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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166171/decomposition-of-economic-inequality-in-needle-and-syringe-programs-utilization-to-its-determinants-among-men-who-inject-drugs-in-tehran-using-blinder-oaxaca-decomposition-method
#1
Mehdi Noroozi, Ebrahim Rahimi, Hessam Ghisvand, Mostafa Qorbani, Hamid Sharifi, Alireza Noroozi, Ali Farhoudian, Brandon D L Marshall, Zahra Jorjoran Shoshtari, Salah Eddin Karimi, Omid Rezaei, Bahram Armoon
BACKGROUND: According to latest available data there are more of 300,000 people injects drug users (PWID) in Iran. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we used a Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition to explore the relative contributions of inequality in utilization of NSPs and to decompose it to its determinants in Teheran. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional survey using snowball sampling to recruit 500 PWID from June to July 2016 in Tehran. Participants were reported injecting drug use in the past month, were able to speak and comprehend Farsi enough to respond to survey questions, and were able to provide informed consent to complete the interview...
November 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166134/injection-partners-hcv-and-hiv-status-among-rural-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#2
Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Juan Carlos Reyes, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and the ability of these diseases to spread through injection networks are well documented in urban areas. However, less is known about injection behaviors in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the association between the number of self-reported injection partners with the PWID's self-reported HCV and HIV status. Injection networks provide paths for infection and information to flow, and are important to consider when developing prevention and intervention strategies...
November 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165088/detailed-molecular-surveillance-of-the-hiv-1-outbreak-among-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-athens-during-a-period-of-four-years
#3
Evangelia Kostaki, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Mina Psichogiou, Andreas Flampouris, Panos Iliopoulos, Eleni Papachristou, Georgios L Daikos, Stefanos Bonovas, Dan Otelea, Samuel R Friedman, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
BACKGROUND: New diagnoses of HIV-1 infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) increased significantly during 2011 in Athens. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the patterns of HIV epidemic spread among PWID and to estimate the transmission dynamics for the major local transmission networks (LTNs). METHOD: We analyzed sequences from 2,274 HIV-infected subjects sampled in Greece during 01/01/2011-31/10/2014. Of specimens in our sample, 874 sequences were isolated from HIV-infected PWID...
November 19, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153491/measures-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-community-viral-load-and-hiv-incidence-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#4
Cristie Glasheen, Eric O Johnson, Jennifer Lorvick, Alex H Kral
PURPOSE: To evaluate the measures of community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and the association with HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Data were from 1986 to 1999 Urban Health Study conducted among PWID in the San Francisco Bay Area. Extant measures of community VL use mean VL among HIV + study participants, not accounting for the proportion of HIV- individuals. We compared the strength of the associations between HIV incidence and the traditionally measured mean community VL and a new prevalence-adjusted community VL, calculated by dividing the sum of VL among HIV + participants by the total participants irrespective of HIV status...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145741/a-cohort-approach-to-real-time-detection-of-acute-hiv-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-st-petersburg-russia
#5
Olga Toussova, Andrei Kozlov, Sergei Verevochkin, Kathryn Lancaster, Alla Shaboltas, Alexey Masharsky, Elena Dukhovlinova, William C Miller, Irving Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: To detect acute HIV infections (AHI) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 100 seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12 month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143673/the-heptestcontest-a-global-innovation-contest-to-identify-approaches-to-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing
#7
Joseph D Tucker, Kathrine Meyers, John Best, Karyn Kaplan, Razia Pendse, Kevin A Fenton, Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer, Carmen Figueroa, Pedro Goicochea, Charles Gore, Azumi Ishizaki, Giten Khwairakpam, Veronica Miller, Antons Mozalevskis, Michael Ninburg, Ponsiano Ocama, Rosanna Peeling, Nick Walsh, Massimo G Colombo, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129191/alcohol-use-disorders-are-associated-with-increased-hiv-risk-behaviors-in-cocaine-dependent-methadone-patients
#8
Steven E Meredith, Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry
People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although methadone maintenance therapy can help lower this risk, many methadone patients continue to engage in HIV risk behaviors, especially patients who use cocaine and alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to investigate relations between alcohol use disorders and HIV risk behavior in 239 cocaine-dependent methadone patients participating in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to promote cocaine abstinence...
