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Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari M Kitahata, Katherine K Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the US. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, in order to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Teodora Nikolova, Anja Göder, Ann Parplys, Kerstin Borgmann
DNA fiber spreading assay is an invaluable technique to visualize and follow the spatial and temporal progress of individual DNA replication forks. It provides information on the DNA replication progress and its regulation under normal conditions as well as on replication stress induced by environmental genotoxic agents or cancer drugs. The method relies on the detection of incorporated thymidine analogues during DNA synthesis in the S phase of the cell cycle by indirect immunofluorescence. Here, we describe the procedure established in our laboratories for sequential pulse labeling of human cells with 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU), cell lysis, and DNA fiber spreading on slides and sequential immunodetection of the incorporated thymidine analogues by primary antibodies recognizing specifically CldU or IdU alone...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Catherine R Lesko, Weiqun Tong, Richard D Moore, Bryan Lau
Compared to HIV-infected persons who do not inject drugs (non-IDU), persons who inject drugs (PWID) experience disparities in linking to medical care, initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieving viral suppression. There has been little attention to changes in these disparities over time. We estimated the proportion of PWID and non-IDU retained in care, on ART, and virally suppressed each year from 2001-2012 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort (JHHCC). We defined active clinic patients as those who had ≥1 clinical visit, CD4 cell count, or viral load between July 1 of the prior year, and June 30 of the analysis year...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Hessel Peters-Sengers, Stefan P Berger, Martin B A Heemskerk, Doaa Al Arashi, Jaap J Homan van der Heide, Aline C Hemke, Ineke J M Ten Berge, Mirza M Idu, Michiel G H Betjes, Arjan D van Zuilen, Luuk B Hilbrands, Aiko P J de Vries, Azam S Nurmohamed, Maarten H Christiaans, L W Ernest van Heurn, Johan W de Fijter, Frederike J Bemelman
An increasing number of elderly patients (≥65 years) receive a donor kidney from elderly donors after brain death (DBD) or after circulatory death (DCD). These organs are allocated within the Eurotransplant Senior Program, but outcomes must be evaluated. From the Dutch Organ Transplantation Registry, we selected 3597 recipients (≥18 years) who received a first DBD or DCD kidney during 2002-2012, and categorized them as young or elderly recipients receiving a graft from either a young or elderly donor, stratified by donor type...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Eleni Papachristou, Aikaterini Tsagkovits, Assimina Zavitsanou, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
BACKGROUND: Most of the HCV transmission the recent years in Greece was among IDUs. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of HCV genotypes and to investigate the patterns of HCV dispersal among IDUs in Athens using current state of the art molecular epidemiology methods. METHODS: HCV sequences were determined from 238 HIV-negative IDUs collected on the basis of the "ARISTOTLE" prevention program carried out in Athens between 2012 and 2013. Phylogenetic trees were inferred on HCV sequences isolated from IDUs in Athens for the most prevalent HCV clades (subtypes 1a and 3a)...
October 6, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yun-Chi Chen, Kjell J Wiberg, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Arun Bansal, Philipe Bolzan, Janelle A Guy, Erastus N Maina, Andrea L Cox, Chloe L Thio
Background.  Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is an emerging issue. Studies addressing the temporal trends and risk factors associated with incident HCV in HIV-infected MSM in the community-based primary care settings in the United States are scarce. Methods.  Using a retrospective cohort study design, HCV incidence, defined as HCV antibody seroconversion, was determined in 1147 HIV-infected men receiving care at Chase Brexton Health Care clinics in Baltimore, Maryland between 2004 and 2014...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs have not included estimates of the burden attributable to the consequences of past injecting. We aimed to provide these estimates as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2013. METHODS: We modelled the burden of HBV and HCV (including cirrhosis and liver cancer burden) and HIV at the country, regional, and global level...
September 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
F J Bemelman, J W de Fijter, J Kers, C Meyer, H Peters-Sengers, E F de Maar, K A M I van der Pant, A P J de Vries, J-S Sanders, A Zwinderman, M M Idu, S Berger, M E J Reinders, C Krikke, I M Bajema, M C van Dijk, I J M Ten Berge, J Ringers, J Lardy, D Roelen, D-J Moes, S Florquin, J J Homan van der Heide
In renal transplantation, use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is associated with nephrotoxicity and immunosuppression with malignancies and infections. This trial aimed to minimize CNI exposure and total immunosuppression while maintaining efficacy. We performed a randomized controlled, open-label multicenter trial with early cyclosporine A (CsA) elimination. Patients started with basiliximab, prednisolone (P), mycophenolate sodium (MPS), and CsA. At 6 months, immunosuppression was tapered to P/CsA, P/MPS, or P/everolimus (EVL)...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
R J Winter, J T Young, M Stoové, P A Agius, M E Hellard, S A Kinner
INTRODUCTION: Ex-prisoners with a history of injecting drug use (IDU) experience disproportionate drug-related harm. Rapid resumption of substance use following prison release is common and evidenced in high rates of overdose mortality. However, few studies have documented the rate of IDU resumption following prison release or identified risk factors for relapse. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 533 adults with a history of IDU in Queensland, Australia prior to release from prison and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months post-release...
