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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461241/measurement-of-personal-risk-behavi-or-in-occupational-risk-studies-among-health-care-workers
#1
M Butsashvili, G Kamkamidze, M Kajaia, K Nelson, W Triner, L A McNutt
Risky behaviours, particularly illegal and heavily stigmatized behaviours, are difficult to measure through self-report in both high risk groups and the general population. Underreporting can result in substantially biased estimates of non-injection drug use (IDU) risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that asking about the existence of social networks injection drug use may be a useful marker of IDU. A cross-sectional survey of physicians and nurses was conducted in seven hospitals in Georgia...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460087/prescription-changes-during-geriatric-care-episodes-a-trend-analysis-conducted-in-sweden
#2
Marianne Reimers, Maria Eriksdotter, Åke Seiger, Johan Fastbom
BACKGROUND: The number of drugs prescribed for old people has been rising in recent decades. With increasing age and multiple medications, the risk of complications and drug prescription complexity increases. Multiple changes to prescriptions could be a factor that improves treatment quality. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate trends in drug prescriptions and factors that contribute to prescription changes. Specific objectives were to find out whether high numbers of prescription changes are significantly correlated with age, sex, comorbidity, length of care episode, and number of drugs...
February 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447300/explaining-suicide-attempt-with-personality-traits-of-aggression-and-impulsivity-in-a-high-risk-tribal-population-of-india
#3
Piyoosh Kumar Singh, V R Rao
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445897/brdu-edu-dual-labeling-to-determine-the-cell-cycle-dynamics-of-defined-cellular-subpopulations
#4
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Michael Piper
Measuring the mean duration of synthesis-phase (T s ) and of the total cell-cycle (T c ) within progenitor cell populations can provide important insights into the biology governing these cells. Rather than a passive process that shows little variability across cellular contexts, the cell-cycle is instead highly regulated. For example, in the rodent forebrain, T s is selectively lengthened in radial glial progenitor cells undergoing symmetric versus asymmetric division. This lengthening is thought to minimize the potential for copying errors that can occur during DNA replication...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429421/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-high-prevalence-population
#5
M A Fill, L A Sizemore, M Rickles, K C Cooper, C M Buecker, H L Mullins, M G Hofmeister, W E Abara, M A Foster, A K Asher, W Schaffner, J R Dunn, T F Jones, C Wester
To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case-control study among persons who use drugs. During June-October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU)...
February 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419568/recent-abacavir-use-increases-risk-for-types-1-and-2-myocardial-infarctions-among-adults-with-hiv
#6
Richard A Elion, Keri N Althoff, Jinbing Zhang, Richard D Moore, Stephen J Gange, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi M Crane, Daniel R Drozd, James H Stein, Marina B Klein, Joseph J Eron, Michael J Silverberg, William C Mathews, Amy C Justice, Timothy R Sterling, Charles S Rabkin, Angel M Mayor, Daniel B Klein, Michael A Horberg, Ronald J Bosch, Oghenowede Eyawo, Frank J Palella
BACKGROUND: There is persistent confusion as to whether abacavir (ABC) increases the risk for myocardial infarction (MI), and whether such risk differs by Type 1 (T1MI) or 2 (T2MI) MI in adults with HIV. METHODS: Incident MIs in NA-ACCORD participants were identified from 2001 to 2013. Discrete time marginal structural models addressed channeling biases and time-dependent confounding to estimate crude (HR) and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals; analyses were performed for T1MI and T2MI separately...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415660/transmission-dynamics-for-methicilin-resistant-staphalococous-areus-with-injection-drug-user
#7
Rebekah Wagner, Folashade B Agusto
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterial pathogen resistance to antibiotics including methicillin. The resistance first emerged in 1960 in a healthcare setting only after two years of using methicillin as a viable treatment for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA leads to infections in different parts of the body including the skin, bloodstream, lungs, or the urinary tract. METHODS: A deterministic model for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with injection drug users is designed...
