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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#1
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334549/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-provision-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Rui Fu, Douglas K Owens, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP. DESIGN: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV infections averted, discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333664/increased-non-fatal-overdose-risk-associated-with-involuntary-drug-treatment-in-a-longitudinal-study-with-people-who-inject-drugs
#3
Claudia Rafful, Ricardo Orozco, Gudelia Rangel, Peter Davidson, Dan Werb, Leo Beletsky, Steffanie A Strathdee
AIM: To assess the effect of involuntary drug treatment (IDT) on non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Tijuana, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: Baseline sample of 671 PWID included 258 (38.4%) women and 413 (61.6%) men. MEASUREMENTS: Primary independent variables were reported recent (i.e., past 6 months) non-fatal overdose event (dependent variable) and IDT...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317673/the-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#4
Sarwat Mahmud, Vajiheh Akbarzadeh, Laith J Abu-Raddad
The aim of this study was to characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Iran and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations. We systematically reviewed and synthesized reports of HCV incidence and/or prevalence, as informed by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, and reported our findings following the PRISMA guidelines. DerSimonian-Laird random effects meta-analyses were implemented to estimate HCV prevalence in various risk populations. We identified five HCV incidence and 472 HCV prevalence measures...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316523/gender-and-race-as-correlates-of-high-risk-sex-behaviors-among-injection-drug-users-at-risk-for-hiv-enrolled-in-the-hptn-037-study
#5
Mandy J Hill, Michael Holt, Brett Hanscom, Zhe Wang, Marylou Cardenas-Turanzas, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Sexual contact has been shown to be a major mode of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study examined gender and racial differences among PWID' sexual risk behaviors from the perspective of sexual scripts. METHODS: 696 PWID enrolled from Philadelphia on HPTN 037 were classified as engaging in high-risk sex behaviors if they reported having sex in the past 30 days and condomless sex with a non-primary partner, giving/receiving sex for money, or multiple partners...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316030/understanding-and-addressing-hepatitis-c-reinfection-in-the-oral-direct-acting-antiviral-era
#6
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Mark S Sulkowski, Alana Merkow, Carl Latkin, Shruti H Mehta
The availability of effective, simple, well tolerated oral direct acting antiviral (DAA) hepatitis C regimens have raised optimism for HCV elimination at the population level. HCV reinfection in key populations such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) however threatens the achievement of this goal both from a patient, provider and population perspective. The goal of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of estimated rates and factors associated with HCV reinfection...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316001/directly-observed-therapy-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-people-who-inject-drugs-at-risk-for-non-adherence-to-direct-acting-antivirals
#7
Angelika Schütz, Stephan Moser, Cornelia Schwanke, Raphael Schubert, Julian Luhn, Enisa Gutic, Tobias Lang, Michael Schleicher, Hans Haltmayer, Michael Gschwantler
An important subgroup of people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT), cannot be treated in the setting of a hepatology center and would not regularly ingest their medication when handed to them for self-administration. Our hypothesis was that chronic hepatitis C in these patients could be ideally managed if modern, interferon-free regimens were administered together with OAT under direct observation of a physician or nurse at a low-threshold facility. In this open-label, non-interventional, proof-of-concept study (ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310928/sofosbuvir-and-velpatasvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-people-with-recent-injection-drug-use-simplify-an-open-label-single-arm-phase-4-multicentre-trial
#8
Jason Grebely, Olav Dalgard, Brian Conway, Evan B Cunningham, Philip Bruggmann, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Janaki Amin, Julie Bruneau, Margaret Hellard, Alain H Litwin, Philippa Marks, Sophie Quiene, Sharmila Siriragavan, Tanya L Applegate, Tracy Swan, Jude Byrne, Melanie Lacalamita, Adrian Dunlop, Gail V Matthews, Jeff Powis, David Shaw, Maria Christine Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Ian Kronborg, Curtis Cooper, Jordan J Feld, Chris Fraser, John F Dillon, Phillip Read, Ed Gane, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND: Despite revised guidelines that no longer exclude people who inject drugs (PWID) from treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, many clinicians are reluctant to treat recent PWID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir therapy in people with chronic HCV infection and recent injection drug use. METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm phase 4 trial (SIMPLIFY), we recruited participants with recent injection drug use (past 6 months) and chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection from seven countries (19 sites)...
January 5, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306786/differences-in-risk-behaviours-and-hiv-status-between-primary-amphetamines-and-opioid-injectors-in-estonia-and-russia
#9
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Lucy Platt, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) account for over half of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia, where opioids continue to be the dominant illicit drugs injected. Stimulants including amphetamines (ATS) have been associated with HIV infection risk in several settings. We sought to examine whether primary ATS injection was associated with greater HIV risk, compared to opioid injection in two European locales with significant HIV epidemics. METHODS: PWID in Kohtla-Järve and St...
