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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100476/chronic-anemic-hypoxemia-attenuates-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-in-fetal-sheep
#1
Joshua S Benjamin, Christine B Culpepper, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Sonnet S Jonker, Melissa Ann Davis, Sean W Limesand, Randall B Wilkening, William W Hay, Paul J Rozance
Fetal insulin secretion is inhibited by acute hypoxemia. The relationship between prolonged hypoxemia and insulin secretion, however, is less well defined. To test the hypothesis that prolonged fetal hypoxemia impairs insulin secretion, studies were performed in sheep fetuses that were bled to anemic conditions for 9 ± 0 days (anemic, n=19) and compared to control fetuses (n=15). Arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 34% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic vs. control fetuses (P<0.0001). Plasma glucose concentrations were 21% higher in the anemic group (P<0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099206/is-a-%C3%AE-cell-a-%C3%AE-cell
#2
Chaoxing Yang, Feorillo Galivo, Craig Dorrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report examines recent publications identifying phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among pancreatic β cells and investigating their potential roles in normal and abnormal islet function. The development of new methods and tools for the study of individual islet cells has produced a surge of interest in this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of β cell maturation and pregnancy-induced proliferation have identified changes in serotonin and transcription factors SIX2/3 expression as markers of temporal heterogeneity...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079868/cdc123-camk1d-gene-rs12779790-polymorphism-and-rs10811661-polymorphism-upstream-of-the-cdkn2a-2b-gene-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#3
M Tarnowski, D Malinowski, K Safranow, V Dziedziejko, A Pawlik
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance occurring in pregnant women. CDC123/CAMK1D and CDKN2A/2B are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and may affect pancreatic beta cell function. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CDKN2A/2B rs10811661 and CDC123/CAMK1D rs12779790 gene polymorphisms and GDM. STUDY DESIGN: This study included 411 pregnant women. The diagnosis of GDM was based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049534/case-report-maternal-mosaicism-resulting-in-inheritance-of-a-novel-gata6-mutation-causing-pancreatic-agenesis-and-neonatal-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Daphne Yau, Elisa De Franco, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Miriam Blumenkrantz, John J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Haploinsufficiency of the GATA6 transcription factor gene was recently found to be the most common cause of pancreatic agenesis, a rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Although most cases are de novo, we describe three siblings with inherited GATA6 haploinsufficiency and the rare finding of parental mosaicism. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was born at term with severe intrauterine growth restriction, the first child of non-consanguineous parents...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009296/human-beta-cells-produce-and-release-serotonin-to-inhibit-glucagon-secretion-from-alpha-cells
#5
Joana Almaça, Judith Molina, Danusa Menegaz, Alexey N Pronin, Alejandro Tamayo, Vladlen Slepak, Per-Olof Berggren, Alejandro Caicedo
In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965206/prior-lactation-reduces-future-diabetic-risk-through-sustained-post-weaning-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity
#6
Harpreet Bajaj, Chang Ye, Anthony J Hanley, Phil W Connelly, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman, Ravi Retnakaran
Breastfeeding ≥12 months is recommended for optimal infant nutrition but may hold maternal benefits, as well. Indeed, lactation has been associated with lower long-term risk of diabetes in the mother but the mechanism by which it imparts sustained post-weaning effects on glucose tolerance remains unclear. In this context, we postulated that lactation potentially could induce post-weaning beneficial effects on glucose tolerance by modifying the natural history of insulin sensitivity and/or pancreatic beta-cell function over time...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959892/ffa2-contribution-to-gestational-glucose-tolerance-is-not-disrupted-by-antibiotics
#7
Miles Fuller, Xiaoran Li, Robert Fisch, Moneb Bughara, Barton Wicksteed, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Brian T Layden
