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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#1
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213206/hiv-transmission-clusters-among-injecting-drug-users-in-romania
#2
Aura Temereanca, Cristiana Oprea, Joel O Wertheim, Irina Ianache, Emanoil Ceausu, Costin Cernescu, Sanjay R Mehta, Simona Ruta
Injection drug use is increasingly an important route of HIV transmission in Romania (from 1.5% of the newly diagnosed cases prior to 2010 to 31% in 2013). In this study we investigated the viral characteristics and relationships in newly HIV infected persons who inject drugs in Bucharest, Romania. Results: HIV-1 pol sequencing, followed by phylogenetic and clustering analysis was performed on blood from 37 injecting drug users (IDUs) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. While HIV subtype F1, the dominant strain in Romania since 1990, remains prevalent, new subtypes were found including G, B, B/G and B/F recombinants...
January 2017: Romanian Biotechnological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210833/influence-of-injection-drug-use-related-hiv-acquisition-on-cd4-response-to-first-antiretroviral-therapy-regimen-among-virally-suppressed-individuals
#3
Keri L Calkins, Catherine R Lesko, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore, Bryan Lau
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory effects of injection drug use may result in an impaired immune response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined CD4 response to first ART regimen among individuals in routine HIV care, stratified by injection drug use-related HIV acquisition. SETTING: Cohort study including patients who initiated ART between 2000-2015 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic. METHODS: We followed individuals from ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, loss of viral load suppression (<500 copies/mL) or administrative censoring...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198185/role-of-substance-use-in-hiv-care-cascade-outcomes-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-russia
#4
Bulat Idrisov, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Emily Quinn, Carly Bridden, Alexander Y Walley, Kendall J Bryant, Dmitry Lioznov, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
BACKGROUND: Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes...
December 4, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195589/factors-associated-with-naloxone-administration-in-an-opioid-dependent-sample
#5
Shannon R Kenney, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey, Michael D Stein
INTRODUCTION: Naloxone is a safe and effective antidote for reversing opioid overdose. Layperson administration of naloxone is increasingly common, yet little is known about demographic and clinical factors associated with opioid users' likelihood of having administered naloxone to another opioid user who had overdosed. We examined predictors of reported naloxone administration in the past year. METHODS: Four hundred and sixty-eight patients were interviewed upon admission to brief, inpatient opioid detoxification between May and December of 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186704/crf35-ad-as-the-main-circulating-genotype-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-in-iran-a-phylogenetic-and-demographic-based-study
#6
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyedeh Arefeh Ebrahimian, Hoda Gudarzi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri, Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Minoo Mohraz, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Saber Soltani, Mehdi Norouzi
Finding the predominant circulating subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and surveying co-infection with other infectious viruses are crucial to making preventive decisions. To this end, 50 Iranian HIV-positive patients made up of 37 men and 13 women were selected. Most of the HIV-positive patients (70%) were intravenous drug users (IDUs), and 48 and 32% of patients were co-infected with HCV and HBV, respectively. The rate of simultaneous infection with HIV, HCV, and HBV was found to be 6%...
November 30, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175463/increasing-methamphetamine-injection-among-non-msm-who-inject-drugs-in-king-county-washington
#7
Sara Nelson Glick, Richard Burt, Kim Kummer, Joe Tinsley, Caleb J Banta-Green, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: In King County, Washington, the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) who inject methamphetamine is high, while it is low among other people who inject drugs (PWID). Local drug problem indicators suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. The extent to which this increase affects MSM and non-MSM, and whether MSM and non-MSM networks are connected through injection equipment sharing, is unknown. METHODS: We used data from two serial cross-sectional surveys of PWID including five biannual surveys of Public Health-Seattle and King County Needle and Syringe Exchange Program clients (NSEP, N=2135, 2009-2017) and three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance IDU surveys (NHBS, N=1709, 2009-2015)...
November 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168262/cross-border-migration-and-initiation-of-others-into-drug-injecting-in-tijuana-mexico
#8
Claudia Rafful, Jason Melo, María Elena Medina-Mora, Gudelia Rangel, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Dan Werb
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Efforts to prevent injection drug use (IDU) are increasingly focusing on the role that people who inject drugs (PWID) play in facilitating the entry of others into this behaviour. This is particularly relevant in settings experiencing high levels of IDU, such as Mexico's northern border region, where cross-border migration, particularly through forced deportation, has been found to increase a range of health and social harms related to injecting. DESIGN AND METHODS: PWID enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Tijuana, Mexico, since 2011 were interviewed semi-annually, which solicited responses on their experiences initiating others into injecting...
