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pancreatitis term gestation

Shelley E Harris, Miles J De Blasio, Melissa A Davis, Amy C Kelly, Hailey M Davenport, F B Peter Wooding, Dominique Blache, David Meredith, Miranda Anderson, Abigail L Fowden, Sean W Limesand, Alison J Forhead
Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Nishat Fatema, Neeru Vinod Arora, Fatma Majid Al Abri, Yaseer Muhammad Tareq Khan
Haemoperitoneum in women of reproductive age usually suggests either ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cysts. Metastatic choriocarcinoma is considered the least common cause of haemoperitoneum in women of childbearing age. We report a rare case of pancreatic and hepatic metastasis of choriocarcinoma in a young, 30-year-old female who had delivered 10 months prior at term gestation with no previous history of gestational trophoblastic disease or molar pregnancy. She had a short history of fever and pain in the right hypochondrium, with findings of hypovolaemic shock due to intraperitoneal haemorrhage...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
N V Bashmakova, N B Davydenko, G B Malgina, N V Putilova
AIM: The aim of this research was to have a thorough study of predictors of critical states during pregnancy after assisted reproductive technologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 303 patients with "near-miss," out of which 37 are pregnancy cases after ART (the main group) and 265 are spontaneous pregnancy cases (the control group). RESULTS: Pregnancy after ART constituted 12.3% of all critical states. In the main group (10...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Yu-Chieh Chen, Ying-Hua Huang, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, You-Lin Tain, Hong-Ren Yu, Chih-Cheng Chen, Miao-Meng Tiao, Ho-Chang Kuo, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: There is increasing epidemiological evidence indicating that many chronic diseases originate during early life, even before birth, through what are termed fetal programming effects. Prenatal glucocorticoid is frequently used clinically to accelerate the maturation of the lung, but its long-term effects remain unclear. METHODS: We gave pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats either intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at Gestational Days 14-20 and assessed the effects to pancreas at Postnatal Days 7 and 120...
June 18, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
P Domínguez-Vigo, E Álvarez-Silvares, Alves-Pérez M T, J Domínguez-Sánchez, A González-González
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same...
April 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Charline Quiclet, Farida Siti, Hervé Dubouchaud, Guillaume Vial, Phanélie Berthon, Eric Fontaine, Cécile Batandier, Karine Couturier
Only a few studies have explored the effects of maternal exercise during gestation on adult offspring metabolism. We set out to test whether maternal controlled submaximal exercise maintained troughout all gestational periods induces persistant metabolic changes in the offspring. We used a model of 15-wk-old nulliparous female Wistar rats that exercised (trained group) before and during gestation at a submaximal intensity or remained sedentary (control group). At weaning, male offspring from trained dams showed reduced basal glycemia (119...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Adina Maniu, Graham W Aberdeen, Terrie J Lynch, Jerry L Nadler, Soon O K Kim, Michael J Quon, Gerald J Pepe, Eugene D Albrecht
This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen programs mechanisms within the primate fetus that promote insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in offspring. Glucose tolerance tests were performed longitudinally in prepubertal offspring of baboons untreated or treated on days 100 to 165/175 of gestation (term is 184 days) with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, which decreased fetal estradiol levels by 95%. Basal plasma insulin levels were over two-fold greater in offspring delivered to letrozole-treated than untreated animals...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Xuemei Xie, Hongjie Gao, Shimin Wu, Yue Zhao, Caiqi Du, Guandou Yuan, Qin Ning, Kenneth McCormick, Xiaoping Luo
AIM: Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital...
2016: PloS One
Lin Zhang, Wei Chen, Yuee Dai, Ziyang Zhu, Qianqi Liu
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term...
July 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sophie Croizier, Vincent Prevot, Sebastien G Bouret
The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in glucose metabolism through both its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, but the mechanisms that underlie the development of the autonomic innervation of the pancreas remain poorly understood. Here, we report that cholinergic innervation of pancreatic islets develops during mid-gestation under the influence of leptin. Leptin-deficient mice display a greater cholinergic innervation of pancreatic islets beginning in embryonic life, and this increase persists into adulthood...
April 5, 2016: Cell Reports
Charles A Stanley
CONTEXT: Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in children. The risk of permanent brain injury in infants with HI continues to be as high as 25-50% due to delays in diagnosis and inadequate treatment. Congenital HI has been described since the birth of the JCEM under various terms, including "idiopathic hypoglycemia of infancy," "leucine-sensitive hypoglycemia," or "nesidioblastosis." EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In the past 20 years, it has become apparent that HI is caused by genetic defects in the pathways that regulate pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wei Bao, Jorge E Chavarro, Deirdre K Tobias, Katherine Bowers, Shanshan Li, Frank B Hu, Cuilin Zhang
BACKGROUND: An iron overload may induce pancreatic islet damage and increase risk of diabetes. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association of habitual iron intake with long-term risk of T2DM in this high-risk population. DESIGN: We included 3976 women with a history of GDM from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study...
