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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471088/characterization-of-highly-branched-dextran-produced-by-leuconostoc-citreum-b-2-from-pineapple-fermented-product
#1
Fang Feng, Qingqing Zhou, Yanfang Yang, Fangkun Zhao, Renpeng Du, Ye Han, Huazhi Xiao, Zhijiang Zhou
A strain Leuconostoc citreum B-2 was isolated from homemade fermentation product of pineapple and its polysaccharide yield was 28.3 g/L after cultivating the strain in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium with 75 g/L sucrose. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) was characterized by gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in present study. The monosaccharide composition of EPS was glucose and molecular weight was 3...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471063/intermolecular-interactions-determined-by-noe-build-up-in-macromolecules-from-hyperpolarized-small-molecules
#2
Chia-Hsiu Chen, Yunyi Wang, Christian Hilty
The nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) is a primary means to characterize intermolecular interactions using modern NMR spectroscopy. Multiple experiments measured using different mixing time can be used for quantifying NOE buildup and measuring cross-relaxation rates. However, this approach using conventional multi-dimensional NMR is time consuming. Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) can generate deviations from equilibrium spin polarization by orders of magnitude, thereby enhancing signals and allowing to characterize NOE build up in real-time...
February 19, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468963/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ikk%C3%AE-pathway-as-a-target-for-drug-development-realities-challenges-and-perspectives
#3
Rosana H C N Freitas, Carlos A M Fraga
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) comprises a family of proteins that act as transcription factors promoting the expression of many genes. Activation of NF-κB biochemical cascades is associated with the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation, among other physiological responses. However, genetic abnormalities and continuous stimulation of the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway are directly related to many types of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as to the genesis and survival of tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459233/qualitative-and-quantitative-control-of-pediatric-syrups-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-chemometrics
#4
Elenilson G Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A Silva, Nathália V P Araújo, Elenilson G Alves, Luciano M Lião, Glaucia B Alcantara
Several flavoring and sweetening agents added to excipient of pediatric syrups are not declared in the package leaflet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a non-target, simple, and precise method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pediatric syrups using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. This approach allowed the identification of several added compounds as citric acid, cyclamate, ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol, saccharin, sorbitol, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Among the sugared syrups, sucrose was the main carbohydrate with approximately 59...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454680/cardiomyopathy-in-the-pediatric-patients
#5
REVIEW
Shi-Min Yuan
Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a group of myocardial diseases with complex taxonomies. Cardiomyopathy can occur in children at any age, and it is a common cause of heart failure and heart transplantation in children. The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy is increasing with time. They may be associated with variable comorbidities, which are most often arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden death. Medical imaging technologies, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear cardiology, are helpful in reaching a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy...
January 31, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#6
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442657/preparation-of-poly-d-l-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-through-solvent-displacement-and-structural-evaluation-using-time-domain-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#7
Marina Rodrigues Tavares, Lívia Rodrigues de Menezes, Michelle Alvares Sarcinelli, Maria Inês Bruno Tavares
The present study obtained coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles using the solvent displacement method aiming to evaluate the effect of the polymer concentration in the pharmaceutical formulations' and polymer properties. Nanosuspensions were evaluated by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ZP), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). Uniform nanoparticles could be obtained using this method and higher polymer concentrations led to an increase in particle size and negatively charged surfaces were observed...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413963/renal-protective-effect-of-polysulfide-in-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#8
Xu Cao, Xiaowei Nie, Siping Xiong, Lei Cao, Zhiyuan Wu, Philip K Moore, Jin-Song Bian
Cisplatin is a major chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors whereas it may lead to severe nephrotoxicity. Despite decades of efforts, effective therapies remain largely lacking for this disease. In the current research, we investigated the therapeutic effect of hydrogen polysulfide, a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S) derived signaling molecule, in cisplatin nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that polysulfide donor Na2S4 ameliorated cisplatin-caused renal toxicity in vitro and in vivo through suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation...