November 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161880/hiv-hbv-and-hcv-prevalence-among-high-risk-populations-in-south-india
#9
Thongadi Ramesh Dinesha, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sathasivam Sivamalar, Sunil S Solomon, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Ambrose Pradeep, Kailapuri G Murugavel, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Davey M Smith, Shanmugam Saravanan
HBV and HCV coinfection with HIV has become a major concern for the survival of HIV patients. HBV, HCV coinfection with HIV is less reported in risk population especially in India. Persons presenting for HIV testing at a large testing center in Chennai, India were screened for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections with serologic testing. Prevalence of these infections was compared between heterosexual and injection drugs using (IDU) risk groups. Of 1612 persons presenting for testing, 502 (31%) were HIV infected, 131 (8%) were HBV infected and 618 (38%) were HCV infected...
November 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150360/changes-in-the-epidemiology-and-distribution-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-in-north-eastern-spain-over-the-last-35-years
#10
Doroteo Acero Fernández, María José Ferri Iglesias, María Buxó Pujolràs, Carmen López Nuñez, Isabel Serra Matamala, Xavier Queralt Molés, Xavier Aldeguer Manté
BACKGROUND: Genotypic distribution and epidemiology of HCV infection in Western Europe countries has changed over the last decades. AIM: To establish the local genotypic profile and characterize the associated demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All the genotyping from 1988 to 2015 were considered. Associated demographic variables were included in logistic regression models. Genotyping was carried out with updated commercial kits. RESULTS: Genotype 1b was the most prevalent (42...
November 14, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148005/microsurgery-for-wrist-arteriovenous-fistula-creation-in-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Afram Akturk, Roel Bakx, Michiel J S Oosterveld, Jim C H Wilde, Mirza M Idu
INTRODUCTION: Creating functional arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) at the wrist is challenging in paediatric patients because of the small calibre of the blood vessels. METHODS: We report our experience with AVF surgery in children younger than 15 years of age using microsurgical techniques. Twenty-five patients underwent AVF surgery between 2003 and 2015 (20 for haemodialysis, 4 for plasmapheresis and 1 for parenteral nutrition). Median (range) age was 9 (2-15) years and median weight was 24 (8-61) kg...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140443/dc-sign-polymorphisms-associated-with-risk-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-but-not-among-injecting-drug-users
#12
Gaby S Steba, Sylvie M Koekkoek, Joost W Vanhommerig, Kees Brinkman, David Kwa, Jan T M Van Der Meer, Maria Prins, Ben Berkhout, Michael Tanck, William A Paxton, Richard Molenkamp, Janke Schinkel
We aimed to identify whether genetic polymorphisms within L-SIGN or DC-SIGN correlate with HCV susceptibility. An MSM and an IDU cohort of HCV cases and multiple-exposed uninfected controls were genotyped for numerous L-SIGN and DC-SIGN polymorphisms. DC-SIGN SNPs -139, -871 and -939 correlate with HCV acquisition in the MSM cohort only. When the same SNPs were introduced into a transcription activity assay they demonstrated a reduction in expression with predicted alteration in binding of transcription factors...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#13
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136742/-antiretroviral-treatment-discontinuation-and-its-influencing-factors-among-hiv-infected-patients-who-initiated-art-from-2012-to-2015-in-wenshan-prefecture-yunnan-province
#14
X S Hu, Y Zhao, L L Huang, Y X Luo, Z Y Wu
Objective: To understand the antiretroviral treatment (ART) discontinuation rate and its influencing factors among HIV infected patients who initiated ART between 2012 and 2015 in Wenshan prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods: Demographic characteristics, baseline informations of ART, initial treatment regimens and follow-up status of a total of 4 354 patients who initiated ART from 2012 to 2015 in Wenshan prefecture were collected. A historical cohort study was used to describe the discontinuation incidence rate of ART...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094660/investigation-of-the-perilipin-5-gene-expression-and-association-study-of-its-sequence-polymorphism-with-meat-and-carcass-quality-traits-in-different-pig-breeds
#15
M Zappaterra, M Mazzoni, P Zambonelli, R Davoli
The growing request for healthier fatty acid composition of animal products is raising the necessity of a deeper knowledge of the main factors controlling fatty acids storage in muscle and backfat. Perilipin (PLIN) 5, and the whole Perilipin family, seem to play a crucial role in the regulation of lipids deposition as code for proteins coating intracellular lipid droplets surface. Nevertheless, the knowledge of these genes in pig is still incomplete. The present research was aimed at investigating in different pig breeds the PLIN5 gene, analysing its expression level and the associations of the variability in its downstream gene region with pork meat and carcass quality traits...