February 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397766/trends-in-discharges-from-the-hiv-aids-ward-at-a-tertiary-canadian-hospital-from-2005-to-2014
#8
Denise Jaworsky, Peter Phillips, Zishan Cui, William Chau, Guillaume Colley, Raja Dutta, Benita Yip, Hayden Kremer, Oghenowede Eyawo, Julio Sg Montaner, Mark W Hull
Advances in HIV therapies have transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. Accordingly, hospital admission trends among people living with HIV may have evolved over time. This study describes discharge diagnoses from the dedicated HIV/AIDS ward at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. A retrospective database review of admissions to the HIV/AIDS ward between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2014 was conducted. Primary discharge diagnoses were manually categorized by condition and reviewed by two physicians...
February 4, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380523/dcd-donor-hemodynamics-as-predictor-of-outcome-after-kidney-transplantation
#9
H Peters-Sengers, J H E Houtzager, M B A Heemskerk, M M Idu, R C Minnee, R W Klaasen, S E Joor, J A M Hagenaars, P M Rebers, J J Homan van der Heide, J I Roodnat, F J Bemelman
Insufficient hemodynamics during agonal phase-i.e. the period between withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and circulatory arrest-in Maastricht category III circulatory-death donors (DCD) potentially exacerbate ischemia/reperfusion injury. We included 409 Dutch adult recipients of DCD donor kidneys transplanted between 2006 and 2014. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2-with pulse oximetry at the fingertip) and systolic blood pressure (SBP-with arterial catheter) were measured during agonal phase, and were dichotomized into minutes of SpO2>60% or SpO2<60%, and minutes of SBP>80 mmHg or SBP<80 mmHg...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361804/global-mortality-burden-of-cirrhosis-and-liver-cancer-attributable-to-injection-drug-use-1990-2016-an-age-period-cohort-and-spatial-autocorrelation-analysis
#10
Jin Yang, Yunquan Zhang, Lisha Luo, Runtang Meng, Chuanhua Yu
We analyzed the temporal and spatial variations in mortality burden of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to injection drug use (IDU) from 1990 to 2016. Mortality data of IDU-attributable cirrhosis and IDU-attributable liver cancer on the global and national scales from 1990 to 2016 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies. Age-period-cohort (APC) model analysis was used to analyze the global mortality trends of target disease, and spatial autocorrelation analysis based on Geographic Information System was applied to illustrate the clusters of the most epidemic countries...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305727/using-population-based-hospitalization-data-to-monitor-increases-in-conditions-causing-morbidity-among-persons-who-inject-drugs
#11
Melissa G Collier, Mona Doshani, Alice Asher
Epidemics of opioid use and injection drug use (IDU) are associated with an increase in HIV and viral hepatitis infections and overdose deaths in the United States. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are also at risk for serious infections caused by skin organisms introduced via IDU. We examined National Inpatient Sample hospital discharge data to determine trends in three serious infectious disease-associated conditions that primarily affect PWID in addition to HIV and viral hepatitis: infective endocarditis (IE), central nervous system (CNS) abscesses, and osteomyelitis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299210/cost-effectiveness-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment-centers-in-prevention-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#12
Sirus Pourkhajoei, Mohsen Barouni, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Saeed Amini, Mohammad Karamouzian, Hamid Sharifi
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the greatest social health problems in many communities in the twenty-first century. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could decrease HIV infection among injection drug users (IDU). The main aim of this paper was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the governmental MMT program to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among IDU. Methods: This analytical study was performed through a before-after assessment during a one-year period...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294581/-incidence-rates-of-hiv-1-epidemics-among-4-high-risk-groups-in-sichuan-province-during-2011-2015
#13
H Yang, L Su, L Ye, L Xiao, Y Hu, M G Shen, D B Wei, D Yuan, G S Zhou, H L Liu, J Yu, S Liang
Objective: Data from the HIV/AIDS surveillance sentinel sites was used to identify the recent HIV-1 infections and to estimate the HIV-1 incidence and epidemic trends among intravenous drug users (IDU), MSM, female sex workers and men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics in Sichuan province. Methods: Specimens collected from IDUs, MSM, female sex workers and men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics sentinel sites were confirmed as HIV-1 positive and tested with BED-CEIA. Annual HIV-1 prevalence and incidence rates were calculated and the incidence was adjusted by McNermar method...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284807/a-clinical-study-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-a-tertiary-care-center-of-eastern-india
