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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212645/retrospective-analysis-of-antiretroviral-therapy-uptake-and-retention-of-male-clients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-therapy-in-two-provinces-in-vietnam-potential-synergy-of-the-two-therapies
#1
Linh Thi Thuy Pham, Akiko Kitamura, Hoa Mai Do, Kim Anh Lai, Nhan Tuan Le, Van Thi Thuy Nguyen, Masaya Kato
BACKGROUND: Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with injection drug use being the dominant mode of HIV transmission. Vietnam has rapidly expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aims to analyze ART uptake and retention among male clients receiving MMT in Vietnam in the early phase of the MMT program. METHODS: The male clients (age ≥18) who were newly enrolled in care or started ART at two HIV clinics in Hanoi (2009 to 2011) and three HIV clinics in Can Tho (2010 to 2012) were included for the analysis...
February 17, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#2
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173785/hcv-screening-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-homeless-and-marginally-housed-women-in-san-francisco-california
#3
Kimberly Page, Michelle Yu, Jennifer Cohen, Jennifer Evans, Martha Shumway, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening has taken on new importance as a result of updated guidelines and new curative therapies. Relatively few studies have assessed HCV infection in homeless populations, and a minority include women. We assessed prevalence and correlates of HCV exposure in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, and estimated the proportion undiagnosed. METHODS: A probability sample of 246 women were recruited at free meal programs, homeless shelters, and low-cost single room occupancy hotels in San Francisco; women with HIV were oversampled...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165441/intravenous-drugs-abuse-as-the-main-risk-factor-of-increasing-hepatitis-c-infection-prevalence-in-prisoners-in-zenica-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#4
Harun Hodžić, Amel Bajramović, Zarema Obradović, Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo
Aim To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) among prisoners in Zenica prison, and to investigate the relation between HCV and risky behaviors: intravenous drugs use (IDU), tattooing, promiscuity. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted at the High Security Penitentiary in Zenica involved 200 convicted persons who gave their consents for the research. Their blood was tested by AraGen Hepatitis C Test. Risky behaviors (IDU, tattooing, promiscuity) were tested by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160727/high-seroprevalence-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#5
Åsa Mellgren, Miriam Karlsson, Marie Karlsson, Martin Lagging, Rune Wejstål, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is endemic in Europe. Superinfection with HEV in patients with underlying chronic liver disease can cause hepatic decompensation leading to increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies was investigated in 204 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and different stages of fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN: Sera were analyzed for anti-HEV IgG, IgM and HEV RNA...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157413/exploring-the-new-phenomena-of-home-made-extraction-and-injection-of-ephedra-plant-product-in-georgia
#6
David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Dessa Bergen-Cico
BACKGROUND: Since the end of 2015, reports by service providers have indicated a new trend in kitchen (homemade) production of an injection drug prepared from an ephedrine-containing conifer bush that is indigenous to the region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe an emerging new homemade psychoactive drug synthesized from the ephedra plant, and the drug consumption methods associated with its' use in the Eurasia. METHODS: Focus groups conducted with 16 people, self-identified as injection drug users (IDU's) who reported at least one incidence of ephedra preparation injection during the previous 30-days...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151750/hepatitis-c-in-a-mobile-low-threshold-methadone-program
#7
Mário J Silva, Cláudia Pereira, Rafaela Loureiro, Catarina Balsa, Paulo Lopes, Ivone Água-Doce, Elsa Belo, Helena C Martins, Rodrigo Coutinho, Elizabeth Pádua
INTRODUCTION: Data on the epidemiology of hepatitis C among individuals who use drugs in low-threshold settings are lacking, although crucial to assess the burden of disease and aid in the design of treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and disease related to hepatitis C in a population attending a low-threshold methadone program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in the population attending the Mobile Low-Threshold Methadone Program in Lisbon, Portugal, was carried out...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149492/distribution-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-in-arak-city-central-province-of-iran
#8
Masoomeh Sofian, Amitis Ramezani, Hossein Imani, Ali Asghar Farazi, Mohammad Banifazl, Ali Jourabchi, Arezoo Aghakhani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide concern and it is the major cause of liver disease. Several genotypes of the HCV have been reported from different regions of the world. The determination of the HCV genotypes is important for the prediction of response to antiviral treatment and clinical outcomes. So, HCV genotyping in each region is of great importance. This investigation was performed to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in Arak city, Central province of Iran...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118206/the-gender-gap-a-longitudinal-examination-of-men-s-and-women-s-art-adherence-in-british-columbia-2000-2014
#9
Cathy M Puskas, Angela Kaida, Cari L Miller, Wendy Zhang, Benita Yip, Neora Pick, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of sex on attaining optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinally, while controlling for known adherence confounders: injection drug use (IDU) and ethnicity. DESIGN: Using the population-based HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort, data were collected from HIV-positive adults, ≥19 years, receiving cART in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with data collected between 2000 and 2014...