February 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401151/spect-ct-with-the-psma-ligand-99mtc-mip-1404-for-whole-body-primary-staging-of-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#9
Christian Schmidkonz, Michael Cordes, Michael Beck, Theresa Ida Goetz, Daniela Schmidt, Olaf Prante, Tobias Bäuerle, Michael Uder, Bernd Wullich, Peter Goebell, Torsten Kuwert, Philipp Ritt
BACKGROUND: Tc-MIP-1404 (Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc, New York, NY) is a novel ligand binding to prostate-specific membrane antigen suitable for SPECT. There are, as yet, no data concerning its use in whole-body primary staging and its interobserver variability in patients with prostate cancer (PC) prior to therapy. METHODS: A search of our clinical database from April 2013 to May 2017 yielded 93 patients with histologically confirmed cancer in whom Tc-MIP-1404 SPECT/CT had been performed for primary whole-body staging before therapy...
February 3, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392839/pharmacologic-treatment-of-donor-cells-induced-to-have-a-warburg-effect-like-metabolism-does-not-alter-embryonic-development-in-vitro-or-survival-during-early-gestation-when-used-in-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-pigs
#10
B R Mordhorst, S L Murphy, R M Ross, J A Benne, M S Samuel, R F Cecil, B K Redel, L D Spate, C N Murphy, K D Wells, J A Green, R S Prather
Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a valuable technique for the generation of genetically engineered animals, however the efficiency of cloning in mammalian species is low (1-3%). Differentiated somatic cells commonly used in nuclear transfer utilize the tricarboxylic acid cycle and cellular respiration for energy production. Comparatively the metabolism of somatic cells contrasts that of the cells within the early embryos which predominately use glycolysis. Early embryos (prior to implantation) are evidenced to exhibit characteristics of a Warburg Effect (WE)-like metabolism...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387115/synthesis-and-characterization-of-some-novel-diaryl-urea-derivatives-bearing-quinoxalindione-moiety
#11
Sedighe Sadeghian-Rizi, Ghadamali Khodarahmi, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Rostami, Mahmoud Mirzaei, Farshid Hassanzadeh
Diaryl urea derivatives have exhibited a broad spectrum of biochemical effects and pharmaceutical applications. Several diaryl urea derivatives such as sorafenib, regorafenib, linifanib, and tivozanib and lenvatinib are in clinical trial or clinical use. Therefore, development of small molecules within the diaryl urea scaffold with the ability of binding to variety of enzymes and receptors in the biological system are an interesting topic for researchers. Sorafenib as a diaryl urea derivative is a well-known anticancer agent...
February 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384052/repurposing-n-n-dimethylacetamide-dma-a-pharmaceutical-excipient-as-a-prototype-novel-anti-inflammatory-agent-for-the-prevention-and-or-treatment-of-preterm-birth
#12
Samir Gorasiya, Ryan Pekson, Sabesan Yoganathan, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), or birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, accounts for the majority of perinatal morbidity and mortality. As of 2016, PTB has an occurrence rate of 9.6% in the United States and accounts for up to 18 percent of births worldwide. Inflammation has been identified as the most common cause of PTB, but effective pharmacotherapy has yet to be developed to prevent inflammation driven PTB. Our group has discovered that N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), a readily available solvent commonly used as a pharmaceutical excipient, rescues lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced timed pregnant mice from PTB...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378560/sheng-ji-hua-yu-formula-promotes%C3%A2-diabetic-wound-healing-of-re-epithelization-via-activin-follistatin-regulation
#13
Le Kuai, Jing-Ting Zhang, Yu Deng, Shun Xu, Xun-Zhe Xu, Min-Feng Wu, Dong-Jie Guo, Yu Chen, Ren-Jie Wu, Xing-Qiang Zhao, Hua Nian, Bin Li, Fu-Lun Li
BACKGROUND: Sheng-ji Hua-yu(SJHY) formula is one of the most useful Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of the delayed diabetic wound. However, elucidating the related molecular biological mechanism of how the SJHY Formula affects excessive inflammation in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing is a task urgently needed to be fulfilled. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the effect of antagonisic expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory factors on transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily (activin and follistatin) in the process of re-epithelialization of diabetic wound healing in vivo, and to characterize the involvement of the activin/follistatin protein expression regulation, phospho-Smad (pSmad2), and Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-kB) p50 in the diabetic wound healing effects of SJHY formula...