September 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
María Ángeles Jiménez-Fuentes, Teresa Rodrigo, María Neus Altet, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Martí Casals, Antón Penas, Isabel Mir, Segismundo Solano Reina, Juan Antonio Riesco-Miranda, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of smoking and analyze associated factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Spain between 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study using a national database of TB patients, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We analyzed 5,846 cases (62 % men, mean age 39 years, 33 % foreigners)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Daniel Bradshaw, Jayna Raghwani, Brendan Jacka, Rachel Sacks-Davis, Francois Lamoury, Ian Down, Garrett Prestage, Tanya L Applegate, Margaret Hellard, Joe Sasadeusz, Gregory J Dore, Oliver G Pybus, Gail V Matthews, Mark Danta
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of venue-based networks on HCV transmission in HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM). METHODS: This was a prospectively recruited cohort of HIV-infected GBM with recently-acquired HCV infection resident in Melbourne and Sydney. Clinical and demographic data were collected together with blood samples for HCV sequencing. Phylogenies were inferred and clusters of individuals infected with HCV with genetic sequence homology were identified...
2016: PloS One
Eveli Kallas, Kristi Huik, Silver Türk, Merit Pauskar, Ene-Ly Jõgeda, Marina Šunina, Tõnis Karki, Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uusküla, Radko Avi, Irja Lutsar
Intravenous drug use (IDU) is one of the most important transmission routes for blood borne viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). These infections alter the subset distributions of T cells; however, knowledge of such effects during HIV, HBV, and or HCV coinfection is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate any associations between T cell distribution and the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV coinfections among persons who inject drugs (PWID)...
August 26, 2016: Viral Immunology
Rocio Herrero, Juan A Pineda, Antonio Rivero-Juarez, Meriem Echbarthi, Luis-Miguel Real, Angela Camacho, Juan Macias, Joan Fibla, Antonio Rivero, Antonio Caruz
INTRODUCTION: CD209 is a receptor expressed in the dendritic cells involved in recognition of oligosaccharides present in several pathogens with a relevant impact on human health. SNPs located in the promoter region have been associated with HIV-1 susceptibility, although this finding has not been replicated in other populations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of CD209 promoter haplotypes with risk of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of Spanish male intravenous drug users (IDU) infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to characterize the phenotypic effects of the associated variants...
August 15, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Martin Markowitz, Sherry Deren, Charles Cleland, Melissa La Mar, Evelyn Silva, Pedro Batista, Leslie St Bernard, Natanya Gettie, Kristina Rodriguez, Teresa H Evering, Haekyung Lee, Saurabh Mehandru
BACKGROUND:  Chronic inflammation, as defined by persistent immune activation (IA) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. People who inject drugs (PWIDs) have evidence of persistent IA. Here, in a cohort of HCV+ and HCV- infection drug users (IDU), we sought to dissect out the contribution of chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV, common in PWID) from the effects of drug injection itself. METHODS:  Four groups of study volunteers were recruited- Group1- active PWID, Group 2- individuals who ceased injecting for 1-2 months, Group 3- individuals who ceased injecting for 3-4 months, and Group 4- healthy volunteers...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eduardo Martínez-Martínez, Eileen Uribe-Querol, Claudio I Galván-Hernández, Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina
We describe a stereology method to obtain reliable estimates of the total number of proliferative and migratory epithelial cells after wounding. Using pulse and chase experiments with halogenated thymidine analogs such as iododeoxyuridine (IdU) and chlorodeoxyuridine (CldU), it is possible to track epithelial populations with heterogeneous proliferative characteristics through skin compartments. The stereological and tissue processing methods described here apply widely to address important questions of skin stem-cell biology...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
R Singh, S E Geerlings, H Peters-Sengers, M M Idu, C J Hodiamont, I J M Ten Berge, F J Bemelman
BACKGROUND: The impact of allograft pyelonephritis (AGPN) on renal allograft function is controversial. In this study we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and the impact of AGPN on renal allograft function. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in adult renal allograft recipients with 1-year follow-up after transplantation (Tx). Renal allograft function was evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) and 24-h urine protein excretion...
July 5, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Michael S Piepenbrink, Memorie Samuel, Bo Zheng, Brittany Carter, Christopher Fucile, Catherine Bunce, Michelle Kiebala, Atif A Khan, Juilee Thakar, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Diane Morse, Alexander F Rosenberg, Norman J Haughey, William Valenti, Michael C Keefer, James J Kobie
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19)...
2016: PloS One
Nelson Obiora Okonkwo, Fiona Larkan, Marie Galligan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of perceived social support among older adults living with HIV and AIDS in Dublin. METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from 46 adults aged 50 years or older who are members of open heart house (OHH) in Ireland, a peer support network for people living with HIV and AIDS. Participants completed a set of interviewer-assisted questionnaires, which included the multidimensional measure of perceived social support (PSS) to assess the level of social support...
2016: SpringerPlus
Karen Biggs, Jennifer Walsh, Catriona Ooi
Background: The Deadly Liver Mob project (DLM) is an incentive-based, peer-driven health promotion intervention for Aboriginal people, focusing on hepatitis C and offering education and screening for sexually transmissible infections (STI) and blood-borne viruses (BBV). This study aims to assess the DLM effect on attendance and STI/BBV screening, describe BBV risk factors and report infection rates among Aboriginal people attending Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC). Methods: A retrospective review of Aboriginal clients during the first year of the DLM project was compared with Aboriginal clients who attended during the 5...
July 4, 2016: Sexual Health
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