January 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081036/one-year-mortality-of-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-susceptible-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-western-europe-and-latin-america
#10
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS: One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#11
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been characterized by high genetic multiplicity, suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing(SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence(IDU.CON). All the T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC, and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
January 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048513/su-c-202-07-protocol-and-hardware-for-improved-flood-field-calibration-of-truebeam-fff-cine-imaging
#12
J Adamson, A Faught, F Yin
PURPOSE: Flattening filter free photon energies are commonly used for high dose treatments such as SBRT, where localization accuracy is essential. Often, MV cine imaging may be employed to verify correct localization. TrueBeam Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) equipped with the 40×30cm(2) Image Detection Unit (IDU) are prone to image saturation at the image center especially for higher dose rates. While saturation often does not occur for cine imaging during treatment because the beam is attenuated by the patient, the flood field calibration is affected when the standard calibration procedure is followed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046573/su-f-t-283-a-novel-device-to-enable-portal-dosimetry-for-flattening-filter-free-beams
#13
A Faught, Q Wu, J Adamson
PURPOSE: Varian's electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based portal dosimetry tool is a popular and effective means of performing IMRT QA. EPIDs for older models of the TrueBeam accelerator utilize a 40cmx30cm Image Detection Unit (IDU) that saturates at the center for standard source to imager distances with high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) beams. This makes portal dosimetry not possible and an alternative means of IMRT QA necessary. We developed a filter that would attenuate the beam to a dose rate measureable by the IDU for portal dosimetry IMRT QA...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033700/brucellosis-with-multi-organ-involvement-in-a-patient-with-history-of-composite-aortic-graft-and-hepatitis-b
#14
Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Omid Rezahosseini, Zahra Abdi Liaei
The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant...
November 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012010/assessment-of-hcv-genotypes-in-yunnan-province-of-southwest-china
#15
Qiongfen Li, Yufeng Yao, Yunsong Shen, Danfeng Cao, Yalin Li, Shuqiong Zhang, Wei Cun, Mingbo Sun, Jiankun Yu, Li Shi, Shaozhong Dong
Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population...
December 23, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005477/correlates-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-targeted-testing-program-of-the-new-york-city-jail-system
#16
Matthew J Akiyama, Fatos Kaba, Zachary Rosner, Howard Alper, Aimee Kopolow, Alain H Litwin, Homer Venters, Ross MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positivity in a large urban jail system in New York City. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and HCV antibody prevalence among 10 790 jail inmates aged 16 to 86 who were screened from June 13, 2013, to June 13, 2014, based on birth cohort or conventional high-risk criteria. We used logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of HCV antibody positivity...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976495/detection-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#17
Yuri Kawashima, Nahomi Yamaguchi, Rie Teshima, Hisashi Narahara, Yoshio Yamaoka, Hirofumi Anai, Yoshihiro Nishida, Katsuhiro Hanada
A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions because unrepaired DSBs cause chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Although many physiological DSBs occur at DNA replication sites, the molecular mechanisms underlying this remain poorly understood. There was therefore a need to develop a highly specific method to detect DSB fragments containing DNA replication sites. Here we investigated whether pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) combined with visualization of DNA replication sites by immunoblotting using halogenized deoxyuridines, such as BrdU and IdU, was sufficient for this detection...
January 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916216/endocarditis-as-a-marker-for-new-epidemics-of-injection-drug-use
#18
Susana Williams Keeshin, Judith Feinberg
BACKGROUND: We examined discharges for infective endocarditis (IE) at an academic teaching hospital for over 10 years to evaluate if an increase in hospitalizations for IE and increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with IE could predict a new epidemic of injection drug use (IDU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of discharged patients with the diagnosis of IE as defined by the modified Duke criteria. Student's t test, chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to calculate P values...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916215/opiate-injection-associated-infective-endocarditis-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#19
Lauren Hartman, Erin Barnes, Laura Bachmann, Katherine Schafer, James Lovato, Daniel Clark Files
BACKGROUND: Opiate pain reliever (OPR) misuse by injection is increasing in the United States. Infective endocarditis (IE), a devastating complication of injection OPR use, has been understudied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of IE cases at an academic tertiary care hospital in North Carolina. Hospital admissions from 2009-2014 were screened for cases of definite IE. Subjects reporting injection drug use (IDU) were classified as IDU-IE, and compared to those without reported IDU, classified as No IDU-IE...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906018/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#20
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
November 15, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
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