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Luděk Eyer, Radim Nencka, Erik de Clercq, Katherine Seley-Radtke, Daniel Růžek
Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of small molecule-based antivirals, which currently form the backbone of chemotherapy of chronic infections caused by HIV, hepatitis B or C viruses, and herpes viruses. High antiviral potency and favorable pharmacokinetics parameters make some nucleoside analogs suitable also for the treatment of acute infections caused by other medically important RNA and DNA viruses. This review summarizes available information on antiviral research of nucleoside analogs against arthropod-borne members of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, being primarily focused on description of nucleoside inhibitors of flaviviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase, and helicase/NTPase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
Due to their inability to generate a complete immune response, mice knockout for type I interferon (IFN) receptors ( Ifnar-/- ) are more susceptible to viral infections, and are thus commonly used for pathogenesis studies. This mouse model has been used to study many diseases caused by highly pathogenic viruses from many families, including the Flaviviridae , Filoviridae , Arenaviridae , Bunyaviridae , Henipaviridae , and Togaviridae . In this review, we summarize the findings from these animal studies, and discuss the pros and cons of using this model versus other known methods for studying pathogenesis in animals...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Sébastien Boyer, Elodie Calvez, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Diawo Diallo, Failloux Anna-Bella
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. First detected in Uganda in Africa in 1947, from where it spread to Asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the Yap Island in Micronesia and hit most islands in the Pacific region in 2013. Subsequently, ZIKV was detected in the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infections are in general asymptomatic or causing mild self-limiting illness, severe symptoms have been described including neurological disorders and microcephaly in newborns...
February 23, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Barbara Bażanów, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Piotr Szymański, Dominika Stygar, Agnieszka Frącka, Jan Twardoń, Roland Kozdrowski, Janusz T Pawęska
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing antibodies to WNV and to USUV in birds and in horses in Poland. Antibodies against WNV and USUV were detected in 5 (35.7%) and in 1 (7.14%) of 14 birds and in 62 (15.08%) and in 115 (27.98%) of 411 horses, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Viruses
Christopher J Neufeldt, Mirko Cortese, Eliana G Acosta, Ralf Bartenschlager
Members of the Flaviviridae virus family comprise a large group of enveloped viruses with a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity. Several genera belong to this family, including the Hepacivirus genus, of which hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the prototype member, and the Flavivirus genus, which contains both dengue virus and Zika virus. Viruses of these genera differ in many respects, such as the mode of transmission or the course of infection, which is either predominantly persistent in the case of HCV or acutely self-limiting in the case of flaviviruses...
February 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Boxiao Wang, Stephanie Thurmond, Rong Hai, Jikui Song
Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the positive-sense single-stranded RNA-containing Flaviviridae family. Its recent outbreak and association with human diseases (e.g. neurological disorders) have raised global health concerns, and an urgency to develop a therapeutic strategy against ZIKV infection. However, there is no currently approved antiviral against ZIKV. Here we present a comprehensive overview on recent progress in structure-function investigation of ZIKV NS5 protein, the largest non-structural protein of ZIKV, which is responsible for replication of the viral genome, RNA capping and suppression of host interferon responses...
February 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Sergio P Alpuche-Lazcano, Craig R McCullogh, Olivier Del Corpo, Elodie Rance, Robert J Scarborough, Andrew J Mouland, Selena M Sagan, Mauro M Teixeira, Anne Gatignol
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen from the Flaviviridae family. It represents a significant threat to global health due to its neurological and fetal pathogenesis (including microcephaly and congenital malformations), and its rapid dissemination across Latin America in recent years. The virus has spread from Africa to Asia, the Pacific islands and the Americas with limited knowledge about the pathogenesis associated with infection in recent years. Herein, we compared the ability of the Canadian-imported Thai strain PLCal_ZV and the Brazilian isolate HS-2015-BA-01 from Bahia to produce infectious ZIKV particles and cytopathic effects in a cell proliferation assay...
January 27, 2018: Viruses
Ligia Fernandes Abdalla, João Hugo Abdalla Santos, Renata Teodora Jales Barreto, Erick Martins E Souza, Fabrício Fonseca D'Assunção, Márcio Aurélio Borges, Valdinete Alves Nascimento, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Victor Costa de Souza, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Jordana Graziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Felipe Gomes Naveca
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus that until 2007 was restricted to a few cases of mild illness in Africa and Asia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of atrial fibrillation disclosed during an acute Zika virus infection in a 49-year-old man. Different biological samples were analyzed for the molecular diagnosis of Zika by real-time PCR, however only the saliva specimen was positive. The patient's wife tested positive in the serum sample, although she was an asymptomatic carrier...
