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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#1
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346581/home-based-hypnotherapy-self-exercises-vs-individual-hypnotherapy-with-a-therapist-for-treatment-of-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-functional-abdominal-pain-or-functional-abdominal-pain-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Juliette M T M Rutten, Arine M Vlieger, Carla Frankenhuis, Elvira K George, Michael Groeneweg, Obbe F Norbruis, Walther Tjon A Ten, Herbert M van Wering, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Maruschka P Merkus, Marc A Benninga
Importance: Individual gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) is effective in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAP[S]). It is, however, unavailable to many children. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of HT by means of home-based self-exercises using a CD with that of individual HT (iHT) performed by qualified therapists. Design, Setting, and Participants: This noninferiority randomized clinical trial with a follow-up of 1 year after the end of treatment was conducted from July 15, 2011, through June 24, 2013, at 9 secondary and tertiary care centers throughout the Netherlands...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346391/hydrogen-sulphide-production-in-healthy-and-ulcerated-gastric-mucosa-of-rats
#3
Patrycja Bronowicka-Adamska, Maria Wróbel, Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Sławomir Kwiecień, Tomasz Brzozowski
Hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) is produced endogenously via two enzymes dependent on pyridoxal phosphate (PLP): cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS, EC 4.2.1.22), cystathionase γ-liase (CTH, EC 4.4.1.1), and a third, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST, EC 2.8.1.2). H₂S strengthens the defence mechanisms of the gastric mucosal barrier, and plays an important role in gastroprotection, including the increased resistance to damage caused by various irritants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The study was conducted to determine the role of H₂S in ulcerated gastric mucosa of rats caused by immobilization in cold water (WRS)...
March 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346031/chromogranin-a-cell-density-in-the-large-intestine-of-asian-and-european-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Magdy El-Salhy, Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Sutep Gonlachanvit
OBJECTIVE: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asia show distinctive differences from those in the western world. The gastrointestinal endocrine cells appear to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present study aimed at studying the density of chromogranin A (CgA) cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. METHODS: Thirty Thai IBS patients and 20 control subjects, and 47 Norwegian IBS patients and 20 control subjects were included...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345807/low-fodmap-in-2017-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-and-mechanistic-studies
#5
REVIEW
S Eswaran
Given the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the suboptimal response to most therapeutic approaches, there has been increasing interest in and adoption of dietary treatment strategies, such as the low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, & Mono-Saccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet. FODMAPs are a diverse group of carbohydrates that exert effects in the gastrointestinal tract not only via fermentation but likely via alterations in the microbiota, metabolome, permeability, and intestinal immunity as well. Clinical evidence for efficacy of this diet is mounting, but there are significant questions regarding short- and long-term safety and effects on the microbiota and nutrition that remain unanswered...
April 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345575/missed-punctal-foreign-body-a-cause-for-chronic-ocular-irritation
#6
Tanie Natung, Wakaru Shullai, P K Goswami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#7
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345443/economic-burden-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-retrospective-analysis-of-a-u-s-commercially-insured-population
#8
Jessica L Buono, Kush Mathur, Amelia J Averitt, David A Andrae
BACKGROUND: The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345364/anatomically-contoured-anterior-plating-for-isolated-tibiotalar-arthrodesis
#9
Nicholas Kusnezov, John C Dunn, Logan R Koehler, Justin D Orr
INTRODUCTION: We performed a systematic review of the published literature to characterize patient demographic, surgical techniques, and functional outcomes to elucidate the complication and revision rates following isolated tibiotalar arthrodesis with anatomically contoured anterior plating. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies in English, after 1990, at least 10 patients, and reporting clinical outcomes following contoured anterior plating and with follow-up of at least 80% and 1 year...
