagi, Makoto Hijikata, Keiko Shindo, Takeshi Noda, Michinori Kohara, Hak Hotta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belong to the family Flaviviridae. Their viral particles have the envelope composed of viral proteins and a lipid bilayer acquired from budding through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The phospholipid content of the ER membrane differs from that of the plasma membrane (PM). The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily consists of a large number of members that specifically catalyse the hydrolysis of phospholipids at a particular position...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153860/the-antimicrobial-peptide-hs-1-inhibits-dengue-virus-infection
#2
Juliana M C Monteiro, Michelle D Oliveira, Roberto S Dias, Lorena Nacif-Marçal, Renato N Feio, Sukarno O Ferreira, Leandro L Oliveira, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O Paula
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Studies reveal that peptides secreted by amphibians have many functions, such as antiviral and antimicrobial activities. As there is no antiviral drug effective against the DENV, the antiviral activity of a synthetic peptide called HS-1, derived from the secretion of the anuran Hypsiboas semilineatus, has been evaluated. The assays of neutralization in the Vero cells show a complete inhibition of infection of the serotypes 2 and 3...
November 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152704/west-nile-disease-in-tunisia-an-overview-of-60-years
#3
Salah Hammami, Thameur Ben Hassine, Annamaria Conte, Jihène Amdouni, Fabrizio De Massis, Soufiène Sghaier, Sonia Ben Hassen
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne virus of public health importance. The virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family. The WNV is continuously spreading across Tunisia especially in the coastal and Southern area of the country. The first human West Nile disease (WND) epidemic in Tunisia occurred in 1997, since then, the quantity and the extension of spillover effects increased constantly. However, the existing knowledge of factors triggering such events continues to be rather poor...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147783/new-virus-of-the-family-flaviviridae-detected-in-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus
#4
Renate Hvidsten Skoge, Jarle Brattespe, Arnfinn Lodden Økland, Heidrun Plarre, Are Nylund
In this study, we determined the complete coding sequence of a putative new member of the family Flaviviridae, named "Cyclopterus lumpus virus" (CLuV), which is associated with a serious disease in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). The virus was present in all tissues tested, but pathology was primarily observed in the liver and kidneys. CLuV shows low but distinct similarity to the unassigned Tamana bat virus (TABV). Unlike other known members of the family Flaviviridae, translation of the entire CLuV polyprotein is dependent on a - 1 ribosomal frameshift in the NS2A region...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129222/both-cytopathic-and-non-cytopathic-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-induced-autophagy-at-a-similar-rate
#5
Mrigendra K S Rajput, Karim Abdelsalam, Mahmoud F Darweesh, Lyle J Braun, Jason Kerkvliet, Adam D Hoppe, Christopher C L Chase
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains cellular homeostasis by the proteolytic recycling of cytoplasm. Autophagy occurs at basal levels in almost all cells. It is upregulated in cellular stress including starvation, oxidative stress or during infection. Several viruses including flavivirus have developed strategies to subvert or use autophagy for their efficient replication. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the pestivirus virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126899/merimepodib-an-impdh-inhibitor-suppresses-replication-of-zika-virus-and-other-emerging-viral-pathogens
#6
Xiao Tong, Jeanon Smith, Natalya Bukreyeva, Takaaki Koma, John T Manning, Raj Kalkeri, Ann D Kwong, Slobodan Paessler
Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently been linked to abnormal pregnancies, fetal death, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Merimepodib (MMPD, VX-497), a potent inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), has shown antiviral activity against HCV and a variety of DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. In this report, we expand the antiviral spectrum of MMPD, and demonstrate that MMPD inhibits ZIKV RNA replication with an EC50 of 0.6 μM. Furthermore, MMPD reduces the virus production of ZIKV as well as several other important emerging viral pathogens such as Ebola, Lassa, Chikungunya, and Junin viruses...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118186/identification-of-phlebovirus-and-arenavirus-rna-sequences-that-stall-and-repress-the-exoribonuclease-xrn1
#7
Phillida A Charley, Carol J Wilusz, Jeffrey Wilusz
Regulated mRNA decay plays a vital role in determining both the level and quality of cellular gene expression. Viral RNAs must successfully evade this host RNA decay machinery to establish a productive infection. One way for RNA viruses to accomplish this is to target the cellular exoribonuclease XRN1, since this enzyme is accessible in the cytoplasm and plays a major role in mRNA decay. Members of the Flaviviridae use RNA structures in their 5' or 3' untranslated regions to stall and repress XRN1, effectively stabilizing viral RNAs while also causing significant dysregulation of host cell mRNA stability...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111456/viruses-associated-with-antarctic-wildlife-from-serology-based-detection-to-identification-of-genomes-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#8
REVIEW
Zoe E Smeele, David G Ainley, Arvind Varsani
The Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands and surrounding sea-ice provide a unique environment for the existence of organisms. Nonetheless, birds and seals of a variety of species inhabit them, particularly during their breeding seasons. Early research on Antarctic wildlife health, using serology-based assays, showed exposure to viruses in the families Birnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae circulating in seals (Phocidae), penguins (Spheniscidae), petrels (Procellariidae) and skuas (Stercorariidae)...
