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Nandan S Gokhale, Alexa B R McIntyre, Michael J McFadden, Allison E Roder, Edward M Kennedy, Jorge A Gandara, Sharon E Hopcraft, Kendra M Quicke, Christine Vazquez, Jason Willer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Brittany A Law, Christopher L Holley, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Matthew J Evans, Mehul S Suthar, Shelton S Bradrick, Christopher E Mason, Stacy M Horner
The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) post-transcriptionally regulates RNA function. The cellular machinery that controls m(6)A includes methyltransferases and demethylases that add or remove this modification, as well as m(6)A-binding YTHDF proteins that promote the translation or degradation of m(6)A-modified mRNA. We demonstrate that m(6)A modulates infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Depletion of m(6)A methyltransferases or an m(6)A demethylase, respectively, increases or decreases infectious HCV particle production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
Alex S Hartlage, John M Cullen, Amit Kapoor
Hepaciviruses and pegiviruses constitute two closely related sister genera of the family Flaviviridae. In the past five years, the known phylogenetic diversity of the hepacivirus genera has absolutely exploded. What was once an isolated infection in humans (and possibly other primates) has now expanded to include horses, rodents, bats, colobus monkeys, cows, and, most recently, catsharks, shedding new light on the genetic diversity and host range of hepaciviruses. Interestingly, despite the identification of these many animal and primate hepaciviruses, the equine hepaciviruses remain the closest genetic relatives of the human hepaciviruses, providing an intriguing clue to the zoonotic source of hepatitis C virus...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Anton Alenko, Cynthia J Burrows
Zika virus has emerged as a global concern because neither a vaccine nor antiviral compounds targeting it exist. A structure for the positive-sense RNA genome has not been established, leading us to look for potential G-quadruplex sequences (PQS) in the genome. The analysis identified >60 PQSs in the Zika genome. To minimize the PQS population, conserved sequences in the Flaviviridae family were found by sequence alignment, identifying seven PQSs in the prM, E, NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes. Next, alignment of 78 Zika strain genomes identified a unique PQS near the end of the 3'-UTR...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Maheswata Sahoo, Lingaraja Jena, Sangeeta Daf, Satish Kumar
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne pathogen, belongs to Flaviviridae family having a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome, currently known for causing large epidemics in Brazil. Its infection can cause microcephaly, a serious birth defect during pregnancy. The recent outbreak of ZIKV in February 2016 in Brazil realized it as a major health risk, demands an enhanced surveillance and a need to develop novel drugs against ZIKV. Amodiaquine, prochlorperazine, quinacrine, and berberine are few promising drugs approved by Food and Drug Administration against dengue virus which also belong to Flaviviridae family...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Wojciech Kwaśniewski, Norbert Stachowicz, Aleksandra Stupak, Anna Kwaśniewska, Anna Goździcka-Jozefiak
Zika virus (HIV) was first identified in 1947 and upto 2007 the infections in humans have been reported sporadically. Currently, the World Health Organization warns that the rapid spread of the virus Zika in both Americas and an increase in the number of children born with microcephaly in these regions begins to be a serious epidemiological problem. Known ways of spreading this RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family is: with blood, sexual, vertical and even breast feeding. Currently used diagnostic tests are not entirely perfect, as they can detect infections by other viruses in this group but they are available in Poland...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Claire L Donald, Benjamin Brennan, Stephanie L Cumberworth, Veronica V Rezelj, Jordan J Clark, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira França, Lindomar J Pena, Gavin S Wilkie, Ana Da Silva Filipe, Christopher Davis, Joseph Hughes, Margus Varjak, Martin Selinger, Luíza Zuvanov, Ania M Owsianka, Arvind H Patel, John McLauchlan, Brett D Lindenbach, Gamou Fall, Amadou A Sall, Roman Biek, Jan Rehwinkel, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thekkinghat Anantharaman Arvind, Pundi N Rangarajan
Mouse Apolipoprotein L9 (ApoL9) is an understudied cytoplasmic, interferon-inducible protein. The details of its intracellular localization and normal cellular functions are unclear. We report here that ApoL9 localizes to small puncta diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, as well as to larger granules of varying size and number that are similar to aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS) and contain the autophagy receptor Sqstm1/p62, the autophagosome marker Lc3, and ubiquitin. Transfection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells stably expressing ApoL9 (B16F10(L9)) with certain liposome-based transfection reagents causes dramatic disturbances in its subcellular distribution...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Donald B Smith, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Thomas Monath, A Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Jack T Stapleton, Peter Simmonds
