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diabetes and dementia

Ekamjeet Randhawa, John Woytanowski, Kedesha Sibliss, Ian Sheffer
Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacteria, also known as group A streptococci, that causes a range of infections. The most common presentation is acute pharyngitis; however, it is also implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, and less commonly bacteremia, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Group A streptococci infections of the central nervous system are exceedingly rare in the antibiotic era. The mechanism of infection is typically contiguous spread from existing infection or via direct inoculation...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Ahmed Abo Hagar, Yossri Ashour, Reda Abd El-Razek, Mohamed Elsamahy, Osama Shehab
Background: Cognitive decline could start or get worse among elderly patients with diabetes mellitus more than elderly without diabetes mellitus. So, those diabetic elderly patients have more risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Patients and Methods: This study included 48 elderly, grouped into three equal groups. First group included patients with diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment. Second group included patients with diabetes mellitus and no cognitive impairment...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Jie Zhen, Tong Lin, Xiaochen Huang, Huiqiang Zhang, Shengqi Dong, Yifan Wu, Linlin Song, Rong Xiao, Linhong Yuan
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism has been implicated in predisposition to diabetes and dementia in old population, but the results from the different studies were inconclusive. A cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the relationship among ApoE gene polymorphism, diabetes and cognition in non-demented aging Chinese adults. A total number of 1000 community dwellers aged 55 years and above were randomly recruited. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Andrea M Burden, Ilja C W Arts, Bart Spaetgens, Patrick Souverein, Frank de Vries, Annelies Boonen
Objectives: When urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients with gout, medication adherence is essential. This study assesses non-persistence and non-adherence in patients with newly diagnosed gout, and identifies factors associated with poor medication adherence. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1987-2014) among incident gout patients, aged ⩾40 years and starting allopurinol (n = 48 280)...
June 8, 2018: Rheumatology
Mark B Zimering
Aims: To test whether circulating neurotoxic autoantibodies increase in adult type 2 diabetes mellitus with Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia. To identify the G-protein coupled receptor on neuroblastoma cells mediating neural inhibitory effects in diabetic Parkinson's disease plasma autoantibodies. To determine the mechanism of accelerated neuroblastoma cell death and acute neurite retraction induced by diabetic Parkinson's disease and dementia autoantibodies. Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of twelve older adult male diabetic patients having Parkinson's disease (n=10) or dementia (n=2), and eight age-matched control diabetic patients were tested for ability to cause accelerated N2A neuroblastoma cell death and acute neurite retraction...
2018: Journal of Endocrinology and Diabetes
Ava A John-Baptiste, Taryn Becker, Kinwah Fung, Lorraine L Lipscombe, Peter C Austin, Geoffrey M Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Bayesian evidence synthesis using commonly available statistical procedures in order to estimate fracture risk for postmenopausal women undergoing hormonal therapy for breast cancer. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using linked administrative data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of women age 66 or older diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2003 and February 28, 2010. We used data augmentation to perform Bayesian Cox regression of the hazard of a hip, spine or wrist/forearm fracture, adjusting for age, history of fragility fracture, corticosteroid use, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia or diabetes diagnoses...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ghazal Aarabi, Götz Thomalla, Guido Heydecke, Udo Seedorf
Chronic oral infections (gingivitis/periodontitis) have been associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke. In addition, imaging surrogates of cerebrovascular ischemia beyond acute ischemic stroke (i.e. silent strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities) may also be associated with chronic oral infections. The pathology underlying lacunar strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities relates to small vessel disease in the brain. In this review, we highlight recent progress in exploring potential associations of oral infections with cerebral small vessel disease and its surrogates (silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities) and clinical sequelae (i...
June 7, 2018: Oral Diseases
Kamalesh K Gulia, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar
In contrast to newborns, who spend 16-20 h in sleep each day, adults need only about sleep daily. However, many elderly may struggle to obtain those 8 h in one block. In addition to changes in sleep duration, sleep patterns change as age progresses. Like the physical changes that occur during old age, an alteration in sleep pattern is also a part of the normal ageing process. As people age, they tend to have a harder time falling asleep and more trouble staying asleep. Older people spend more time in the lighter stages of sleep than in deep sleep...
May 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Szabolcs Szatmári, Károly Orbán-Kis, István Mihály, Alpár Sándor Lázár
The number of people living with diabetes continues to rise. Therefore neurologists or other health care practitioners may be increasingly faced with comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders commonly presented by diabetic patients. More recently there has been an increasing research interest not only in the interactions between diabetes and the nervous system, the fine structure and functional changes of the brain, but also in the cognitive aspects of antidiabetic treatments. Patients with both types of diabetes mellitus may show signs of cognitive decline, and depression...
