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Charles Henderson, Annie Madden, Jenny Kelsall
This commentary seeks to examine the role, value and importance of peer-based programmatic approaches for ensuring the effective roll-out of the new hepatitis C (HCV) treatments among those most affected - that is, people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors examine recent approaches to HCV treatment in Australia including the provision of universal access to the new DAA regimens regardless of acquisition, genotype or severity of disease. These approaches are contextualised within wider global strategies to support HCV elimination as a public health threat by 2030 (WHO, 2016)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort, Christina Powers, Helen Cheng, Andrea M Lopez, Robert O Murdoch, Torsten B Neilands, Jennifer Lorvick
Engaging highly marginalized HIV positive people in sustained medical care is vital for optimized health and prevention efforts. Prior studies have found that strengths-based case management helps link people who use drugs to HIV care. We conducted a pilot to assess whether a strengths-based case management intervention may help people who use injection drugs (PWID) or smoke crack cocaine (PWSC) achieve undetectable HIV viral load. PWID and PWSC were recruited in Oakland, California using targeted sampling methods and referral from jails and were tested for HIV...
September 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Yasir Waheed, Muzammil Hasan Najmi, Hafsa Aziz, Hasnain Waheed, Muhammad Imran, Sher Zaman Safi
Pakistan has the second highest burden of hepatitis C (HCV) in the world. The major route of HCV transmission is contaminated blood or needle sharing. Seventy percent of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) shared needles at some time in their addiction history. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV in PWIDs in cities of Pakistan. We enrolled 100 PWIDs from the Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken in collection tubes and were subjected to HCV screening by using three rapid HCV screening kits including one step anti-HCV test, onsite HCV Ab rapid test and advance quality rapid anti-HCV test...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
Alice Zhang, Xin Pan, Feng Wu, Yang Zhao, Fengyu Hu, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Joseph D Tucker
Much HIV cure social science research has focused on high-income countries. Local key population perspectives, especially from people living with HIV (PLHIV), are needed in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). We organized an open contest soliciting responses from key populations, including PLHIV, about what a cure would mean in their lives. Tailored in-person events and social media were used to engage PLHIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and local residents. We received 471 contributions over four months...
September 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: To estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency)...
September 11, 2017: Addiction
Courtney von Hippel, Loren Brener, Robyn Horwitz
INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs (PWID) are stigmatized by society. Over time people may begin to internalize the stigma about their group. This research examines how implicit and explicit internalized stigma among PWID relates to health care and treatment access, psychosocial functioning, and engagement in risky behaviors. METHODS: PWID were recruited from a needle and syringe program (NSP) located in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed a survey examining explicit and implicit internalized stigma, risky behaviors (e...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau, Philip Bruggmann, Magdalena Harris, Matthew Hickman, Tim Rhodes, Carla Treloar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Will Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a mainstay for treating opioid use disorder and preventing and managing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). While previous research suggested low dosing of methadone and high rates of discontinuation of MMT among PWID in Thailand, little is known about patients' lived experiences with MMT in this setting. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-methods study to examine barriers to retention in MMT among PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, with particular attention to methadone dosing...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
N A Blackburn, K E Lancaster, T V Ha, C A Latkin, W C Miller, C Frangakis, V A Chu, T Sripaipan, V M Quan, N L Minh, P T Vu, V F Go
BACKGROUND: Persons who use opioids have a high risk of overdose and associated mortality. In Vietnam, little is known about the characteristics of this population and the persons who are witness to those overdoses. One approach to combatting fatal overdose has been the use of peer interventions in which a friend or injecting partner administers overdose reversal medication, but availability in Vietnam of these medications is limited to pilot programs with aims to expand in the future (Le Minh and V...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Dane Hautala, Roberto Abadie, Courtney Thrash, Juan Carlos Reyes, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) in Puerto Rico engage in high levels of injection and sexual risk behavior, and they are at high risk for HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) infection, relative to their US counterparts. Less is known, however, about the clustering of risk behavior conducive to HIV and HCV infection among rural Puerto Rican communities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent injection and sexual risk subtypes among a rural sample of PWID in Puerto Rico...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Basmattee Boodram, Anna L Hotton, Louis Shekhtman, Alexander Gutfraind, Harel Dahari
Young people in the USA who inject drugs, particularly those at a risk of residence instability, experience the highest incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infections. This study examined associations between geographic mobility patterns and sociodemographic, behavioral, and social network characteristics of 164 young (ages 18-30) persons who inject drugs (PWID). We identified a potential bridge sub-population who reported residence in both urban and suburban areas in the past year (crossover transients) and higher-risk behaviors (receptive syringe sharing, multiple sex partners) compared to their residentially localized counterparts...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Sarah Ickowicz, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Paul Nguyen, Will Small, Thomas Kerr, Julio S G Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: and Aims Injecting illicit drugs in public settings has been linked to a higher risk of a range of drug-related harms, including overdose and HIV infection. However, the factors associated with public injecting among HIV-positive individuals have not been previously explored. We investigated the links between public drug injecting, drug-related harm, and HIV treatment measures among a cohort of HIV-positive persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a Canadian setting. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWID recruited from community settings in Vancouver, Canada, linked to comprehensive clinical monitoring data in the context of an ongoing Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) initiative to examine harms associated with public injecting...
