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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#1
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912011/cell-line-dependent-antiviral-activity-of-sofosbuvir-against-zika-virus
#2
Noreen Mumtaz, Leah C Jimmerson, Lane R Bushman, Jennifer J Kiser, Georgina Aron, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Jeroen J A van Kampen
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its association with fetal and neurological complications has shown the need to develop a treatment. Repurposing of drugs that are already FDA approved or in clinical development may shorten drug development timelines in case of emerging viral diseases like ZIKV. Initial studies have shown conflicting results when testing sofosbuvir developed for treatment of infections with another Flaviviridae virus, hepatitis C virus. We hypothesized that the conflicting results could be explained by differences in intracellular processing of the compound...
September 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904959/a-novel-genetic-group-of-bovine-hepacivirus-in-archival-serum-samples-from-brazilian-cattle
#3
Cláudio W Canal, Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Mariana S Silva, Daniela E Puhl, Hanspeter Stalder, Ernst Peterhans
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (genus Hepacivirus; family Flaviviridae) is a major human pathogen causing persistent infection and hepatic injury. Recently, emerging HCV-like viruses were described infecting wild animals, such as bats and rodents, and domestic animals, including dogs, horses, and cattle. Using degenerate primers for detecting bovine pestiviruses in a 1996 survey three bovine serum samples showed a low identity with the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. A virus could not be isolated in cell culture...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874226/an-updated-review-of-avian-origin-tembusu-virus-a-newly-emerging-avian-flavivirus
#4
Wei Zhang, Shun Chen, Suresh Mahalingam, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874015/arboviruses-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-uganda-2008-2012
#5
Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, John-Paul Mutebi, Julius J Lutwama, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Barry R Miller
A large number of arthropod-borne viruses are endemic to East Africa. As a part of the process of undertaking a systematic characterization of the mosquito fauna of Uganda, we examined mosquitoes collected from 2008 through early 2012 for known and novel viruses. In all, 8,288 mosquito pools containing 157,554 mosquitoes were tested. Twenty-nine isolations of 11 different viruses were made from mosquitoes of nine distinct species and from pools identified only to genus Culex. Identified viruses were from family Togaviridae, alphaviruses Sindbis and Babanki viruses; family Rhabdoviridae, hapaviruses Mossuril and Kamese viruses; family Flaviviridae, flaviviruses West Nile and Usutu viruses; family Phenuiviridae, phlebovirus Arumowot virus; and family Peribunyaviridae, orthobunyaviruses Witwatersrand, Pongola, and Germiston viruses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873035/potential-reservoir-and-associated-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-three-distinct-climatological-zones
#6
Christine DeCarlo, Anwar H Omar, Mohammod I Haroun, Laura Bigler, Mohamad N Bin Rais, Jalila Abu, Abdul Rahman Omar, Hussni O Mohammed
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). Serum samples were collected from avian and mammal species suspected to be reservoirs for the virus at these areas in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864425/functional-rna-during-zika-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Giel P Göertz, Sandra R Abbo, Jelke J Fros, Gorben P Pijlman
Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The positive single-stranded RNA genome of the mosquito-borne ZIKV requires effective replication in two evolutionary distinct hosts - mosquitoes and primates. In addition to some of the viral proteins, the ZIKV genomic RNA and functional RNAs produced thereof aid in the establishment of productive infection and the evasion of host cell antiviral responses...
August 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859680/prevalence-of-human-pegivirus-1-and-sequence-variability-of-its-e2-glycoprotein-estimated-from-screening-donors-of-fetal-stem-cell-containing-material
#8
Yakov Vitrenko, Iryna Kostenko, Kateryna Kulebyakina, Khrystyna Sorochynska
BACKGROUND: Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) is a member of the Flaviviridae family whose genomic organization and mode of cellular entry is similar to that of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The E2 glycoprotein of HPgV-1 is the principle mediator in the virus-cell interaction and as such harbors most of HPgV-1's antigenic determinants. HPgV-1 persists in blood cell precursors which are increasingly used for cell therapy. METHODS: We studied HPgV-1 prevalence in a large cohort of females donating fetal tissues for clinical use...
August 31, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855097/genomes-of-viral-isolates-derived-from-different-mosquitos-species
#9
Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Vsevolod Popov, Hilda Guzman, Tung Gia Phan, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Eric Delwart
Eleven viral isolates derived mostly in Aedes cells from mosquito pools collected in Southeast Asia and the Americas between 1966 and 2014 contained particles with electron microscopy morphology typical of reoviruses. Metagenomics analysis yielded the near complete genomes of three novel reoviruses, Big Cypress orbivirus, Ninarumi virus, and High Island virus and a new tetravirus, Sarawak virus. Strains of previously characterized Sathuvarachi, Yunnan, Banna and Parry's Lagoon viruses (Reoviridae), Bontang virus (Mesoniviridae), and Culex theileri flavivirus (Flaviviridae) were also characterized...
August 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835495/the-uncoupling-of-protease-trans-cleavage-and-helicase-activities-in-the-pestivirus-ns3
#10
Fengwei Zheng, Guoliang Lu, Ling Li, Peng Gong, Zishu Pan
The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multi-functional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at 2.35 Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2200-Å(2) intra-molecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a "closed" global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis-cleavage event...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832259/a-snapshot-avian-surveillance-reveals-west-nile-virus-and-evidence-of-wild-birds-participating-in-toscana-virus-circulation
#11
Sabri Hacioglu, Ender Dincer, Cafer Tayer Isler, Zeynep Karapinar, Veysel Soydal Ataseven, Aykut Ozkul, Koray Ergunay
INTRODUCTION: Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes...