November 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074409/global-prevalence-of-injecting-drug-use-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-people-who-inject-drugs-a-multistage-systematic-review
#16
Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Samantha Colledge, Janni Leung, Jason Grebely, Peter Vickerman, Jack Stone, Evan B Cunningham, Adam Trickey, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Michael Lynskey, Paul Griffiths, Richard P Mattick, Matthew Hickman, Sarah Larney
BACKGROUND: Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject drugs (PWID); and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID. METHODS: Consistent with the GATHER and PRISMA guidelines and without language restrictions, we systematically searched peer-reviewed databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO; articles published since 2008, latest searches in June, 2017), searched the grey literature (websites and databases, searches between April and August, 2016), and disseminated data requests to international experts and agencies (requests sent in October, 2016)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057620/the-genetic-and-environmental-architecture-of-substance-use-development-from-early-adolescence-into-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-twin-study-of-comorbidity-of-alcohol-tobacco-and-illicit-drugs-use
#17
T Waaktaar, K-J Kan, S Torgersen
AIMS: To investigate how use of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco come from substance specific pathways and from pathways general to all three substances through adolescents' development DESIGN: Analysis of population-based survey. Adolescent twins reported alcohol use (AU), tobacco use (TU), and illicit drug use (IDU) at 3 waves (2006, 2008, 2010). Restructuring data by age allowed for variance decomposition into age and substance specific and common genetic and environmental variance components...
October 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038716/relationship-between-a-network-s-indicators-and-basic-factors-with-high-risk-behavior-of-injection-among-injecting-drug-users-idu-via-the-multiple-membership-multilevel-model
#18
Ali Karamoozian, Yunes Jahani, Armita Shahesmaeili, Moghaddameh Mirzaee
BACKGROUND: Among various methods and types of drug abuse, injection receives a great deal of importance because of its related dangerous behavior and health consequences. It seemed that some of the network's indicators affect dangerous behavior of injection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between a network's indicators and basic factors with high-risk behavior of injection among injecting drug users (IDU) via the multiple memberships multilevel model...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034725/polypharmacy-and-risk-of-falls-and-fractures-for-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#19
Theresa W Kim, Alexander Y Walley, Alicia S Ventura, Gregory J Patts, Timothy C Heeren, Gabriel B Lerner, Nicholas Mauricio, Richard Saitz
Although people with HIV infection (PLWH) are at higher risk of polypharmacy and substance use, there is limited knowledge about potential harms associated with polypharmacy such as falls and fractures in this population. The study objective was to determine whether polypharmacy, as measured by the number and type of medication, is associated with falls and fractures among PLWH and DSM-IV substance dependence in the past year or ever injection drug use (IDU). We identified the number of medications by electronic medical record review in the following categories: (i) systemically active, (ii) non-antiretroviral (non-ARV), (iii) sedating, (iv) non-sedating as well as any opioid medication and any non-opioid sedating medication...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030816/cell-cycle-analysis-by-mass-cytometry
#20
Gregory K Behbehani
The regulated progression of cells through the cell cycle during proliferation is a critical factor in tumor progression, anti-neoplastic therapy response, immune system regulation, and developmental biology. While flow cytometric measurement of cell cycle progression is well established, mass cytometry assays allow the cell cycle to be measured along with up to 39 other antigens enabling characterization of the complex interactions between the cell cycle and a wide variety of cellular processes. This method describes the use of mass cytometry for the analysis of cell cycle state for cells from three different sources: in vitro cultured cell lines, ex vivo human blood or bone marrow, and in vivo labeling and ex vivo analysis of murine tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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