January 29, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378471/nanaomycin-a-treatment-promotes-hepatoblast-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Soichiro Nakamae, Yukiko Toba, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in pharmaceutical research, including drug screening. However, the hepatocyte functions of the hepatocyte-like cells are still lower than those of human hepatocytes. Therefore, we attempted to improve the hepatocyte differentiation method by modulating the DNA epigenetic status. We first examined the expression profiles of the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, all of which are essential for mammalian development...
January 29, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373043/expired-epinephrine-maintains-chemical-concentration-and-sterility
#15
William Bradley Weir, Linda Y Fred, Matthew Pike, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Tyler J Ludwig, Ashley M Shar, Lingyang Zhu, Ann Frederick, Ike Uzoaru, Lin Wang, Jonathan V Sweedler
OBJECTIVES: Epinephrine shortages affect nearly all American emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Utilization of expired epinephrine could mitigate this situation in daily EMS operations. Concerns about using expired medications include sterility, potency, and potential harmful chemical decay byproducts. There are no cross-platform analyses of sterility and chemical purity of multiple samples of expired parenteral epinephrine. We hypothesized that epinephrine injections will remain sterile and will retain their active ingredient's content for more than 30 months past expiration...
January 26, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372182/stereochemistry-and-amyloid-inhibition-asymmetric-triplex-metallohelices-enantioselectively-bind-to-a%C3%AE-peptide
#16
Yijia Guan, Zhi Du, Nan Gao, Yue Cao, Xiaohui Wang, Peter Scott, Hualong Song, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Stereochemistry is vital for pharmaceutical development and can determine drug efficacy. Herein, 10 pairs of asymmetric triplex metallohelix enantiomers as a library were used to screen inhibitors of amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation via a fluorescent cell-based high-throughput method. Intriguingly, Λ enantiomers show a stronger inhibition effect than Δ enantiomers. In addition, the metallohelices with aromatic substituents are more effective than those without, revealing that these groups play a key role in the Aβ interaction...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360501/emerging-role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-regulation-of-cellular-pathways-and-in-the-maintenance-of-gastric-mucosal-integrity
#17
REVIEW
Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the degradation of toxic free heme to the equimolar amounts of biliverdin, Fe2+ and concurrently releases of carbon monoxide (CO). CO is nowadays increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule throughout the body that is involved in many physiological processes and shows multidirectional biological activity. Recent evidence indicates that CO exhibits the anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-apoptotic, anti-aggregatory and vasodilatory properties. The cellular mechanisms underlying the activity of CO involve stimulation of cGMP-dependent signaling pathway and large conductance calcium activated K+ channels, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the nuclear factor k-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells transcription factor pathway...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350255/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-techniques-for-the-characterization-of-bioactive-compounds-from-humulus-lupulus-l-hop
#18
Davide Bertelli, Virginia Brighenti, Lucia Marchetti, Anna Reik, Federica Pellati
Humulus lupulus L. (hop) represents one of the most cultivated crops, it being a key ingredient in the brewing process. Many health-related properties have been described for hop extracts, making this plant gain more interest in the field of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical research. Among the analytical tools available for the phytochemical characterization of plant extracts, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) represents a new and powerful technique. In this ambit, the present study was aimed at the development of a new, simple, and efficient qNMR method for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hop cones, taking advantage of the novel ERETIC 2 tool...
January 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344415/rhizoma-coptidis-and-berberine-as-a-natural-drug-to-combat-aging-and-aging-related-diseases-via-anti-oxidation-and-ampk-activation
#19
REVIEW
Zhifang Xu, Wei Feng, Qian Shen, Nannan Yu, Kun Yu, Shenjun Wang, Zhigang Chen, Seiji Shioda, Yi Guo
Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (RC), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341913/characterisation-of-pore-structures-of-pharmaceutical-tablets-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Markl, Alexa Strobel, Rüdiger Schlossnikl, Johan Bøtker, Prince Bawuah, Cathy Ridgway, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Patrick Gane, Kai-Erik Peiponen, J Axel Zeitler
Traditionally, the development of a new solid dosage form is formulation-driven and less focus is put on the design of a specific microstructure for the drug delivery system. However, the compaction process particularly impacts the microstructure, or more precisely, the pore architecture in a pharmaceutical tablet. Besides the formulation, the pore structure is a major contributor to the overall performance of oral solid dosage forms as it directly affects the liquid uptake rate, which is the very first step of the dissolution process...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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