January 25, 2018: Virology Journal
María L Rosenberg, Gonzalo L Echavarría, Ana V Ludueña, Gabriela Estrada, María M Molina
Dengue virus infection constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. It is caused by a virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It produces a wide range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to severe forms of the disease with hemorrhagic fever or shock secondary to capillary leak syndrome. Four serotypes have been described; serotype 2 and serotype 3 are associated with the most severe forms of the disease. The diagnosis is based on laboratory tests aimed to detect antibodies, viral RNA, or antigens in serum...
2018: Medicina
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Vivian Lida Avelino-Silva, Bianca A N Santos, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Fabiana Siroma, Jessica Fernandes Ramos, Adriana Coracini Tonacio, Alice Song, Alvino Maestri, Natalia Barros Cerqueira, Alvina Clara Felix, José Eduardo Levi, Benjamin C Greenspun, Miguel de Mulder Rougvie, Michael G Rosenberg, Douglas F Nixon, Esper G Kallas
Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A D Garrido Haro, M Barrera Valle, A Acosta, F J Flores
Classic swine fever virus (CSFV) is a Pestivirus from the Flaviviridae family that affects pigs worldwide and is endemic in several Latin American countries. However, there are still some countries in the region, including Ecuador, for which CSFV molecular information is lacking. To better understand the epidemiology of CSFV in the Americas, sequences from CSFVs from Ecuador were generated and a phylodynamic analysis of the virus was performed. Sequences for the full-length glycoprotein E2 gene of twenty field isolates were obtained and, along with sequences from strains previously described in the Americas and from the most representative strains worldwide, were used to analyse the phylodynamics of the virus...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Meghan Holtzman, William C Golden, Jeanne S Sheffield
Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family. Transmission is typically from the bite of an infected mosquito though mother-to-child, sexual and blood donation transmissions can occur. Although maternal symptoms are uncommon and rarely severe, the consequences of congenital infections are devastating. The emergence of congenital Zika syndrome is a world-wide public health crisis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ACOG, and SMFM have developed algorithms for screening and managing women exposure to and diagnosed with Zika virus infection...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
A Chernick, A Ambagala, K Orsel, J D Wasmuth, G van Marle, F van der Meer
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae that causes a form of persistent infection. If a fetus is infected in utero during the first 120days of gestation the resulting calf will be immunotolerant to the infecting strain and maintain the virus for life. These animals are epidemiologically important in maintaining BVDV on farms, but also present a unique opportunity to study quasispecies in vivo in the absence of significant selection by the host adaptive immune response...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nikhil Pathak, Mei-Ling Lai, Wen-Yu Chen, Betty-Wu Hsieh, Guann-Yi Yu, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: Viruses of the flaviviridae family are responsible for some of the major infectious viral diseases around the world and there is an urgent need for drug development for these diseases. Most of the virtual screening methods in flaviviral drug discovery suffer from a low hit rate, strain-specific efficacy differences, and susceptibility to resistance. It is because they often fail to capture the key pharmacological features of the target active site critical for protein function inhibition...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Farzaneh Shobeirian
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne arbovirus from the family Flaviviridae , which has been recently confirmed to cause severe neurological abnormalities (such as microcephaly, brain parenchymal calcification, hydrocephalus, and malformations of cortical development) in the infected fetuses. The Placenta plays a multifold role in prenatally acquired ZIKV infection. It serves as a port of virus transmission to the fetus, and also can be directly affected by ZIKV leading to a diminished fetal blood supply or a disrupted/changed biological mediators' synthesis...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ewa D Micewicz, Ronik Khachatoorian, Samuel W French, Piotr Ruchala
The recent re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has become a global emergency and a serious public health threat worldwide. ZIKV infection causes severe neuroimmunopathology and is particularly harmful to the developing fetuses of infected pregnant women causing various developmental abnormalities. Currently, there are no effective methods of preventing or treating ZIKV infection, and new treatment options are urgently needed. Therefore, we have used an in vitro plaque assay to screen a limited proprietary library of small organic compounds and identified highly bioactive leads, with the most active analogs showing activity in low picomolar range...
December 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Andrey V Barkhash, Galina V Kochneva, Elena V Chub, Aida G Romaschenko
Previously, we studied an association of two IL28B gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three IL10 gene SNPs with predisposition to tick-borne encephalitis in a Russian population. In this study, a possible involvement of these SNPs in the development of predisposition to chronic hepatitis C (caused by structurally similar, related virus from the Flaviviridae family) was investigated in the same population. Only the IL10 promoter rs1800872 SNP was associated with predisposition to chronic hepatitis C...
December 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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