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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#1
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345206/treatment-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-injecting-drug-users-a-prospective-study
#2
Lucio Boglione, Simone Mornese Pinna, Amedeo De Nicolò, Jessica Cusato, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
In this prospective study, we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of novel therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a cohort of PWID enrolled at our centre from April 2015 to July 2016. In this analysis, a total of 174 patients were included: 11 (6.3%) were treated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) containing regimens, 163 (93.7%) with IFN-free treatments. RBV has been used in 70 patients (40.2%); 59 (33.9%) patients were in opioid substitution therapy (OST) with methadone or buprenorphine...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337798/latent-classes-of-polydrug-and-polyroute-use-and-associations-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-risk-behaviours-and-overdose-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-baja-california-mexico
#3
Meredith C Meacham, Scott C Roesch, Steffanie A Strathdee, Suzanne Lindsay, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga, Tommi L Gaines
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735)...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336355/estimated-hiv-inter-test-interval-among-people-at-high-risk-for-hiv-infection-in-the-u-s
#4
Qian An, Ruiguang Song, Teresa J Finlayson, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the HIV testing frequency and its temporal changes are central to evaluate public adherence to HIV testing recommendations and performance of HIV prevention programs. This study intended to estimate the mean HIV inter-test interval (ITI) and monitor its trends among men who have sex with men (MSM); people who inject drugs (PWID); and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH). METHODS: Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data collected during 2008-2015, this analysis estimated the mean HIV ITI for each year by race/ethnicity and age among MSM, PWID, and HRH who reported the most recent HIV test date...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328550/injection-drug-network-characteristics-are-important-markers-of-hiv-risk-behavior-and-lack-of-viral-suppression
#5
Javier A Cepeda, Sunil S Solomon, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Allison M McFall, M Suresh Kumar, Canjeevaram K Vasudevan, Santhanam Anand, David D Celentano, Gregory M Lucas, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) who are highly connected within their injection drug networks may be important HIV transmission nodes if they frequently share syringes with other PWID and are not engaged in HIV care. In India, HIV transmission fueled by injection drug use is increasing, however little is known about the associations between injection network size and syringe sharing and viral suppression. METHODS: We recruited 14,481 PWID between October 2012 - December 2013 by respondent driven sampling across 15 sites in India...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323752/impact-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-on-the-hiv-prevention-benefit-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#6
Christinah Mukandavire, Andrea Low, Gitau Mburu, Adam Trickey, Margaret T May, Charlotte F Davies, Clare E French, Katharine J Looker, Tim Rhodes, Lucy Platt, Andy Guise, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman
OBJECTIVE: A recent meta-analysis suggested that opioid substitution therapy (OST) increased uptake of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and HIV viral suppression. We modelled whether OST could improve the HIV prevention benefit achieved by ART amongst people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We modelled how introducing OST could improve the coverage of ART across a PWID population for different baseline ART coverage levels. Using existing data on how yearly HIV-transmission risk is related to HIV plasma viral load, changes in the level of viral suppression across the population were used to project the relative reduction in yearly HIV-transmission risk achieved by ART, with or without OST, compared to if there was no ART - defined here as the prevention effectiveness of ART...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323507/heroin-and-methamphetamine-injection-an-emerging-drug-use-pattern
#7
Alia Al-Tayyib, Stephen Koester, Sig Langegger, Lisa Raville
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe an emerging drug use pattern characterized by injection of both methamphetamine and heroin. We examined differences in drug injection patterns by demographics, injection behaviors, HIV and HCV status, and overdose. METHODS: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in Denver, Colorado. We used chi-square statistics to assess differences between those who reported only heroin injection, only methamphetamine injection, and combined heroin and methamphetamine injection...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320406/the-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-a-brief-psychosocial-intervention-to-reduce-blood-borne-virus-risk-behaviours-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-randomised-control-feasibility-trial-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-the-protect-study-versus-treatment-as-usual
#8
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: While opiate substitution therapy and injecting equipment provision (IEP) have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), some PWID continue to share injecting equipment and acquire BBV. Psychosocial interventions that address risk behaviours could reduce BBV transmission among PWID. METHODS: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility study of PWID attending drug treatment or IEP in four UK regions. Ninety-nine PWID were randomly allocated to receive a three-session manualised psychosocial group intervention and BBV transmission information booklet plus treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 52) or information booklet plus TAU (n = 47)...