August 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Joanne R Winter, Helen R Stagg, Colette J Smith, Alison E Brown, Maeve K Lalor, Marc Lipman, Anton Pozniak, Andrew Skingsley, Peter Kirwan, Zheng Yin, H Lucy Thomas, Valerie Delpech, Ibrahim Abubakar
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is common in people living with HIV (PLHIV), leading to worse clinical outcomes including increased mortality. We investigated risk factors for developing TB following HIV diagnosis. DESIGN: Adults aged ≥15 years first presenting to health services for HIV care in England, Wales or Northern Ireland from 2000-2014 were identified from national HIV surveillance data and linked to TB surveillance data. METHODS: We calculated incidence rates for TB occurring >91 days after HIV diagnosis and investigated risk factors using multivariable Poisson regression...
August 28, 2017: AIDS
Pham Minh Khue, Nguyen Thi Tham, Dinh Thi Thanh Mai, Pham Van Thuc, Vu Minh Thuc, Pham Van Han, Christina Lindan
BACKGROUND: Vietnam began providing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in 2008; as of June 2016, 44,479 persons who inject drugs (PWID) were in treatment in 57 provinces. However, 10-23% of patients were estimated to have dropped out of treatment during the first 2 years. We evaluated dropout and factors associated with quitting treatment. METHODS: We followed clients ≥ 18 years old enrolled in five MMT clinics in Haiphong for 3 years. Persons who missed a consecutive month of methadone treatment were considered to have dropped out and were not allowed to return; those who missed greater than five consecutive doses were considered to be non-compliant but were allowed to restart treatment at their initial dose...
August 30, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Y N Yao, S J Yang, Q X Wang, G Yu, Q Liao, L Xiao, Y H Gong, K Wang, S H Zhang, W W Zhai, J X Zhang, J Wang, S C Bian, Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic and behavioral characteristics of HIV among community population in Liangshan prefecture. Methods: We collected social demographic, behavioral and serological information by means of the monitoring questionnaire and serological tests. Data was analyzed by using the chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: From April to June of 2010 to 2015, 14 092 cases of community population were selected as the study objects, with 267 cases diagnosed as HIV positive patients...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Jason Grebely, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Gregory J Dore
Globally, 12 million people are estimated to have injected drugs in the past year, 50% of whom have chronic HCV infection, with people who have previously injected drugs presenting an additional large reservoir of infection. The availability of simple and tolerable interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV infection, which have a cure rate of >95% represents one of the most exciting advances in clinical medicine in the past few decades. Adherence and response to DAA therapy among people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in clinical trials are comparable to populations without a history of injecting drugs...
August 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Oliver Hohn, Stephen Norley, Claudia Kücherer, Ali Bazarbachi, Hiba El Hajj, Ulrich Marcus, Ruth Zimmermann, Norbert Bannert
BACKGROUND: Although human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is transmitted via the same routes as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its worldwide seroprevalence differs drastically because HTLV is transmitted mainly via infected cells rather than free virus. The sharing of needles and other equipment places people who inject drugs (PWID) at particularly high-risk for such blood-borne diseases. METHODS: To validate the methodology used to process and analyze the dried blood spots (DBS) utilized in the study, dried serum spots (DSS) with dilutions of sera from known HTLV infected individuals were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot...
2017: PloS One
Charles W Helsper, Mart P Janssen, Gerrit A van Essen, Esther A Croes, Clary van der Veen, Ardine G de Wit, Niek J de Wit
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is a serious, but underdiagnosed disease that can generally be treated successfully. Therefore, a nationwide HCV awareness campaign was implemented in the Netherlands targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) in addiction care ('PWID intervention') and high-risk groups in the general population ('public intervention'). The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the interventions used in this campaign...
September 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Dhanya Nambiar, Mark Stoové, Matthew Hickman, Paul Dietze
OBJECTIVES: Injecting drug use is a persistent behaviour that increases the risk of morbidities and mortality. We assessed the burden of hospital separations among people who inject drugs (PWID), the excess compared to the general population and characteristics of separations associated with frequent use. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: All public and private hospitals in Victoria. PARTICIPANTS: 757 community-based PWID with hospital separations between January 2008 and June 2013 identified through record linkage, who contributed over 3729 person-years...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
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