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Flaviviridae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100662/zika-virus-causes-supernumerary-foci-with-centriolar-proteins-and-impaired-spindle-positioning
#1
Benita Wolf, Fodé Diop, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Coralie Busso, Dorothée Missé, Pierre Gönczy
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. Although ZIKV can impair cell cycle progression and provoke apoptosis, which probably contributes to disease aetiology through depletion of neural progenitor cells, additional cellular mechanisms may be important. Here, we investigated whether ZIKV infection alters centrosome number and spindle positioning, because such defects are thought to be at the root of inherited primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). In addition to HeLa cells, in which centrosome number and spindle positioning can be well monitored, we analysed retinal epithelial cells (RPE-1), as well as brain-derived microglial (CHME-5) and neural progenitor (ReN) cells, using immunofluorescence...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100619/functional-analysis-of-hcv-envelope-protein-e1-using-a-trans-complementation-system-reveals-a-dual-role-of-a-putative-fusion-peptide-of-e1-in-both-hcv-entry-and-morphogenesis
#2
Yimin Tong, Xiaojing Chi, Wei Yang, Jin Zhong
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It mainly infects human hepatocytes and causes chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and cancer. HCV encodes two envelope proteins E1 and E2 that form a heterodimer and mediate virus entry. While E2 has been extensively studied, less has been done so for E1, and its role in HCV life cycle still needs to be elucidated. Here we developed a new cell culture model for HCV infection based on trans-complementation of E1...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098253/the-clinically-approved-antiviral-drug-sofosbuvir-inhibits-zika-virus-replication
#3
Carolina Q Sacramento, Gabrielle R de Melo, Caroline S de Freitas, Natasha Rocha, Lucas Villas Bôas Hoelz, Milene Miranda, Natalia Fintelman-Rodrigues, Andressa Marttorelli, André C Ferreira, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Juliana L Abrantes, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Mônica M Bastos, Eduardo de Mello Volotão, Estevão Portela Nunes, Diogo A Tschoeke, Luciana Leomil, Erick Correia Loiola, Pablo Trindade, Stevens K Rehen, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza, Nubia Boechat, Fabiano L Thompson, Ana M B de Filippis, Karin Brüning, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077444/protein-interactions-during-the-flavivirus-and-hepacivirus-life-cycle
#4
Gisa Gerold, Janina Bruening, Bettina Weigel, Thomas Pietschmann
Protein-protein interactions govern biological functions in cells, in the extracellular milieu and at the border between cells and extracellular space. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on protein interactions to produce progeny inside host cells and to spread from cell to cell. Usage of host proteins by viruses can have severe consequences e.g. apoptosis, metabolic disequilibria or altered cell proliferation and mobility. Understanding protein interactions during virus infection can thus educate us on viral infection and pathogenesis mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074379/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-essay
#5
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Andrea Poretti, Thierry A G M Huisman, Heron Werner, Elham Keshavarz, Edward Araujo Júnior
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses...
January 10, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069884/purification-of-zika-virus-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-and-its-use-to-identify-small-molecule-zika-inhibitors
#6
Hong-Tao Xu, Said A Hassounah, Susan P Colby-Germinario, Maureen Oliveira, Clare Fogarty, Yudong Quan, Yingshan Han, Olga Golubkov, Ilinca Ibanescu, Bluma Brenner, Brent R Stranix, Mark A Wainberg
BACKGROUND: The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzymes of the Flaviviridae family are essential for viral replication and are logically important targets for development of antiviral therapeutic agents. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a rapidly re-emerging human pathogen for which no vaccine or antiviral agent is currently available. METHODS: To facilitate development of ZIKV RdRp inhibitors, we have established an RdRp assay using purified recombinant ZIKV NS5 polymerase...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058113/transmission-bottlenecks-and-rnai-collectively-influence-tick-borne-flavivirus-evolution
#7
Nathan D Grubaugh, Claudia Rückert, Philip M Armstrong, Angela Bransfield, John F Anderson, Gregory D Ebel, Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne RNA viruses exist within hosts as heterogeneous populations of viral variants and, as a result, possess great genetic plasticity. Understanding the micro-evolutionary forces shaping these viruses can provide insights into how they emerge, adapt, and persist in new and changing ecological niches. While considerable attention has been directed toward studying the population dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses, little is known about tick-borne virus populations. Therefore, using a mouse and Ixodes scapularis tick transmission model, we examined Powassan virus (POWV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) populations in and between both the vertebrate host and arthropod vector...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051359/electron-microscopy-of-alkhumra-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#8
Tariq A Madani, El-Tayb M E Abuelzein, Sawsan M Jalalah, Huda Abu-Araki, Esam I Azhar, Ahmed M Hassan, Hussein M S Al-Bar
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a newly described zoonotic flavivirus that was first isolated during 1994-1995 from the Alkhumra district south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, the virus was also isolated from Makkah city (2001-2003) and Najran (2008-2009), Saudi Arabia. The virus causes acute febrile illness with hepatitis, hemorrhagic manifestations, and encephalitis. A case fatality rate of 25% was reported among hospitalized patients. Although several biological and molecular characteristics of the virus have been published, no data are available on electron microscopic features of the virus...
January 4, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041959/substrate-selectivity-of-dengue-and-zika-virus-ns5-polymerase-towards-2-modified-nucleotide-analogues
#9
Supanee Potisopon, François Ferron, Véronique Fattorini, Barbara Selisko, Bruno Canard
In targeting the essential viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), nucleotide analogues play a major role in antiviral therapies. In the Flaviviridae family, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be eradicated from chronically infected patients using a combination of drugs which generally include the 2'-modified uridine analogue Sofosbuvir, delivered as nucleotide prodrug. Dengue and Zika viruses are emerging flaviviruses whose RdRp is closely related to that of HCV, yet no nucleoside drug has been clinically approved for these acute infections...