December 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120012/hepatitis-c-virus-dynamics-among-intravenous-drug-users-suggest-that-an-annual-treatment-uptake-above-10-would-eliminate-the-disease-by-2030
#9
Philip Bruggmann, Sarah Blach, Pierre Deltenre, Jan Fehr, Roger Kouyos, Daniel Lavanchy, Beat Müllhaupt, Andri Rauch, Homie Razavi, Patrick Schmid, David Semela, Marcel Stoeckle, Franco Negro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Switzerland, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been decreasing owing to active harm reduction efforts and an aging population. Recent advances in HCV therapeutics may provide an opportunity to direct treatment to high-risk populations, with a goal of reducing HCV prevalence and preventing new infections. In order to guide these efforts, the current project was undertaken with the following aims: (1) to develop a simple model to estimate the number of new HCV infections using available data on PWID; (2) to examine the impact of intervention strategies (prevention and treatment) on new and total HCV infections among PWID...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116684/disparities-in-direct-acting-antivirals-uptake-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-co-infected-populations-in-canada
#10
Sahar Saeed, Erin C Strumpf, Erica Em Moodie, Jim Young, Roy Nitulescu, Joseph Cox, Alexander Wong, Sharon Walmsely, Curtis Cooper, Marie-Lousie Vachon, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Mark Hull, Brian Conway, Marina B Klein
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C (HCV) treatment with >90% cure rates even in real-world studies, giving hope that HCV can be eliminated. However, for DAAs to have a population-level impact on the burden of HCV disease, treatment uptake needs to be expanded. We investigated temporal trends in HCV treatment uptake and evaluated factors associated with second-generation DAA initiation and efficacy among key HIV-HCV co-infected populations in Canada...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112294/internal-funding-required-to-improve-hiv-care
#11
Hannah Brownstein, Peter Higgs
In their recent review, O'Keefe et al. (2017) describe the ways in which people who inject drugs (PWID) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are confronted with particular challenges compared to PWID in upper-middle-income countries, including the increased risk of HIV and hepatitis C, greater stigma and discrimination, and greater interaction with the justice system.(1) To help manage the HIV burden among PWID and to help strengthen the public health responses to injecting drug use, LMICs have relied on substantial funding from international donors (PEPFAR, World Bank, DFID, and Global Fund)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105519/staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-and-endocarditis-epidemiology-and-outcome-a-review
#12
Hilmir Asgeirsson, Anders Thalme, Ola Weiland
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and endocarditis (SAE), and discuss the short- and long-term outcome.  Materials and methods: A literature review of the epidemiology of SAB and SAE. RESULTS: The reported incidence of SAB in Western countries is 16-41/100,000 person-years. Increasing incidence has been observed in many regions, in Iceland by 27% during 1995-2008. The increase is believed to depend on changes in population risk factors and possibly better and more frequent utilization of diagnostic procedures...
November 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103277/decomposing-economic-disparities-in-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tehran-blinder-oaxaca-decomposition-analysis
#13
Mehdi Noroozi, Hamid Sharifi, Alireza Noroozi, Fatemah Rezaei, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Bahram Armoon
Objectives: To our knowledge, no study yet has assessed systematically the role of economic status on risky sexual behavior among people who inject drugs(PWID) in Iran. In this study,we used a Blinder-Oaxaca (BO)decomposition to explore the relative contributions of inequality in unprotected sex and to decompose it to its determinants among PWID in Tehran. Methods: Behavioral surveys among PWID were conducted in Tehran the capital city of Iran from November 2016 to April 2017...
