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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081036/one-year-mortality-of-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-susceptible-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-western-europe-and-latin-america
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS: One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#2
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been characterized by high genetic multiplicity, suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing(SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence(IDU.CON). All the T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC, and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
January 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048513/su-c-202-07-protocol-and-hardware-for-improved-flood-field-calibration-of-truebeam-fff-cine-imaging
#3
J Adamson, A Faught, F Yin
PURPOSE: Flattening filter free photon energies are commonly used for high dose treatments such as SBRT, where localization accuracy is essential. Often, MV cine imaging may be employed to verify correct localization. TrueBeam Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) equipped with the 40×30cm(2) Image Detection Unit (IDU) are prone to image saturation at the image center especially for higher dose rates. While saturation often does not occur for cine imaging during treatment because the beam is attenuated by the patient, the flood field calibration is affected when the standard calibration procedure is followed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046573/su-f-t-283-a-novel-device-to-enable-portal-dosimetry-for-flattening-filter-free-beams
#4
A Faught, Q Wu, J Adamson
PURPOSE: Varian's electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based portal dosimetry tool is a popular and effective means of performing IMRT QA. EPIDs for older models of the TrueBeam accelerator utilize a 40cmx30cm Image Detection Unit (IDU) that saturates at the center for standard source to imager distances with high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) beams. This makes portal dosimetry not possible and an alternative means of IMRT QA necessary. We developed a filter that would attenuate the beam to a dose rate measureable by the IDU for portal dosimetry IMRT QA...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033700/brucellosis-with-multi-organ-involvement-in-a-patient-with-history-of-composite-aortic-graft-and-hepatitis-b
#5
Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Omid Rezahosseini, Zahra Abdi Liaei
The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant...
November 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012010/assessment-of-hcv-genotypes-in-yunnan-province-of-southwest-china
#6
Qiongfen Li, Yufeng Yao, Yunsong Shen, Danfeng Cao, Yalin Li, Shuqiong Zhang, Wei Cun, Mingbo Sun, Jiankun Yu, Li Shi, Shaozhong Dong
Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population...
December 23, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005477/correlates-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-targeted-testing-program-of-the-new-york-city-jail-system
#7
Matthew J Akiyama, Fatos Kaba, Zachary Rosner, Howard Alper, Aimee Kopolow, Alain H Litwin, Homer Venters, Ross MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positivity in a large urban jail system in New York City. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and HCV antibody prevalence among 10 790 jail inmates aged 16 to 86 who were screened from June 13, 2013, to June 13, 2014, based on birth cohort or conventional high-risk criteria. We used logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of HCV antibody positivity...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976495/detection-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#8
Yuri Kawashima, Nahomi Yamaguchi, Rie Teshima, Hisashi Narahara, Yoshio Yamaoka, Hirofumi Anai, Yoshihiro Nishida, Katsuhiro Hanada
A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions because unrepaired DSBs cause chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Although many physiological DSBs occur at DNA replication sites, the molecular mechanisms underlying this remain poorly understood. There was therefore a need to develop a highly specific method to detect DSB fragments containing DNA replication sites. Here we investigated whether pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) combined with visualization of DNA replication sites by immunoblotting using halogenized deoxyuridines, such as BrdU and IdU, was sufficient for this detection...
