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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446769/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#1
REVIEW
Wiesje M van der Flier, Ingmar Skoog, Julie A Schneider, Leonardo Pantoni, Vincent Mok, Christopher L H Chen, Philip Scheltens
The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau)...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437306/clinical-predictors-of-ceftriaxone-resistance-in-microorganisms-causing-febrile-urinary-tract-infections-in-men
#2
Javier Ramos Lázaro, Alex Smithson, Neus Jovè Vidal, María Teresa Batida Vila
OBJECTIVES: Because of high rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone has become one of the main options for treating febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI). This study aimed to identify predictors of ceftriaxone resistance in community-acquired FUTIs in men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional ambispective study enrolling men with FUTIs treated in the emergency department of a local area hospital in Spain. RESULTS: A total of 552 FUTI episodes were studied; 103 (18...
February 2018: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434658/healthy-living-and-cancer-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#3
Peter C Elwood, Alex Whitmarsh, John Gallacher, Anthony Bayer, Richard Adams, Luke Heslop, Janet Pickering, Gareth Morgan, Julieta Galante, Sunil Dolwani, Marcus Longley, Zoe E Roberts
Context: UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40-69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006-2010. Objective: A healthy lifestyle has been described as 'better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-smoking, healthy BMI, physical activity and a healthy diet, and the risk of all cancers, colon, breast and prostate cancers in a large dataset...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430638/effect-of-area-level-socioeconomic-deprivation-on-risk-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-older-adults
#4
Adrian McCann, Helene McNulty, Jan Rigby, Catherine F Hughes, Leane Hoey, Anne M Molloy, Conal J Cunningham, Miriam C Casey, Fergal Tracey, Maurice J O'Kane, Kevin McCarroll, Mary Ward, Katie Moore, J J Strain, Adrian Moore
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between area-level deprivation and risk of cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: The Trinity, Ulster, and Department of Agriculture (TUDA) study from 2008 to 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 74.0 ± 8.3 without dementia (N = 5,186; 67% female). MEASUREMENTS: Adopting a cross-jurisdictional approach, geo-referenced address-based information was used to map and link participants to official socioeconomic indicators of deprivation within the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430248/decreased-muscle-strength-and-quality-in-diabetes-related-dementia
#5
Akito Tsugawa, Yusuke Ogawa, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Eriko Jaime, Raita Fukasawa, Haruo Hanyu
Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD), a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM)-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[-DM] group), 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group), and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group)...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427504/chronic-physical-conditions-multimorbidity-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Ai Koyanagi, Elvira Lara, Brendon Stubbs, Andre F Carvalho, Hans Oh, Andrew Stickley, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study. SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424096/low-education-and-lack-of-spousal-relationship-are-associated-with-dementia-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-nigeria
#7
Abdulkareem J Yusuf, Olusegun Baiyewu, Adamu G Bakari, Sani B Garko, Mohammed E-B Jibril, Aishatu M Suleiman, Haruna M Muktar, Micheal A Amedu
BACKGROUND: The relationship between dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults is well established in the literature. However, there have been few studies on this relationship in older adults living in low- and middle-income countries, and most demographic projections predict that older adult population will increase substantially in these regions by 2050. METHODS: In this study, older adults with T2DM attending a tertiary health facility were examined and compared with community-dwelling older adults without T2DM...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424027/relationship-of-type-2-diabetes-to-human-brain-pathology
#8
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417476/qi-fu-yin-a-ming-dynasty-prescription-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#9
REVIEW
Wei-Yi Ong, Ya-Jun Wu, Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq A Farooqui
The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417185/diabetes-in-the-older-patient-heterogeneity-requires-individualisation-of-therapeutic-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Guntram Schernthaner, Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter
Owing to the worldwide increase in life expectancy, the high incidence of diabetes in older individuals and the improved survival of people with diabetes, about one-third of all individuals with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Evidence is accumulating that type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment, dementia and frailty. Older people with diabetes have significantly more comorbidities, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease and renal impairment, compared with those without diabetes...
February 7, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415688/risk-of-dementia-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-a-nationwide-population-based-case-control-study
#11
Chao-Ming Hung, Ying-Chun Li, Han-Jung Chen, Kang Lu, Cheng-Loong Liang, Po-Chou Liliang, Yu-Duan Tsai, Kuo-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between primary insomnia and dementia using a Taiwanese population-based database. METHODS: This case-control study involved a subset of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims. We included 51,734 patients who were diagnosed with primary insomnia from 2002 to 2004 as the test group and 258,715 nonprimary insomnia participants aged 20 years or older as the reference group. We excluded patients under 20 and those with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and/or sleep disorders caused by organic lesion(s), drugs, or alcohol...
February 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409842/disturbed-sleep-and-diabetes-a-potential-nexus-of-dementia-risk
#12
Calliope Holingue, Alexandra Wennberg, Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Adam P Spira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and sleep disturbance (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) are prevalent conditions among older adults that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, disturbed sleep is associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may increase the risk of T2D, and T2D-related complications (e.g., pain, nocturia) can negatively affect sleep. Despite these associations, little is known about how interactions between T2D and sleep disturbance might alter cognitive trajectories or the pathological changes that underlie dementia...