Proposals are described for the assignment of recently reported viruses, infecting rodents, bats and other mammalian species, to new species within the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera (Family Flaviviridae). Assignments into 14 Hepacivirus species (Hepacivirus A to N) and 11 Pegivirus species (Pegivirus A to K) are based on phylogenetic relationships and sequence distances between conserved regions extracted from complete coding sequences of each proposed taxon. We propose that the species hepatitis C virus is renamed Hepacivirus C in order to acknowledge its unique historical position and so as to minimise confusion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Harindranath Cholleti, Juliette Hayer, Ana Paula Abilio, Fernando Chanisso Mulandane, Jenny Verner-Carlsson, Kerstin I Falk, Jose M Fafetine, Mikael Berg, Anne-Lie Blomström
Mosquitoes carry a wide variety of viruses that can cause vector-borne infectious diseases and affect both human and veterinary public health. Although Mozambique can be considered a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases due to factors such as a rich vector population and a close vector/human/wildlife interface, the viral flora in mosquitoes have not previously been investigated. In this study, viral metagenomics was employed to analyze the viral communities in Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes in the Zambezia province of Mozambique...
2016: PloS One
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Rebekah C Kading, Tony Schountz
Understanding the vector and nonhuman vertebrate species contributing to Zika virus (ZIKAV) transmission is critical to understanding the ecology of this emerging arbovirus and its potential to establish in new geographic areas. This minireview summarizes what is known regarding the association of bats with flaviviruses (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) with a particular emphasis on the potential role of bats in the sylvatic transmission of ZIKAV. Key research directions that remain to be addressed are also discussed...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Joseph R Fauver, Nathan D Grubaugh, Benjamin J Krajacich, James Weger-Lucarelli, Steven M Lakin, Lawrence S Fakoli, Fatorma K Bolay, Joseph W Diclaro, Kounbobr Roch Dabiré, Brian D Foy, Doug E Brackney, Gregory D Ebel, Mark D Stenglein
Anopheles gambiae are a major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Viruses that naturally infect these mosquitoes may impact their physiology and ability to transmit pathogens. We therefore used metagenomics sequencing to search for viruses in adult Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Liberia, Senegal, and Burkina Faso. We identified a number of virus and virus-like sequences from mosquito midgut contents, including 14 coding-complete genome segments and 26 partial sequences. The coding-complete sequences define new viruses in the order Mononegavirales, and the families Flaviviridae, and Totiviridae...
November 2016: Virology
Vaishali P Waman, Pandurang Kolekar, Mukund R Ramtirthkar, Mohan M Kale, Urmila Kulkarni-Kale
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases prevalent worldwide and is caused by Dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae). There are four serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each of which is further subdivided into distinct genotypes. DENV-2 is frequently associated with severe dengue infections and epidemics. DENV-2 consists of six genotypes such as Asian/American, Asian I, Asian II, Cosmopolitan, American and sylvatic. Comparative genomic study was carried out to infer population structure of DENV-2 and to analyze the role of evolutionary and spatiotemporal factors in emergence of diversifying lineages...
2016: PeerJ
N B Cleton, K van Maanen, S A Bergervoet, N Bon, C Beck, G-J Godeke, S Lecollinet, R Bowen, D Lelli, N Nowotny, M P G Koopmans, C B E M Reusken
The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ana L C Valadão, Renato S Aguiar, Luciana B de Arruda
The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jinghan Wang, Shucheng Chen, Yajin Liao, Enyu Zhang, Shuo Feng, Shaoxiong Yu, Lian-Feng Li, Wen-Rui He, Yongfeng Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Muhammad Munir, Su Li, Hua-Ji Qiu
: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MEK1/2/ERK1/2) cascade is involved in the replication of several members of the Flaviviridae family including hepatitis C virus and dengue virus. The effects of the cascade on the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a fatal pestivirus of pigs, remain unknown. In this study, MEK2 was identified as a novel binding partner of the E2 protein of CSFV using yeast two-hybrid screening. The E2-MEK2 interaction was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pulldown, coimmunoprecipitation, and laser confocal microscopy assays...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
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