November 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097248/a-large-proportion-of-people-who-inject-drugs-are-susceptible-to-hepatitis-b-results-from-a-bio-behavioural-study-in-eight-german-cities
#14
J M Haussig, S Nielsen, M Gassowski, V Bremer, U Marcus, B Wenz, N Bannert, C T Bock, R Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by sharing needles and drug use paraphernalia. In Germany, no routine surveillance of HBV prevalence and vaccination coverage among PWID exists. METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioural data were collected between 2011 and 2014 through face-to-face interviews, during a bio-behavioural survey of PWID recruited in eight German cities. Dried blood spots (DBS) prepared with capillary blood were tested for HBV markers...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096661/willingness-to-receive-intravenous-buprenorphine-treatment-in-opioid-dependent-people-refractory-to-oral-opioid-maintenance-treatment-results-from-a-community-based-survey-in-france
#15
Perrine Roux, Daniela Rojas Castro, Khadim Ndiaye, Laélia Briand Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan, Stéphane Morel, Bruno Spire, Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND: Injectable opioids are an interesting option for people who inject drugs (PWID) that do not respond to oral Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT). To date, intravenous (IV) buprenorphine - a safer drug than full-opioid agonists in terms of overdose risk - has never been tested in a clinical trial on opioid dependence. We designed a survey to better understand the profile of PWID eligible for IV buprenorphine, and their willingness to receive it. METHODS: This cross-sectional community-based national survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews (in low-threshold and addiction care services) and online questionnaires (on https://psychoactif...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095866/using-data-from-respondent-driven-sampling-studies-to-estimate-the-number-of-people-who-inject-drugs-application-to-the-kohtla-j%C3%A3-rve-region-of-estonia
#16
Jiacheng Wu, Forrest W Crawford, Mait Raag, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla
Estimating the size of key risk populations is essential for determining the resources needed to implement effective public health intervention programs. Several standard methods for population size estimation exist, but the statistical and practical assumptions required for their use may not be met when applied to HIV risk groups. We apply three approaches to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia using data from a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study: the standard "multiplier" estimate gives 654 people (95% CI 509-804), the "successive sampling" method gives estimates between 600 and 2500 people, and a network-based estimate that uses the RDS recruitment chain gives between 700 and 2800 people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080808/model-projections-on-the-impact-of-hcv-treatment-in-the-prevention-of-hcv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-europe
#17
Hannah Fraser, Natasha K Martin, Henrikki Brummer-Korvenkontio, Patrizia Carrieri, Olav Dalgard, John Dillon, David Goldberg, Sharon Hutchinson, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Martin Kåberg, Amy A Matser, Mojca Matičič, Havard Midgard, Viktor Mravcik, Anne Øvrehus, Maria Prins, Jens Reimer, Geert Robaeys, Bernd Schulte, Daniela K van Santen, Ruth Zimmermann, Peter Vickerman, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical to eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimate impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (NSP) across Europe over the next 10 years. METHODS: We collected data on PWID HCV treatment rates, PWID prevalence, HCV prevalence, OST and NSP coverage from 11 European settings...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074410/global-regional-and-country-level-coverage-of-interventions-to-prevent-and-manage-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#18
Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Janni Leung, Samantha Colledge, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman, Jason Grebely, Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Paul Griffiths, Lindsey Hines, Evan B Cunningham, Richard P Mattick, Michael Lynskey, John Marsden, John Strang, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by the global HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics. HIV and HCV prevention interventions for PWID include needle and syringe programmes (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HIV counselling and testing, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom distribution programmes. We aimed to produce country-level, regional, and global estimates of coverage of NSP, OST, HIV testing, ART, and condom programmes for PWID...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074409/global-prevalence-of-injecting-drug-use-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-people-who-inject-drugs-a-multistage-systematic-review
#19
Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Samantha Colledge, Janni Leung, Jason Grebely, Peter Vickerman, Jack Stone, Evan B Cunningham, Adam Trickey, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Michael Lynskey, Paul Griffiths, Richard P Mattick, Matthew Hickman, Sarah Larney
BACKGROUND: Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject drugs (PWID); and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID. METHODS: Consistent with the GATHER and PRISMA guidelines and without language restrictions, we systematically searched peer-reviewed databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO; articles published since 2008, latest searches in June, 2017), searched the grey literature (websites and databases, searches between April and August, 2016), and disseminated data requests to international experts and agencies (requests sent in October, 2016)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065391/rural-and-urban-comparisons-of-polysubstance-use-profiles-and-associated-injection-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#20
Dane Hautala, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to urban populations, little is known about polysubstance use among rural people who inject drugs (PWID), particularly in Puerto Rico where injection drug use and related health consequences are prevalent. The aim of the study is to compare injection and non-injection substance use profiles among separate urban and rural samples of Puerto Rican PWID. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for the urban sample come from 455 PWID who participated in the CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug use in San Juan...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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