October 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110196/challenges-for-molecular-and-serological-zikv-infection-confirmation
#9
Zilton Farias Meira de Vasconcelos, Renata Campos Azevedo, Nathália Thompson, Leonardo Gomes, Letícia Guida, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
BACKGROUND: Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. DISCUSSION: The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity...
November 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102599/differential-effects-of-lipid-biosynthesis-inhibitors-on-zika-and-semliki-forest-viruses
#10
Jamie Royle, Claire L Donald, Andres Merits, Alain Kohl, Margus Varjak
The recent outbreak of infection with Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae) has attracted attention to this previously neglected mosquito-borne pathogen and the need for efficient therapies. Since flavivirus replication is generally known to be dependent on fatty acid biosynthesis, two inhibitors of this pathway, 5-(tetradecyloxyl)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) and cerulenin, were tested for their potentiality to inhibit virus replication. At concentrations previously shown to inhibit the replication of other flaviviruses, neither drug had a significant antiviral affect against ZIKV, but reduced the replication of the non-related mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (Togaviridae)...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094242/molecular-characterization-of-a-genetically-divergent-equine-pegivirus-strain-identified-in-china
#11
Gang Lu, Cheng Fu, Ji Huang, Haibin Xu, Peixin Wu, Xiaokun Ping, Shujun Li
Equine pegivirus (EPgV) is a newly discovered equine virus, which is taxonomically classified in the Pegivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Until now, only the complete genome sequence of the first reported EPgV strain, from the USA (strain name: C0035) is available on online databases. Considering this, horse serum samples were collected from horses in China and screened for EPgV RNA by RT-PCR. One EPgV strain, LW/2016, was obtained and its near-complete genome sequence was acquired by standard PCR. Further analysis of its nucleotide sequence indicates LW/2016 is genetically divergent from C0035, with a nucleotide identity of 89...
November 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093650/understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-zika-virus-infection-using-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Keeton K Krause, Francine Azouz, Ok Sarah Shin, Mukesh Kumar
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of Flaviviridae family that has emerged as a pathogen of significant public health importance. The rapid expansion of ZIKV in the South and Central America has recently gained medical attention emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been demonstrated to cause microcephaly and other fetal developmental abnormalities. An increased incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome, an immune mediated neuropathy of the peripheral nervous system, has also been reported in ZIKV-infected patients in French Polynesia and Brazil...