January 31, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407524/metabolic-inflammatory-vascular-comorbidity-in-psychiatric-disorders-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-seh-as-a-possible-new-target
#13
REVIEW
W Swardfager, M Hennebelle, D Yu, B D Hammock, A J Levitt, K Hashimoto, A Y Taha
The common and severe psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and changes in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism. Those pathways are implicated in the premature development of vascular and metabolic comorbidities, which account for considerable morbidity and mortality, including increased dementia risk. During endoplasmic reticulum stress, the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme converts anti-inflammatory fatty acid epoxides generated by cytochrome p450 enzymes into their corresponding and generally less anti-inflammatory, or even pro-inflammatory, diols, slowing the resolution of inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405231/care-management-to-promote-treatment-adherence-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-and-vascular-risk-factors-a-demonstration-project
#14
L M Bonner, A Hanson, G Robinson, E Lowy, S Craft
Dementia prevention is highly important. Improved control of vascular risk factors has the potential to decrease dementia risk, but may be difficult. Therefore, we developed and piloted a care management protocol for Veterans at risk for dementia. We enrolled 32 Veterans with diabetes and hypertension, at least one of which was poorly controlled, and cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to a 6-month care management intervention or to usual care. At enrollment, 6-months and 12-months, we assessed cognitive performance, mood, and diabetes and hypertension control...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405228/associations-of-long-term-tea-consumption-with-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-community-living-elderly-findings-from-the-diet-and-healthy-aging-study
#15
S-P Chan, P Z Yong, Y Sun, R Mahendran, J C M Wong, C Qiu, T-P Ng, E-H Kua, L Feng
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between long-term tea consumption and depressive and anxiety symptoms in community-living elderly. DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Diet and Healthy Aging Study (DaHA), a prospective cohort study in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 614 elderly aged 60 years and above, who were free of dementia and cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS: Information on tea consumption was obtained through interviewer-administered questionnaire...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401634/formaldehyde-induces-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairments
#16
Tao Tan, Yun Zhang, Wenhong Luo, Jihui Lv, Chanshuai Han, Jason N R Hamlin, Hongjun Luo, Hui Li, You Wan, Xu Yang, Weihong Song, Zhiqian Tong
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often develop cognitive impairments and have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Hyperglycemia is a major characteristic of T2DM, but how elevated glucose levels lead to cognitive decline remains elusive. Here, we report that patients with T2DM and mutations in the formaldehyde (FA)-degrading enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 ( ALDH2) gene had higher levels of FA and more severe dementia. Injection of FA induced hyperglycemia and cognitive deficits in rats...
February 1, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396187/diabetes-care-and-dementia-among-older-adults-a-nationwide-3-year-longitudinal-study
#17
Matthieu Wargny, Adeline Gallini, Hélène Hanaire, Fati Nourhashemi, Sandrine Andrieu, Virginie Gardette
OBJECTIVES: To compare diabetes monitoring and the incidence of acute diabetic complications between patients with and without incident Alzheimer's Disease and Related Syndromes (ADRS). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study from 2010 to 2014. SETTING: Data from the French national health system database. PARTICIPANTS: The France-Démence cohort: individuals aged 65 years or older suffering from incident ADRS, based on long-term disease registry, hospitalization for dementia, or antidementia drug delivery...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393220/population-based-cohort-study-on-dementia-risk-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Chia-Lun Kuo, Chin-Li Lu, Ya-Hui Chang, Chung-Yi Li
BACKGROUND: The risk of dementia increases by 15-28% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, studies on dementia risk in type 1 DM have been neither comprehensive nor conclusive. METHODS: We carried out a cohort study involving 1,077 patients registered to have type 1 DM from 1998 to 2009 and 32,310 matched non-DM controls who were selected from Taiwan National Health Insurance Claims. These participants were followed up from their first clinical appearance for type 1 DM treatment in 1998-2009 to the date of dementia diagnosis or the last day of 2011...
February 1, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392460/intranasal-insulin-in-alzheimer-s-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Konstantinos Ioannis Avgerinos, Grigorios Kalaitzidis, Antonia Malli, Dimitrios Kalaitzoglou, Pavlos Gr Myserlis, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Due to common pathophysiological findings of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin has been suggested as a possible treatment of AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A safe alternative of IV insulin is intranasal (IN) insulin. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of IN insulin on cognitive function of patients with either AD or MCI. METHODS: A literature search of the electronic databases Medline, Scopus and CENTRAL was performed to identify RCTs investigating the effect of IN insulin administration on cognitive tasks, in patients with AD or MCI...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392084/cardiovascular-risk-factors-are-correlated-with-low-cognitive-function-among-older-adults-across-europe-based-on-the-share-database
#20
Joana Lourenco, Antonio Serrano, Alice Santos-Silva, Marcos Gomes, Claudia Afonso, Paula Freitas, Constanca Paul, Elisio Costa
Increased life expectancy is associated with a high prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases including cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment using three cognitive abilities (verbal fluency, numeracy and perceived memory) and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in seniors across Europe. Data from participants in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe) database was used. Cognitive performance in perceived memory, verbal fluency and numeracy was evaluated using simple tests and a memory complaints questionnaire...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
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