#14
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak, Manaswini Dash
Background: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based intervention for opiate-dependent persons that replaces illicit drug use with medically prescribed, orally administered opiates such as buprenorphine and methadone. OST reduces HIV risk behaviors and harms associated with injecting opioid. Most of the evidence for OST effectiveness has been generated in middle- and high-income countries where programs are mostly located in dedicated health-care settings; evidence regarding the outcomes of OST programs in low-income countries where OST is often provided in grassroots settings such as drop-in centers is limited...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284377/narratives-of-young-men-with-injecting-drug-use-histories-leaving-adult-prison
#15
Shelley Walker, Peter Higgs, Mark Stoové, Mandy Wilson
This research focuses on an under-examined aspect of the post-release prison trajectory for a seldom-researched cohort. Narratives of the immediate days/weeks surrounding release were gathered from young men with histories of injecting drug use (IDU). Twenty-eight participants (aged 19-24) released from adult prisons in Victoria, Australia, participated in face-to-face in-depth qualitative interviews after release. Analysis of findings through the lens of a "risk environment" framework reveals how their experiences were compromised by risk factors embedded in the physical spaces and social situations they inhabited, as well as the multi-sectoral policy environments under which they were governed...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283390/genotypic-and-phylogenetic-insights-on-prevention-of-the-spread-of-hiv-1-and-drug-resistance-in-real-world-settings
#16
REVIEW
Bluma G Brenner, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Isabelle Hardy, Michel Roger
HIV continues to spread among vulnerable heterosexual (HET), Men-having-Sex with Men (MSM) and intravenous drug user (IDU) populations, influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioral and societal factors. Phylogenetics analyses of large sequence datasets from national drug resistance testing programs reveal the evolutionary interrelationships of viral strains implicated in the dynamic spread of HIV in different regional settings. Viral phylogenetics can be combined with demographic and behavioral information to gain insights on epidemiological processes shaping transmission networks at the population-level...
December 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260745/-molecular-epidemiological-analysis-of-hiv-1-variants-circulating-in-russia-in-1987-2015
#17
I A Lapovok, A E Lopatukhin, D E Kireev, E V Kazennova, A V Lebedev, M R Bobkova, A N Kolomeets, G I Turbina, G A Shipulin, N N Ladnaya, V V Pokrovsky
AIM: To simultaneously analyze HIV-1 samples from all Russian regions to characterize the epidemiology of HIV infection in the country as a whole. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The most extensive study was conducted to examine nucleotide sequences of the pol gene of HIV-1 samples isolated from HIV-positive persons in different regions of Russia, with the diagnosis date being fixed during 1987-2015. The nucleotide sequences of the HIV-1 genome were analyzed using computer programs and on-line applications to identify a virus subtype and new recombinant forms...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#18
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213206/hiv-transmission-clusters-among-injecting-drug-users-in-romania
#19
Aura Temereanca, Cristiana Oprea, Joel O Wertheim, Irina Ianache, Emanoil Ceausu, Costin Cernescu, Sanjay R Mehta, Simona Ruta
Injection drug use is increasingly an important route of HIV transmission in Romania (from 1.5% of the newly diagnosed cases prior to 2010 to 31% in 2013). In this study we investigated the viral characteristics and relationships in newly HIV infected persons who inject drugs in Bucharest, Romania. Results: HIV-1 pol sequencing, followed by phylogenetic and clustering analysis was performed on blood from 37 injecting drug users (IDUs) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. While HIV subtype F1, the dominant strain in Romania since 1990, remains prevalent, new subtypes were found including G, B, B/G and B/F recombinants...
January 2017: Romanian Biotechnological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210833/influence-of-injection-drug-use-related-hiv-acquisition-on-cd4-response-to-first-antiretroviral-therapy-regimen-among-virally-suppressed-individuals
#20
Keri L Calkins, Catherine R Lesko, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore, Bryan Lau
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory effects of injection drug use may result in an impaired immune response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined CD4 response to first ART regimen among individuals in routine HIV care, stratified by injection drug use-related HIV acquisition. SETTING: Cohort study including patients who initiated ART between 2000-2015 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic. METHODS: We followed individuals from ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, loss of viral load suppression (<500 copies/mL) or administrative censoring...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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