January 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305727/using-population-based-hospitalization-data-to-monitor-increases-in-conditions-causing-morbidity-among-persons-who-inject-drugs
#10
Melissa G Collier, Mona Doshani, Alice Asher
Epidemics of opioid use and injection drug use (IDU) are associated with an increase in HIV and viral hepatitis infections and overdose deaths in the United States. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are also at risk for serious infections caused by skin organisms introduced via IDU. We examined National Inpatient Sample hospital discharge data to determine trends in three serious infectious disease-associated conditions that primarily affect PWID in addition to HIV and viral hepatitis: infective endocarditis (IE), central nervous system (CNS) abscesses, and osteomyelitis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300496/hepcare-europe-bridging-the-gap-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-study-protocol
#11
Davina Swan, Walter Cullen, Juan Macias, Cristiana Oprea, Alistair Story, Julian Surey, Peter Vickerman, John S Lambert
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID). Many PWID are unaware of their infection and few have received HCV treatment. Recent developments in treatment offer cure rates >90%. However, the potential of these treatments will only be realised if HCV identification among PWID with linkage to treatment is optimised. This paper describes the Hepcare Europe project, a collaboration between five institutions across four member states (Ireland, UK, Spain, Romania), to develop, implement and evaluate interventions to improve the identification, evaluation and treatment of HCV among PWID...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288913/the-association-between-neighborhood-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-high-risk-injection-behavior-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
Jennifer DeCuir, Gina S Lovasi, Abdulrahman El-Sayed, Crystal Fuller Lewis
BACKGROUND: Although much research has been conducted on the determinants of HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID), the influence of the neighborhood context on high-risk injection behavior remains understudied. To address this gap in the literature, we measured associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and high-risk injection behavior, and determined whether these associations were modified by drug-related police activity and syringe exchange program (SEP) accessibility...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281807/spore-forming-bacteria-infections-and-people-who-inject-drugs-implications-for-harm-reduction
#13
Karen Dunleavy, Alison Munro, Kirsty Roy, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Tony Knox, David Goldberg, Vivian Hope, John Campbell, Emma Hamilton, David Liddell, Gillian Penrice, Avril Taylor
BACKGROUND: There is no research on public health interventions that alert people who inject drugs (PWID) to clusters/outbreaks of severe bacterial infections. In Scotland, during the botulism cluster/outbreak of Dec 2014-July 2015 harm reduction (HR) messages detailed on a postcard (Botulism Postcard) were distributed to PWID between Feb-April 2015. We examined the impact of the Botulism Postcard on cluster/outbreak awareness, healthcare seeking and HR behaviours among PWID; and their views on such clusters/outbreaks...
December 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274408/modelling-the-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-as-a-public-health-threat-in-iceland-a-goal-attainable-by-2020
#14
Nick Scott, Sigurður Ólafsson, Magnús Gottfreðsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Valgerdur Rúnarsdóttir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez, Guðrún Sigmundsdóttir, Margaret Hellard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Iceland a nationwide program has been launched offering direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for everyone living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We estimate (1) the time and treatment scale-up required to achieve the World Health Organization's HCV elimination target of an 80% reduction in incidence; and (2) the ongoing frequency of HCV testing and harm reduction coverage among people who inject drugs (PWID) required to minimize the likelihood of future HCV outbreaks occurring...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251281/-cobatest-network-users-characteristics-of-community-based-voluntary-counselling-and-testing-centres-in-spain
#15
Josep Ribas Baltrons, Laura Fernàndez-López, Jordi Casabona I Barbarà
OBJECTIVE: The COBATEST network (European network of community-based voluntary, counselling and testing centers) allows standardized collection of information to monitor HIV testing at these centers. The objective was to describe the performance of the Spanish centers of the COBATEST network and the epidemiological profile of its users, and to analyze the factors associated with having an earlier HIV test. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of the data collected in the 19 Spanish centers that used the common information collection tools during the year 2015...
December 18, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#16
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227881/experiences-with-compulsory-drug-detention-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#17
Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. METHODS: Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227878/harm-reduction-based-and-peer-supported-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-georgia
#18
Tamar Kikvidze, Niklas Luhmann, Elisabeth Avril, Maia Butsashvili, Konstantine Labartkava, Aurélie Etienne, Diane Le Pluart, Ina Inaridze, Ana Gamezardashvili, David Kharshiladze, Julie Bouscaillou
BACKGROUNDS: Georgia faces high HCV rates (5.4% of chronic cases in general population) with an epidemic concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID). A National HCV Elimination Program (NHCEP), was launched in April 2015, aiming to eliminate HCV by 2020. To succeed, this program must develop tailored interventions to enroll PWID in treatment. INTERVENTION: We implemented a pilot intervention to facilitate access to and retention of PWID in the NHCEP, and to prevent reinfection after treatment...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#19
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208190/preventing-blood-borne-virus-infection-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-uk-systematic-review-stakeholder-interviews-psychosocial-intervention-development-and-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, Noreen Mdege, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: Opioid substitution therapy and needle exchanges have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBVs) among people who inject drugs (PWID). Some PWID continue to share injecting equipment. OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention to reduce BBV risk behaviours and increase transmission knowledge among PWID, and conduct a feasibility trial among PWID comparing the intervention with a control. DESIGN: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility trial...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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