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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444470/sexual-orientation-differences-in-health-and-wellbeing-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada-findings-from-a-national-cohort-study
#1
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Angela Kaida, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Kath Webster, Tracey Conway, Mona Loutfy
Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430081/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-criminal-behavior-among-illicit-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Natália Silva Mesquita, Renata Silva Lopes, Roselma Lucchese, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Luiz Henrique Batista Monteiro, Graciele Cristina Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate high rates of criminal behavior, violent activities, and legal problems among illicit drug users (IDU) in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with criminal behavior among IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in Central Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependence. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews and analyzed using logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430013/barriers-to-access-to-sterile-syringes-as-perceived-by-pharmacists-and-injecting-drug-users-implications-for-harm-reduction-in-lebanon
#3
Ali Ghaddar, Karine Nassar, Ghadier Elsoury
BACKGROUND: Access to sterile syringes to injecting drug users (IDU) reduces sharing behavior and prevents the transmission of HIV. OBJECTIVES: To describe the barriers to access to sterile syringes for IDUs in Lebanon from the perspectives of pharmacists and IDUs. METHODS: in this qualitative study conducted in Lebanon, data were collected from 72 syringe purchase tests at pharmacies, 64 interviewees with pharmacists and 2 focus groups with injecting drug users...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406271/the-relationship-between-higher-social-trust-and-lower-late-hiv-diagnosis-and-mortality-differs-by-race-ethnicity-results-from-a-state-level-analysis
#4
Yusuf Ransome, Ashley Batson, Sandro Galea, Ichiro Kawachi, Denis Nash, Kenneth H Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer a disproportionate burden of new HIV diagnoses and mortality. To better understand some of the reasons for these profound disparities, we examined whether the association between social trust and late HIV diagnosis and mortality differed by race/ethnicity, and investigated potential indirect effects of any observed differences. METHODS: We performed generalized structural equation modelling to assess main and interaction associations between trust among one's neighbours in 2009 (i...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403241/characterization-of-a-novel-hiv-1-unique-recombinant-form-between-crf07_bc-and-crf55_01b-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-guangzhou-china
#5
Yue Wu, Xuqi Ren, Dan Yin, Haiying Wang, Zhengwei Wan, Xiufen Li, Guifang Hu, Shixing Tang
Here, we report the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of novel HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URF) in both HIV-infected intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou, China. We further characterized a novel URF strain isolated from an HIV-infected MSM, GD698. Near full-length genome (NFLG) phylogenic analysis showed that this novel URF was composed of CRF07_BC and CRF55_01B, with two recombinant breakpoints (nt 6,003 and 8,251 relative to the HXB2 genome) in the vpu/env and env genes, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291919/an-in-house-protocol-for-improved-flood-field-calibration-of-truebeam-fff-cine-imaging
#6
Austin M Faught, Fang-Fang Yin, Justus Adamson
PURPOSE: TrueBeams equipped with the 40 × 30 cm(2) Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) are prone to image saturation at the image center when used with flattening filter free (FFF) photon energies. While cine imaging during treatment may not saturate because the beam is attenuated by the patient, the flood field calibration is affected when the standard calibration procedure is followed. Here, we describe the hardware and protocol to achieve improved image quality for this model of TrueBeam EPID...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282246/sex-race-and-hiv-risk-disparities-in-discontinuity-of-hiv-care-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#7
Peter F Rebeiro, Alison G Abraham, Michael A Horberg, Keri N Althoff, Baligh R Yehia, Kate Buchacz, Bryan M Lau, Timothy R Sterling, Stephen J Gange
Disruption of continuous retention in care (discontinuity) is associated with HIV disease progression. We examined sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among patients in North America. Adults (≥18 years of age) initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Discontinuity was defined as first disruption of continuous retention (≥2 visits separated by >90 days in the calendar year). Relative hazard ratio (HR) and times from ART initiation until discontinuity by race, sex, and HIV risk were assessed by modeling of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) in the presence of the competing risk of death...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280891/number-of-medications-and-adverse-drug-events-by-unintentional-poisoning-among-older-adults-in-consideration-of-inappropriate-drug-use-a-swedish-population-based-matched-case-control-study
#8
Christian Rausch, L Laflamme, U Bültmann, J Möller
PURPOSE: This national, population-based study aims to determine the association between the number of prescribed medications and adverse drug events (ADE) by unintentional poisoning and examine this risk when known indicators of inappropriate drug use (IDU) are accounted for. METHODS: We employed a matched case-control design among people living in Sweden who were 50 years and older. Cases experiencing an ADE by unintentional poisoning resulting in hospitalization or death (n = 5336) were extracted from the National Health and Death Registers from January 2006 to December 2009...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272135/the-adherence-gap-a-longitudinal-examination-of-men-s-and-women-s-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-british-columbia-2000-2014
#9
Cathy M Puskas, Angela Kaida, Cari L Miller, Wendy Zhang, Benita Yip, Neora Pick, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of sex on attaining optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinally while controlling for known adherence confounders - IDU and ethnicity. DESIGN: Using the population-based HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research cohort, data were collected from HIV-positive adults, aged at least 19 years, receiving cART in British Columbia, Canada, with data collected between 2000 and 2014...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266696/mortality-disparities-among-hiv-men-and-women-in-puerto-rico-data-from-the-hiv-aids-surveillance-system-2003-2014
#10
Vivian Colón-López, Sandra Miranda-De León, Mark Machin-Rivera, Edna Marrero, Yadira Rolón-Colón, Ileska M Valencia-Torres, Erick Suárez
OBJECTIVE: Describe the trend of the indirect standardized death rate of HIV for different modes of HIV transmission from 2003 to 2014 in Puerto Rico. Estimate the magnitude of the association between mode of HIV transmission and mortality at different time periods in Puerto Rico. METHODS: ISDRs by sex and mode of transmission were computed using data from the PR National HIV/AIDS Surveillance System (2003-2014). Poisson models were used to assess the annual percent change of the ISDRs and RRs by sex...