December 29, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017252/microcephaly-and-arthrogryposis-multiplex-congenita-the-full-blown-cns-spectrum-in-newborns-with-zikv-infection
#10
Marcio Leyser, Alexandre Fernandes, Pamela Passos, Camila Pupe, Andre Pc Matta, Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos, Osvaldo Jm Nascimento
The recent alarming statements concerning the newborn ZIKV-induced microcephaly epidemics in the Northeast of Brazil, released by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, as well as important international health agencies, such as the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization, raised many "why and how" questions so far, that will hopefully be scientifically answered, as more researches in that regard come up in the long term. In this paper, we describe another potentially ZIKV-induced central nervous system and musculoskeletal disorder that has accompanied microcephaly in these children: atrhogryposis multiplex congenita...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004252/genomic-characterization-of-a-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-subtype-1i-in-brazil
#11
Ana Cristina S Mósena, Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Simone Silveira, Mariana S Silva, Fabiana Q Mayer, Cláudio W Canal
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Based on the 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequence, BVDV-1 can be divided into at least 17 subtypes (1a though 1q). BVDV-1i is an uncommon subtype that has been reported in the United Kingdom and Uruguay. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first subtype 1i BVDV-1 (strain ACM/BR/2016) isolated from cattle in southern Brazil. The genome is 12,231 nt in length and contains a single ORF that encodes a polyprotein of 3,896 amino acids, flanked by 5' and 3'UTRs of 325 and 220 nt, respectively...
December 21, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987206/zika-virus-is-not-thermostable-very-effective-virus-inactivation-during-heat-treatment-pasteurization-of-human-serum-albumin
#12
Maria R Farcet, Thomas R Kreil
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas has also raised concerns around the potential for ZIKV transmission via blood products. Plasma-derived products are considered safe, because effective viral-inactivation and removal methods are implemented in their manufacturing processes. However, a recent study has indicated that ZIKV is "thermally stable" compared with the closely related Dengue virus, thus raising the question of whether heat treatments, as embedded in the manufacturing of plasma-derived products, are as effective against ZIKV as was previously shown for other Flaviviruses...
December 17, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976454/zika-virus-future-reproductive-concerns
#13
Christopher M Novak, Jeanne S Sheffield, Irina Burd
The pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, has become a major public health concern. Reproductive specialists are particularly concerned over the spread of ZIKV as it is now known to have both sexual and transplacental routes of transmission resulting in fetal congenital abnormalities. Other members of the Flaviviridae family, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (which primarily affects cattle), are well known to reproductive specialists as both sexually transmitted illnesses that are capable of vertical transmission...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974568/irav-flj11286-an-interferon-stimulated-gene-with-antiviral-activity-against-dengue-virus-interacts-with-mov10
#14
Corey A Balinsky, Hana Schmeisser, Alexandra I Wells, Sundar Ganesan, Tengchuan Jin, Kavita Singh, Kathryn C Zoon
: Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus of viruses and can result in severe febrile illness. Here we show that FLJ11286, which we refer to as IRAV, is induced by DENV in an interferon-dependent manner, displays antiviral activity against DENV, and localizes to the DENV replication complex. IRAV is an RNA binding protein and localizes to cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) in uninfected cells, where it interacts with the MOV10 RISC complex RNA helicase, suggesting a role for IRAV in the processing of viral RNA...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938811/acral-manifestations-of-viral-infections
#15
Esra Adışen, Meltem Önder
Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin...
January 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#16
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911897/heterologous-protection-against-asian-zika-virus-challenge-in-rhesus-macaques
#17
Matthew T Aliota, Dawn M Dudley, Christina M Newman, Emma L Mohr, Dane D Gellerup, Meghan E Breitbach, Connor R Buechler, Mustafa N Rasheed, Mariel S Mohns, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Josh A Eudailey, Eva G Rakasz, Logan J Vosler, Jennifer Post, Saverio Capuano, Thaddeus G Golos, Sallie R Permar, Jorge E Osorio, Thomas C Friedrich, Shelby L O'Connor, David H O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893824/analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-bias-of-zika-virus-and-its-adaption-to-the-hosts
#18
Hongju Wang, Siqing Liu, Bo Zhang, Wenqiang Wei
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by ZIKV infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. Codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of ZIKV. To gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of ZIKV, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 ZIKV strains by calculating the effective number of codons (ENc), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and other indicators...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893666/four-weeks-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-plus-dasabuvir-encountering-dengue-fever-resulted-in-sustained-virological-response-in-an-hcv-patient-a-case-report
#19
Chung-Feng Huang, Tyng-Yuan Jang, Po-Liang Lu, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND: Direct antiviral agent (DAA) has been the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Twelve weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PROD) with or without ribavirin has shown to have a sustained virological response at post-treatment 12 weeks (SVR12) rate of >90% in HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients. METHODS: We report a HCV-1b patient who received only 25 days of PROD treatment. RESULTS: The patient early terminated treatment due to dengue fever but eventually achieved SVR12...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892990/zika-virus-what-the-otolaryngologist-should-know-a-review
#20
Demetri Arnaoutakis, Tapan Padhya
Importance: Initially discovered in 1947, Zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in Brazil. Zika is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. The primary source of infection in humans stems from Aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. With expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the Americas will be infected over the next year, the World Health Organization has declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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