March 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319754/association-between-harm-reduction-intervention-uptake-and-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#9
Karen Dunleavy, Alison Munro, Kirsty Roy, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Tony Knox, David Goldberg, Avril Taylor
BACKGROUND: Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a health issue for people who inject drugs (PWID). There is a lack of evidence on the associations between harm reduction (HR) uptake and SSTIs. This paper examines the associations between the uptake of injecting equipment (IE) and opiate substitution treatment (OST) on SSTIs among PWID, and the injecting behaviours associated with having had an SSTI. This is the first large-scale, national study to examine the association between IE uptake and SSTIs...
March 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318343/enduring-consequences-from-the-war-on-drugs-how-policing-practices-impact-hiv-risk-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-baltimore-city
#10
Natalie Flath, Karin Tobin, Kelly King, Alexandra Lee, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood-level characteristics, including police activity, are associated with HIV and Hepatitis C injection risk-behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, the pathways through which these neighborhood perceptions shape individual-level HIV risk behaviors are unclear. This study helps to explain perceived behaviors between perceived neighborhood police activity and HIV injection risk behavior (i.e., injection syringe/tool sharing in the previous 6 months)...
March 20, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317210/epidemiology-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-infection-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-northeast-india-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#11
Allison M Mcfall, Sunil S Solomon, Greg M Lucas, David D Celentano, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S Kumar, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite extensive research on HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), there remains a gap in knowledge on the burden among women who inject drugs and their unique contexts and risk factors. This analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence in female and male PWID and estimates injection and sexual risk correlates of prevalent HIV and HCV infection among women in Northeast India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample accrued using respondent-driven sampling...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293974/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-updated-swedish-guidelines-2016
#12
Martin Lagging, Rune Wejstål, Gunnar Norkrans, Olle Karlström, Soo Aleman, Ola Weiland, Maria Castedal, Johan Westin
In a recent expert meeting, Swedish recommendations for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were updated. An interferon-free combination of direct-acting antiviral agents is considered and indicated for all patients with chronic HCV infection, but the ability to treat all is limited primarily by high cost of medication. The group of patients prioritized for therapeutic intervention has been extended to also include fertile women desiring to become pregnant. A more thorough discussion of treatment for people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in order to diminish transmission is included, and the clinical significance of baseline NS5A resistance associated variants (RAVs), also known as resistance associated substitutions (RASs), for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a or 3 infection is discussed...
March 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289783/estimating-the-risk-of-crime-and-victimisation-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-data-linkage-study
#13
Margaret Nixon, Stuart D M Thomas, Michael Daffern, James R P Ogloff
PURPOSE: People with intellectual disability (PWID) appear more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime. However, extant evidence pertaining to these risks is limited by methodological weaknesses and the absence of consistent operational definitions. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of criminal histories and victimisation using a large, well-defined sample of PWID. METHODS: A case-linkage study was conducted comprising 2220 PWID registered with disability services in Victoria, Australia, whose personal details were linked with a state-wide police database...