August 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820694/differential-neurovirulence-of-african-and-asian-genotype-zika-virus-isolates-in-outbred-immunocompetent-mice
#12
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Erin M McDonald, Hannah Romo, Farshad Guirakhoo, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Aaron C Brault
Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805636/west-nile-virus-and-its-vectors
#13
REVIEW
Alexander T Ciota
West Nile virus (WNV Flaviviridae; Flavivrus) is the most geographically widespread arbovirus in the world and the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis globally. Worldwide, WNV is maintained in an enzootic cycle between primarily Culex spp. mosquitoes and birds, with human infection and disease resulting from enzootic spillover. Dynamic and complex intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the temporal and spatial variability in WNV transmission. The most current information on the relative contribution of each of these factors is reviewed and a case to incorporate detailed and localized environmental and genetic data into predictive models is presented...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795266/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-zika-virus-amplified-from-urine-of-traveler-from-the-philippines
#14
Se Hun Gu, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Min Young Kim, Jaehun Jung, Koung In Woo, Mirang Kim, Woong Seog, Hong Sang Oh, Byung Seop Choi, Jong-Seong Ahn, Quehn Park, Seong Tae Jeong
Zika virus (ZIKV) (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid spread of ZIKV disease in over 60 countries and the large numbers of travel-associated cases have caused worldwide concern. Thus, intensified surveillance of cases among immigrants and tourists from ZIKV-endemic areas is important for disease control and prevention. In this study, using Next Generation Sequencing, we reported the first whole-genome sequence of ZIKV strain AFMC-U, amplified from the urine of a traveler returning to Korea from the Philippines...
August 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793017/enveloped-and-non-enveloped-viral-like-particles-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-epimastigotes
#15
Ana María Fernández-Presas, Luis Padilla-Noriega, Ingeborg Becker, Lilia Robert, José Agustín Jiménez, Sandra Solano, Jose Delgado, Patricia Tato, José Luis Molinari
Electron microscopy is routinely used to identify viral infections in protozoan parasites. These viruses have been described as non-enveloped and icosahedral structures with a diameter of 30-60 nm. Most of them are classified within the non-segmented dsRNA Totiviridae family. We observed virus-like particles (VLPs) through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in cultures. Clusters of electrodense enveloped VLPs having a diameter of 48 nm were also observed...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792064/evidence-of-increasing-diversification-of-zika-virus-strains-isolated-in-the-american-continent
#16
Fabián Aldunate, Fabiana Gámbaro, Alvaro Fajardo, Martín Soñora, Juan Cristina
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV emerged in Brazil in 2015, causing an unprecedented epidemic and since then the virus has rapidly spread throughout the Americas. These facts highlight the need of detailed phylogenetic studies to understand the emergence, spread and evolution of ZIKV populations. For these reasons, a Bayesian coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of complete genome sequences of ZIKV strains recently isolated in the American continent was performed. The results of these studies revealed an increasing diversification of ZIKV strains in different genetic lineages and co-circulation of distinct genetic lineages in several countries in the region...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742857/dna-immunisation-with-dengue-virus-e-protein-domains-i-ii-but-not-domain-iii-enhances-zika-west-nile-and-yellow-fever-virus-infection
#17
Jose L Slon Campos, Monica Poggianella, Sara Marchese, Monica Mossenta, Jyoti Rana, Francesca Arnoldi, Marco Bestagno, Oscar R Burrone
Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue disease, is among the most important mosquito-borne pathogens worldwide. DENV is composed of four closely related serotypes and belongs to the Flaviviridae family alongside other important arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Yellow Fever virus (YFV). After infection, the antibody response is mostly directed to the viral E glycoprotein which is composed of three structural domains named DI, DII and DIII that share variable degrees of homology among different viruses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715409/zika-virus-inhibits-eif2%C3%AE-dependent-stress-granule-assembly
#18
Raquel Amorim, Abdelkrim Temzi, Bryan D Griffin, Andrew J Mouland
Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most recent emerging arbovirus with pandemic potential. During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). Several reports demonstrate that flaviviruses modulate the assembly of stress granules (SG). As an emerging pathogen, little is known however about how ZIKV modulates the host cell stress response...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705958/first-genome-sequences-of-dengue-virus-denv-strains-isolated-during-the-first-denv-4-outbreak-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#19
Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Danielle Ferreira Silva, Daniel Ferreira, Paolo M Zanotto
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae In Brazil, the reemergence and spread of DENV type 4 (DENV-4) across the country were responsible for a significant outbreak in Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Here, we report the first genomic sequences of DENV strains circulating in Guarujá during the 2013 outbreak.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705681/mosquito-borne-and-sexual-transmission-of-zika-virus-recent-developments-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Tereza Magalhaes, Brian D Foy, Ernesto T A Marques, Gregory D Ebel, James Weger-Lucarelli
Zika virus (ZIKV; Genus Flavivirus, Family Flaviviridae) has recently emerged in Asia and the Americas to cause large outbreaks of human disease. The outbreak has been characterized by high attack rates, birth defects in infants and severe neurological complications in adults. ZIKV is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, but recent evidence implicates sexual transmission as playing an important role as well. This review highlights the transmission of ZIKV in humans, with a focus on both mosquito and sexually-transmitted routes and their outcomes...
July 11, 2017: Virus Research
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