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259090/gender-based-differences-in-injecting-drug-use-by-young-adults-who-experienced-maltreatment-in-childhood-findings-from-an-australian-birth-cohort-study
#11
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Williams, Alexandra Clavarino, Lane Strathearn, Jake Moses Najman
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a range of adverse mental and psychosocial outcomes, but its association with subsequent injecting drug use (IDU) is less clear. This study investigates the associations between specific and multiple forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment and IDU reported at 21 years. METHOD: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective birth cohort study. It recruited pregnant women at their first antenatal clinic visit and collected data on their children at 21 years...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257759/blockade-of-trkb-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-prior-to-heterotypic-stress-alters-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-2-vglut2-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-gr-within-the-mesolimbic-pathway
#12
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Inhibition of stress-induced elevations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or its primary receptor tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) within the reward pathway may modulate vulnerability to anxiety and mood disorders. The current study examined the role of BDNF/TrkB signaling on biochemistry and behavior under basal conditions and following exposure to a 10-day heterotypic stress paradigm in male rats. Effects of intra-accumbal administration of TrkB antagonist ANA-12 (0.25μg/0.5μl/min) on anxiety, and expression of Trk-B, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within the mesolimbic pathway were determined...
March 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225344/tuberculosis-among-the-homeless-should-we-change-the-strategy
#13
M Dias, R Gaio, P Sousa, M Abranches, M Gomes, O Oliveira, M Correia-Neves, E Ferreira, R Duarte
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern among high-risk populations such as the homeless. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate TB incidence and treatment outcomes among homeless patients in Portugal and to identify predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes among the homeless. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of all TB patients notified in Portugal from 2008 to 2014. Characteristics of homeless TB patients were assessed and predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment were determined using logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212645/retrospective-analysis-of-antiretroviral-therapy-uptake-and-retention-of-male-clients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-therapy-in-two-provinces-in-vietnam-potential-synergy-of-the-two-therapies
#14
Linh Thi Thuy Pham, Akiko Kitamura, Hoa Mai Do, Kim Anh Lai, Nhan Tuan Le, Van Thi Thuy Nguyen, Masaya Kato
BACKGROUND: Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with injection drug use being the dominant mode of HIV transmission. Vietnam has rapidly expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aims to analyze ART uptake and retention among male clients receiving MMT in Vietnam in the early phase of the MMT program. METHODS: The male clients (age ≥18) who were newly enrolled in care or started ART at two HIV clinics in Hanoi (2009 to 2011) and three HIV clinics in Can Tho (2010 to 2012) were included for the analysis...
February 17, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#15
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173785/hcv-screening-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-homeless-and-marginally-housed-women-in-san-francisco-california
#16
Kimberly Page, Michelle Yu, Jennifer Cohen, Jennifer Evans, Martha Shumway, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening has taken on new importance as a result of updated guidelines and new curative therapies. Relatively few studies have assessed HCV infection in homeless populations, and a minority include women. We assessed prevalence and correlates of HCV exposure in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, and estimated the proportion undiagnosed. METHODS: A probability sample of 246 women were recruited at free meal programs, homeless shelters, and low-cost single room occupancy hotels in San Francisco; women with HIV were oversampled...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165441/intravenous-drugs-abuse-as-the-main-risk-factor-of-increasing-hepatitis-c-infection-prevalence-in-prisoners-in-zenica-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#17
Harun Hodžić, Amel Bajramović, Zarema Obradović, Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo
Aim To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) among prisoners in Zenica prison, and to investigate the relation between HCV and risky behaviors: intravenous drugs use (IDU), tattooing, promiscuity. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted at the High Security Penitentiary in Zenica involved 200 convicted persons who gave their consents for the research. Their blood was tested by AraGen Hepatitis C Test. Risky behaviors (IDU, tattooing, promiscuity) were tested by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160727/high-seroprevalence-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Åsa Mellgren, Miriam Karlsson, Marie Karlsson, Martin Lagging, Rune Wejstål, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is endemic in Europe. Superinfection with HEV in patients with underlying chronic liver disease can cause hepatic decompensation leading to increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies was investigated in 204 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and different stages of fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN: Sera were analyzed for anti-HEV IgG, IgM and HEV RNA...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157413/exploring-the-new-phenomena-of-home-made-extraction-and-injection-of-ephedra-plant-product-in-georgia
#19
David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Dessa Bergen-Cico
BACKGROUND: Since the end of 2015, reports by service providers have indicated a new trend in kitchen (homemade) production of an injection drug prepared from an ephedrine-containing conifer bush that is indigenous to the region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe an emerging new homemade psychoactive drug synthesized from the ephedra plant, and the drug consumption methods associated with its' use in the Eurasia. METHODS: Focus groups conducted with 16 people, self-identified as injection drug users (IDU's) who reported at least one incidence of ephedra preparation injection during the previous 30-days...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151750/hepatitis-c-in-a-mobile-low-threshold-methadone-program
#20
Mário J Silva, Cláudia Pereira, Rafaela Loureiro, Catarina Balsa, Paulo Lopes, Ivone Água-Doce, Elsa Belo, Helena C Martins, Rodrigo Coutinho, Elizabeth Pádua
INTRODUCTION: Data on the epidemiology of hepatitis C among individuals who use drugs in low-threshold settings are lacking, although crucial to assess the burden of disease and aid in the design of treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and disease related to hepatitis C in a population attending a low-threshold methadone program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in the population attending the Mobile Low-Threshold Methadone Program in Lisbon, Portugal, was carried out...
June 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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