September 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Hsiao Shan Cho, Li Kai Huang, Yao Tung Lee, Lung Chan, Chien Tai Hong
Objectives: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the mainstream treatment for delaying cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Low vitamin B12 is associated with cognitive dysfunction, and its supplementation has been applied as the treatment for certain types of reversible dementia. The present study hypothesized that baseline serum vitamin B12 is associated with the deterioration of cognitive function in people with AD undergoing ChEI treatment. Materials and methods: Between 2009 and 2016, medical records from 165 Taiwanese with mild to moderate AD who underwent ChEI treatment for at least 2 years were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Qing Ye, Zan Wang, Hao Shu, Feng Bai
Background/Objectives: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been associated with risk for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Previous investigations have suggested that vascular risk factors (VRFs) were associated with cognitive decline and AD pathogenesis, and the intervention of VRFs may be a possible way to prevent dementia. However, in MCI, little is known about the potential impacts of VRFs on neural networks and their neural substrates, which may be a neuroimaging biomarker of the disease progression. Methods: 128 elderly Han Chinese participants (67 MCI subjects and 61 matched normal elderly) with or without VRFs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and alcohol drinking) underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological tests...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jieli Geng, Liping Wang, Linyuan Zhang, Chuan Qin, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Yajing Chen, Shengdi Chen, Yongting Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang
Patients with diabetes suffer the higher risk of dementia and the underlying pathological mechanism of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is not fully understood. In this study, we explore whether the cognitive impairment in the diabetic rat is associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the change of the inflammatory cytokine. Experimental diabetic rats were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze in the normal and the diabetic rats, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Elżbieta Kuźma, Eilis Hannon, Ang Zhou, Ilianna Lourida, Alison Bethel, Deborah A Levine, Katie Lunnon, Jo Thompson-Coon, Elina Hyppönen, David J Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors for dementia are well established, though the causal nature of these associations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review Mendelian randomization (MR) studies investigating causal relationships between risk factors and global cognitive function or dementia. METHODS: We searched five databases from inception to February 2017 and conducted citation searches including MR studies investigating the association between any risk factor and global cognitive function, all-cause dementia or dementia subtypes...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kenji Matsuura, Mieko Otani, Masaoki Takano, Keiichi Kadoyama, Shogo Matsuyama
Aim: Diabetes with its associated hyperglycemia induces various type of peripheral damage and also impairs the central nervous system (CNS). This study is aimed at clarifying the precise mechanism of diabetes-induced dementia as an impairment of CNS. Methods: The proteomic analysis of the hippocampus and cortex in streptozotocin- (STZ-) treated mouse diabetic model showing dementia was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry ( n = 3/group)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Songyun Zhang, Lingling Yuan, Lihui Zhang, Caige Li, Jie Li
Background: With the change in lifestyle and the aging population, the incidence of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes mellitus is rising sharply. Oxidative stress is an important mechanism in the development of diabetic cognitive dysfunction. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the core transcription factor of antioxidative stress. Early prevention and treatment of diabetic cognitive dysfunction can reduce the incidence of dementia and improve the quality of life of diabetic patients...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Arun Parashar, Vineet Mehta, Udayabanu Malairaman
Objective: Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic and often disabling condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is now established that DM causes various CNS complications like Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, mood disorders, cognitive dysfunctioning, and so on. Since amygdala and dopaminergic circuitry are critical in controlling several aspects of social behavior, even social recognition memory (SRM), we aimed to study the expression analysis of dopaminergic circuitry in amygdala using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Tyler Lewy, Bo-Young Hong, Barbara Weiser, Harold Burger, Andrew Tremain, George Weinstock, Kathryn Anastos, Michael George
HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and dementia are more prevalent in older than in young adult HIV-infected subjects. Although the oral microbiome has been studied as a window into pathogenesis in aging populations, its relationship to HIV disease progression, opportunistic infections and HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions is not well understood. We utilized 16S rDNA-based pyrosequencing to compare the salivary microbiome in three groups: 1) Chronically HIV-infected women >50 years old (aging); 2) HIV-infected women < 35 years old (young adult); and 3) HIV-uninfected age-matched women...
May 29, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chanseok Rhee, Lynn Lethbridge, Glen Richardson, Michael Dunbar
BACKGROUND: Total joint replacement (TJR) is increasingly performed in older patients with more comorbidities, who are considered at higher risk for postoperative complications. We aimed to identify and calculate the odds ratio of the risk factors for infection, revision and death 3 months and 1 year after TJR as well as for postoperative blood transfusion and longer hospital stay. METHODS: We analyzed all primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) cases in Nova Scotia between Apr...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Onno N Groeneveld, Esther van den Berg, Guy E H M Rutten, Paula S Koekkoek, L Jaap Kappelle, Geert Jan Biessels
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with subtle cognitive changes, but also with more severe stages of cognitive dysfunction, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. For these severe stages, it is uncertain which domains are primarily affected and if all patients with impairment are captured by formal criteria for MCI or dementia. METHODS: Ninety-five patients with T2DM suspected of cognitive impairment, identified through screening in primary care, underwent neuropsychological examination assessing five different domains...
May 24, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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