February 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lara J Monteiro, Jane E Norman, Gregory E Rice, Sebastián E Illanes
Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined by new-onset glucose intolerance during pregnancy. About 2-5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancies and the prevalence has increased considerably during the last decade. This metabolic condition is manifested when pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for increased insulin resistance during pregnancy, however, the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown. Gestational diabetes is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome as well as with long-term adverse effects on the offspring which likely occurs due to epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome...
December 2016: Placenta
Aurélien Michau, David J Hodson, Pierre Fontanaud, Anne Guillou, Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco, François Molino, Catherine J Peters, Iain C Robinson, Paul Le Tissier, Patrice Mollard, Marie Schaeffer
Pancreatic β-cells modulate insulin secretion through rapid sensing of blood glucose and integration of gut-derived signals. Increased insulin demand during pregnancy and obesity alters islet function and mass and leads to gestational diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes in predisposed individuals. However, it is unclear how blood-borne factors dynamically access the islets of Langerhans. Thus, understanding the changes in circulating molecule distribution that accompany compensatory β-cell expansion may be key to developing novel antidiabetic therapies...
February 2016: Diabetes
R Retnakaran, B R Shah
AIMS: Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus have a chronic defect in the secretion of insulin by the pancreatic β cells that underlies both their diagnostic hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and their elevated lifetime risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future. It has recently emerged that carrying a male fetus is associated with poorer maternal β-cell function and an increased risk of gestational diabetes, whereas the development of gestational diabetes when carrying a girl (as compared with a boy) predicts a comparatively higher risk of early progression to Type 2 diabetes before any subsequent pregnancy...
July 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Tara A Lynch, Scott C Dexter
BACKGROUND: Coexisting medical complications in pregnancy can present in a fashion similar to preeclampsia and can be challenging to differentiate. CASE: We present a patient who, at 27 3/7 weeks of gestation, fulfilled diagnostic criteria for severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, headache, abnormal serum creatinine levels, thrombocytopenia, and liver function abnormalities, but who nevertheless did not have preeclampsia. Instead, she was diagnosed with alcoholic pancreatitis based on a history of heavy alcohol use and elevated amylase and lipase...
December 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Saara M Rawn, Carol Huang, Martha Hughes, Rustem Shaykhutdinov, Hans J Vogel, James C Cross
Pregnancy is often viewed as a conflict between the fetus and mother over metabolic resources. Insulin resistance occurs in mothers during pregnancy but does not normally lead to diabetes because of an increase in the number of the mother's pancreatic beta cells. In mice, this increase is dependent on prolactin (Prl) receptor signaling but the source of the ligand has been unclear. Pituitary-derived Prl is produced during the first half of pregnancy in mice but the placenta produces Prl-like hormones from implantation to term...
September 2015: Biology of Reproduction
Amita Bansal, Frank H Bloomfield, Kristin L Connor, Mike Dragunow, Eric B Thorstensen, Mark H Oliver, Deborah M Sloboda, Jane E Harding, Jane M Alsweiler
Adults born preterm are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Late gestation fetuses exposed to high blood glucose concentration also are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance as adults. Preterm babies commonly become hyperglycemic and are thus exposed to high blood glucose concentration at an equivalent stage of pancreatic maturation. It is not known whether preterm birth itself, or complications of prematurity, such as hyperglycemia, alter later pancreatic function. To distinguish these, we made singleton preterm lambs hyperglycemic (HYPER) for 12 days after birth with a dextrose infusion and compared them with vehicle-treated preterm and term controls and with HYPER lambs made normoglycemic with an insulin infusion...
October 2015: Endocrinology
Akram T Kharroubi, Hisham M Darwish
The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics...
June 25, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Maria Saito-Benz, Helen Elizabeth Miller, Mary Judith Berry
A preterm neonate at 29-week gestational age was born with intrauterine growth restriction, severe pancytopaenia and gross skeletal dysplasia. Antenatal screening bloods, TORCH/parvovirus tests and karyotype were unremarkable. Postnatally, he had normal microarray comparative genomic hybridization and serum B12/folate levels, and human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction and antoimmune screening were negative. Targeted gene testing for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) revealed the pathognomic mutation (c...
December 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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