December 15, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916216/endocarditis-as-a-marker-for-new-epidemics-of-injection-drug-use
#9
Susana Williams Keeshin, Judith Feinberg
BACKGROUND: We examined discharges for infective endocarditis (IE) at an academic teaching hospital for over 10 years to evaluate if an increase in hospitalizations for IE and increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with IE could predict a new epidemic of injection drug use (IDU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of discharged patients with the diagnosis of IE as defined by the modified Duke criteria. Student's t test, chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to calculate P values...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916215/opiate-injection-associated-infective-endocarditis-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#10
Lauren Hartman, Erin Barnes, Laura Bachmann, Katherine Schafer, James Lovato, Daniel Clark Files
BACKGROUND: Opiate pain reliever (OPR) misuse by injection is increasing in the United States. Infective endocarditis (IE), a devastating complication of injection OPR use, has been understudied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of IE cases at an academic tertiary care hospital in North Carolina. Hospital admissions from 2009-2014 were screened for cases of definite IE. Subjects reporting injection drug use (IDU) were classified as IDU-IE, and compared to those without reported IDU, classified as No IDU-IE...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906018/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#11
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
November 15, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903359/-a-cohort-study-of-hiv-incidence-among-injecting-drug-users-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#12
Y C Yang, Z Y Jin, R H Tang, L Li, R H Ye, Y F Cao, S J Yang, S T Yao, S Duan, N He
Objective: To investigate the incidence rates of HIV among injection drug users (IDU) in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: We recruited 1 413 HIV-negative IDU attending drug rehabilitation centers and identified a further 1 830 potential participants from a historical database from 2004-2009 using the same criteria. Fingerprint recognition technology was used to confirm the identity of all participants. A total of 3 243 HIV-negative IDU were recruited by the end of 2015, of which 2 546 (78.5%) had been followed up at least once since the initial data collection and 697 (21...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903357/-comparative-study-on-the-hiv-epidemic-between-the-chinese-and-burmese-drug-users-in-drug-rehabilitation-places-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#13
R H Tang, Z M Zhang, Y C Yang, K D Feng, S J Yang, J N Zhang, R H Ye, M F Qiu, S Duan
Objective: To compare the prevalence of HIV infection and its risk factors among Chinese and Burmese drug users living in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: We obtained plasma specimens and gathered demographic data from 7 867 drug users with Chinese or Burmese nationality attending rehabilitation clinics in Dehong Prefecture from October 2014 to September 2015. Of these, 7 756 individuals who gave valid questionnaire responses, including 5 389 Chinese and 2 367 Burmese, were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891160/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#14
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855325/-not-human-dead-already-perceptions-and-experiences-of-drug-related-stigma-among-opioid-using-young-adults-from-the-former-soviet-union-living-in-the-u-s
#15
Alana Gunn, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. METHODS: This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder...
December 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816251/the-relationships-of-childhood-trauma-and-adulthood-prescription-pain-reliever-misuse-and-injection-drug-use
#16
Kelly Quinn, Lauren Boone, Joy D Scheidell, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Susan P McGorray, Nisha Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: We examined associations between childhood trauma and adulthood prescription pain reliever misuse (PPRM) and injection drug use (IDU) in a nationally-representative U.S. sample to further understanding of factors associated with these epidemics. METHODS: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data (N=12,288) yielded nine childhood traumas: neglect; emotional, physical, sexual abuse; parental incarceration and binge drinking; witnessed, threatened with, and experienced violence...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800528/increasing-infectious-endocarditis-admissions-among-young-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Alysse G Wurcel, Jordan E Anderson, Kenneth K H Chui, Sally Skinner, Tamsin A Knox, David R Snydman, Thomas J Stopka
People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for infective endocarditis (IE). Hospitalization rates related to misuse of prescription opioids and heroin have increased in recent years, but there are no recent investigations into rates of hospitalizations from injection drug use-related IE (IDU-IE). Using the Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) dataset, we found that the proportion of IE hospitalizations from IDU-IE increased from 7% to 12.1% between 2000 and 2013. Over this time period, we detected a significant increase in the percentages of IDU-IE hospitalizations among 15- to 34-year-olds (27...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763996/county-level-vulnerability-assessment-for-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infections-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-united-states
#18
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762596/phylogenetic-evidence-of-hiv-1-transmission-between-adult-and-adolescent-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua T Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari Kitahata, Katherine Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the United States. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
November 1, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761816/dna-fiber-spreading-assay-to-test-hdaci-effects-on-dna-and-its-replication
#20
Teodora Nikolova, Anja Göder, Ann Parplys, Kerstin Borgmann
DNA fiber spreading assay is an invaluable technique to visualize and follow the spatial and temporal progress of individual DNA replication forks. It provides information on the DNA replication progress and its regulation under normal conditions as well as on replication stress induced by environmental genotoxic agents or cancer drugs. The method relies on the detection of incorporated thymidine analogues during DNA synthesis in the S phase of the cell cycle by indirect immunofluorescence. Here, we describe the procedure established in our laboratories for sequential pulse labeling of human cells with 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU), cell lysis, and DNA fiber spreading on slides and sequential immunodetection of the incorporated thymidine analogues by primary antibodies recognizing specifically CldU or IdU alone...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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