March 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344794/does-calprotectin-level-identify-a-subgroup-among-patients-suffering-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-results-of-a-prospective-study
#10
Chloé Melchior, Moutaz Aziz, Typhaine Aubry, Guillaume Gourcerol, Muriel Quillard, Alberto Zalar, Moïse Coëffier, Pierre Dechelotte, Anne-Marie Leroi, Philippe Ducrotté
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a multifactorial disease. Although faecal calprotectin has been shown to be a reliable marker of intestinal inflammation, its role in irritable bowel syndrome remains debated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this prospective study were to select a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome patients and to characterise those patients with high faecal calprotectin by systematic work-up. METHODS: Calprotectin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients fulfilling Rome III criteria in whom normal colonoscopy and appropriate tests had excluded organic disease...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344567/does-hunger-contribute-to-socioeconomic-gradients-in-behavior
#11
Daniel Nettle
Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#12
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344174/core-shell-eudragit-poly-ethylene-oxide-fibers-for-site-specific-release
#13
Dong Jia, Yanshan Gao, Gareth R Williams
Electrospinning was used to prepare core/shell fibers containing the active pharmaceutical ingredients indomethacin (IMC) or mebeverine hydrochloride (MB-HCl). The shell of the fibers was fabricated from the pH sensitive Eudragit S100 polymer, while the drug-loaded core was based on the mucoadhesive polyethylene oxide (PEO). Three different drug loadings (from 9-23% w/w of the core mass) were prepared, and for MB-HCl two different molecular weights of PEO were explored. The resultant fibers generally comprise smooth cylinders, although in some cases defects such as surface particles or flattened or merged fibers were visible...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344105/a-new-reconstructed-human-epidermis-rhe-for-in-vitro-skin-irritation-testing
#14
Tatiana do Nascimento Pedrosa, Carolina Motter Catarino, Paula Comune Pennacchi, Sílvia Romano de Assis, Fabrícia Gimenes, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler
Different models of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) are currently validated to assess skin irritation in vitro and ultimately to the animal replacement of the Draize test. The development of a new RHE model is a challenge for many laboratories, representing a potential gain of autonomy and improvement of technological knowledge. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) encourages the development of new models and, for this purpose, offers a thorough guideline on quality control parameters (OECD TG 439)...
March 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343980/nerve-damage-from-bone-allografts-and-xenografts-a-case-series
#15
M Anthony Pogrel
The concept of socket preservation by placing a particulate bone allograft or xenograft into a tooth socket or on the alveolar ridge after tooth removal remains a somewhat controversial topic. The concept is that it will preserve the ridge from resorption and such that subsequent implant insertion will be easier, with fewer complications. However, one particular issue is that these materials, although not directly neurotoxic, appear to be an irritant to the nerves if they come in contact with them. We present a case series demonstrating this complication...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343035/evaluation-of-4-methylcyclohexanemethanol-mchm-in-a-combined-irritatancy-and-local-lymph-node-assay-llna-in-mice
#16
Victor J Johnson, Scott S Auerbach, Michael I Luster, Suramya Waidyanatha, Scott A Masten, Mary S Wolfe, Florence G Burleson, Gary R Burleson, Dori R Germolec
4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) is a flotation reagent used in fine coal beneficiation. On January 9, 2014, crude MCHM, a mixture containing predominantly MCHM, was inadvertently released into the Elk River, a municipal water source that serves about 300,000 people in the Charleston, WV area, resulting in temporary contamination of 15 percent of the state's tap water and causing significant dermal exposure. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether crude MCHM or MCHM has the potential to produce dermal irritancy and/or sensitization...
March 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342683/white-grape-juice-elicits-a-lower-breath-hydrogen-response-compared-with-apple-juice-in-healthy-human-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jennifer Erickson, Qi Wang, Joanne Slavin
BACKGROUND: Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342673/therapeutic-use-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-treatment-of-psoroptic-mange-in-naturally-infested-new-zealand-rabbits
#18
Emmanuel Dunstand-Guzmán, Claudia Hallal-Calleros, Jorge Morales-Montor, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Juan José Zárate-Ramos, Kurt L Hoffman, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, Fernando Iván Flores-Pérez
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria known for its bioinsecticidal toxins and it has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of several parasites that infect domestic animals (helminths, ticks, mites). In this work, we evaluated the clinical efficiency of the Bacillus thuringiensis GP532 strain in the treatment of six rabbits naturally infested with the P. cuniculi mite. GP532 extract (10mg/ml) was applied by aspersion in both pinna, with a second application after seven days, and the therapeutic effect was measured in both qualitative and quantitative manner...
March 9, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341613/radical-scavenging-activity-of-a-sunscreen-enriched-by-antioxidants-providing-protection-in-the-whole-solar-spectral-range
#19
Carla Souza, Patrícia Maia Campos, Sabine Schanzer, Stephanie Albrecht, Silke B Lohan, Juergen Lademann, Maxim E Darvin, Martina C Meinke
The literature claims that incorporation of antioxidants into sunscreens provides additional skin photoprotection by scavenging free radicals formed due to sun radiation, but there are limited in vivo studies that support this hypothesis. This study aims to examine whether addition of antioxidants to a broad-spectrum sunscreen increases its photoprotective effect in real-use conditions. Sunscreen formulations composed of stable UV filters (Tinosorb® S, Tinosorb® M, Uvinul® APlus, and Uvinul® T150) alone or in combination with antioxidants (Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles) were developed and their appearance, odor, rheological behavior, Sun Protection Factor (SPF), and UVA protection were analyzed...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340922/derivation-and-validation-of-a-panel-of-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-in-differentiating-irritable-bowel-syndrome-from-health
#20
Ruchit Sood, Alexander C Ford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Gastroenterology
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