March 13, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284258/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-san-diego-california
#14
R F Armenta, K M Collins, S A Strathdee, M A Bulterys, F Munoz, J Cuevas-Mota, P Chiles, R S Garfein
BACKGROUND: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) might be at increased risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and reactivation of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) due to their injection drug use. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence and correlates of M. tuberculosis infection among PWID in San Diego, California, USA. METHODS: PWID aged 18 years underwent standardized interviews and serologic testing using an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for LTBI and rapid point-of-care assays for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271018/hepatitis-c-serosorting-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-puerto-rico
#15
Ian Duncan, Ric Curtis, Juan Carlos Reyes, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
Due to the high cost of treatment, preventative measures to limit Hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) are encouraged by many public health officials. A key one of these is serosorting, where PWID select risk partners based on concordant HCV status. Research on the general U.S. population by Smith et al. (2013) found that knowledge of one's own HCV status facilitated serosorting behaviors among PWID, such that respondents with knowledge of their own status were more likely to ask potential partners about their status prior to sharing risk...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257600/modelling-the-impact-of-incarceration-and-prison-based-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-treatment-on-hcv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-scotland
#16
Jack Stone, Natasha K Martin, Matthew Hickman, Sharon J Hutchinson, Esther Aspinall, Avril Taylor, Alison Munro, Karen Dunleavy, Erica Peters, Peter Bramley, Peter C Hayes, David J Goldberg, Peter Vickerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (< 6 months) PWID. We evaluated the contribution of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID and the impact of prison-related prevention interventions, including scaling-up direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in prison...
March 3, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242537/primary-healthcare-based-integrated-care-with-opioid-agonist-treatment-first-experience-from-ukraine
#17
Olga Morozova, Sergey Dvoriak, Iryna Pykalo, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's HIV epidemic is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), however, coverage with opioid agonist therapies (OATs) available mostly at specialty addiction clinics is extremely low. OAT integrated into primary healthcare clinics (PHCs) provides an opportunity for integrating comprehensive healthcare services and scaling up OAT. METHODS: A pilot study of PHC-based integrated care for drug users conducted in two Ukrainian cities between 2014 and 2016 included three sub-studies: 1) cross-sectional treatment site preference assessment among current OAT patients (N=755); 2) observational cohort of 107 PWID who continued the standard of care versus transition of stabilized and newly enrolled PWID into PHC-based integrated care; and 3) pre/post analysis of attitudes toward PWID and HIV patients by PHC staff (N=26)...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237054/onsite-treatment-of-hcv-infection-with-direct-acting-antivirals-within-an-opioid-treatment-program
#18
Jenna L Butner, Neil Gupta, Chris Fabian, Susan Henry, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault
With the advent of the direct acting antivirals (DAA), or all oral HCV treatment regimens, there exists a great opportunity to provide HCV treatment to people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in an opioid treatment program (OTP). This retrospective study conducted in the context of routine clinical care explores the outcomes of HCV treatment with DAAs in PWID enrolled in an OTP. Our study showed treatment outcomes among our first 75 patients treated with DAAs were nearly equivalent to patients in the general population...
April 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230562/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-individuals-with-a-history-of-injecting-drugs-in-spain-population-assessment-challenges-for-successful-treatment
#19
Carlos Roncero, Richard Littlewood, Pablo Vega, Jose Martinez-Raga, Marta Torrens
In Spain, there is a need to improve chronic hepatitis C care among people who inject drugs (PWID). Injecting drug use is an important risk behaviour for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Review of 28 sources of the relevant published literature mapped the size of the addiction-HCV population in Spain. Experts in opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment in Spain completed a consensus to define the population size, HCV prevalence and access or barriers to hepatitis C treatment for PWID populations. In Spain, over 300 000 individuals have a lifetime history of injecting drugs...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222681/the-need-for-treatment-scale-up-to-impact-hcv-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-montr%C3%A3-al-canada-a-modelling-study
#20
Anthony Cousien, Pascale Leclerc, Carole Morissette, Julie Bruneau, Élise Roy, Viet Chi Tran, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: HCV transmission remains high in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Montréal. New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and more tolerable than previous regimens, make a "Treatment as Prevention" (TasP) strategy more feasible. This study assesses how improvements in the cascade of care could impact hepatitis C burden among PWID in Montréal. METHODS: We used a dynamic model to simulate HCV incidence and prevalence after 10 years, and cirrhosis complications after 10 and 40 years...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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