October 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093094/characterization-of-recombinant-flaviviridae-viruses-possessing-a-small-reporter-tag
#13
Tomokazu Tamura, Takasuke Fukuhara, Takuro Uchida, Chikako Ono, Hiroyuki Mori, Asuka Sato, Yuzy Fauzyah, Toru Okamoto, Takeshi Kurosu, Yin Xiang Setoh, Michio Imamura, Norbert Tautz, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Alexander A Khromykh, Kazuaki Chayama, Yoshiharu Matsuura
The family Flaviviridae consists of four genera, Flavivirus, Pestivirus, Pegivirus, and Hepacivirus, and comprises important pathogens of human and animals. Although the construction of recombinant viruses carrying reporter genes including fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins has been reported, the stable insertion of foreign genes into viral genomes retaining infectivity remains difficult. Here, we applied the 11-amino-acid subunit derived from NanoLuc luciferase to the engineering of the Flaviviridae viruses, and then examined the biological characteristics of the viruses...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082585/vector-competence-of-field-populations-of-the-mosquito-species-aedes-japonicus-japonicus-and-culex-pipiens-from-switzerland-for-two-west-nile-virus-strains
#14
S Wagner, A Mathis, A C Schönenberger, S Becker, J Schmidt-Chanasit, C Silaghi, E Veronesi
Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald) is an invasive mosquito species in Central Europe, where it has colonized several areas. In this study, field-collected specimens of Ae. japonicus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) from Zürich (Switzerland) were orally exposed to two strains (NY99 and FIN) of the avian zoonotic pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). Dissemination and transmission of the viruses after incubation for 12-15 days under a fluctuating Central European midsummer temperature regime (24 ± 7 °C) was investigated by detection of viral RNA in homogenates of pools of both head/thorax and saliva by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069610/new-genetic-lineage-within-the-siberian-subtype-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-found-in-western-siberia-russia
#15
Sergey E Tkachev, Galina S Chicherina, Irina Golovljova, Polina S Belokopytova, Artem Yu Tikunov, Oksana V Zadora, Victor V Glupov, Nina V Tikunova
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice...
October 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037976/characterization-of-a-dengue-ns4b-inhibitor-originating-from-an-hcv-small-molecule-library
#16
Ilane Hernandez-Morales, Peggy Geluykens, Marleen Clynhens, Rudy Strijbos, Olivia Goethals, Sarah Megens, Nick Verheyen, Stefaan Last, David McGowan, Erwin Coesemans, Benoît De Boeck, Bart Stoops, Benoit Devogelaere, Frederik Pauwels, Koen Vandyck, Jan Martin Berke, Pierre Raboisson, Kenneth Simmen, Pedro Lory, Marnix Van Loock
Dengue is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease and a major global health concern. Over the last decade, dengue virus (DENV) drug discovery and development has intensified, however, this has not resulted in approved DENV-specific antiviral treatments yet. DENV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) belong to the same Flaviviridae family and, in contrast to DENV, antiviral treatments for HCV have been licensed. Therefore, applying the knowledge gained on anti-HCV drugs may foster the discovery and development of dengue antiviral drugs...
October 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028528/inhibitors-of-yellow-fever-virus-replication-based-on-1-3-5-triphenyl-4-5-dihydropyrazole-scaffold-design-synthesis-and-antiviral-evaluation
#17
Rossella Fioravanti, Nicoletta Desideri, Antonio Carta, Elena Maria Atzori, Ilenia Delogu, Gabriella Collu, Roberta Loddo
By the antiviral screening of an in house library of pyrazoline compounds, 4-(3-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5a) was identified as a promising hit compound for the development of anti- Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) agents. Structural optimization studies were focused on the development of 5a analogues which retain the potency as YFV inhibitors and show a reduced cytotoxicity. The synthesized 1-3,5-triphenyl-pyrazolines (4a-j, 5a-j, 6a-j) were evaluated in cell based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representative viruses of two of the three genera of the Flaviviridae family, i...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024641/diverse-viruses-require-the-calcium-transporter-spca1-for-maturation-and-spread
#18
H-Heinrich Hoffmann, William M Schneider, Vincent A Blomen, Margaret A Scull, Alain Hovnanian, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Charles M Rice
Respiratory and arthropod-borne viral infections are a global threat due to the lack of effective antivirals and vaccines. A potential strategy is to target host proteins required for viruses but non-essential for the host. To identify such proteins, we performed a genome-wide knockout screen in human haploid cells and identified the calcium pump SPCA1. SPCA1 is required by viruses from the Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families, including measles, dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018450/exploring-the-immunopathogenesis-of-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-in-mice-with-a-humanized-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Günther Schönrich, Martin J Raftery
Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) as a disease entity was first codified in the 1930s by soviet scientists investigating patients suffering from hantavirus infection. The group of hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) has since expanded to include members from at least four different virus families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae, all enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. After infection, the natural hosts of HFVs do not develop symptoms, whereas humans can be severely affected. This observation and other evidence from experimental data suggest that the human immune system plays a crucial role in VHF pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018253/usutu-virus-austria-and-hungary-2010-2016
#20
Tamás Bakonyi, Károly Erdélyi, René Brunthaler, Ádám Dán, Herbert Weissenböck, Norbert Nowotny
Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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