During the insulin resistant phase of pregnancy, the mRNA expression of free fatty acid 2 receptor (Ffar2) is upregulated and as we recently reported, this receptor contributes to insulin secretion and pancreatic beta cell mass expansion in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. As impaired gestational glucose levels can affect metabolic health of offspring, we aimed to explore the role of maternal Ffar2 expression during pregnancy on the metabolic health of offspring and also the effects of antibiotics, which have been shown to disrupt gut microbiota fermentative activity (the source of the FFA2 ligands) on gestational glucose homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#8
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920694/pancreatic-and-hepatic-metastasis-of-an-undiagnosed-choriocarcinoma-an-exceptional-cause-of-haemoperitoneum-in-young-women-report-of-a-rare-case
#9
Nishat Fatema, Neeru Vinod Arora, Fatma Majid Al Abri, Yaseer Muhammad Tareq Khan
Haemoperitoneum in women of reproductive age usually suggests either ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cysts. Metastatic choriocarcinoma is considered the least common cause of haemoperitoneum in women of childbearing age. We report a rare case of pancreatic and hepatic metastasis of choriocarcinoma in a young, 30-year-old female who had delivered 10 months prior at term gestation with no previous history of gestational trophoblastic disease or molar pregnancy. She had a short history of fever and pain in the right hypochondrium, with findings of hypovolaemic shock due to intraperitoneal haemorrhage...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888197/islet-adaptations-in-fetal-sheep-persist-following-chronic-exposure-to-high-norepinephrine
#10
Xiaochuan Chen, Amy C Kelly, Dustin T Yates, Antoni R Macko, Ronald M Lynch, Sean W Limesand
Complications in pregnancy elevate fetal norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Previous studies in NE-infused sheep fetuses revealed that sustained exposure to high NE resulted in lower expression of α2-adrenergic receptors in islets and increased insulin secretion responsiveness after acutely terminating the NE infusion. In this study, we determined if the compensatory increase in insulin secretion after chronic elevation of NE is independent of hyperglycemia in sheep fetuses and whether it is persistent in conjunction with islet desensitization to NE...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882764/-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy-complicated-by-rupture-of%C3%A2-aneurysm-of-artery-lienalis
#11
E Hostinská, K Huml, R Pilka
OBJECTIVE: We present a case of pregnant woman with acute pacreatitis in 38th week comlicated by acute rupture of aneurysm of artery lienalis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty Hospital and Palacky University, Olomouc. CASE REPORT: 28-years-old primipara in 38th week of gestation was admitted to our department for acute pancreatitis caused by gallstones. Subsequent conservative treatment was complicated by rupture of aneurysm of lienal artery and haemorrhagic shock...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877217/pregnancy-specific-%C3%AE-1-glycoprotein-1-is-expressed-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-its-subcellular-localization-correlates-with-overall-survival
#12
Jasmin H Shahinian, Hannah Fuellgraf, Stefan Tholen, Justin Mastroianni, Julia Daniela Knopf, Markus Kuehs, Bettina Mayer, Manuel Schlimpert, Birte Kulemann, Simon Kuesters, Jens Hoeppner, Ulrich F Wellner, Martin Werner, Ulrich T Hopt, Robert Zeiser, Peter Bronsert, Oliver Schilling
Proteins of the pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein (PSG) family are renowned for their elevated expression during pregnancy. Only few reports have investigated their expression in adenocarcinomas. We studied the expression of PSG1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In a cohort of 104 patient samples, immunohistochemical analysis determined PSG1 expression in every specimen. PSG1 was found at apical and cytoplasmic localization or solely at cytoplasmic localization, with the latter case being correlated to shortened median survival (25 vs 11 months, logrank p-value < 0...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791421/elevated-plasma-pancreatic-enzyme-concentrations-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-may-indicate-closed-loop-obstruction
#13
K Arapis, P Tammaro, G Goujon, H Becheur, P Augustin, J P Marmuse
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures and most patients are women of reproductive age. Consequently, general surgeons and obstetricians need to be aware that these patients are at risk of bariatric specific surgical complications during their pregnancy. We report a case involving a 32-year-old woman who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 2 years previously. She presented at 25 weeks of gestation with a closed loop obstruction due to a retrograde jejunojejunal intussusception that was initially misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis...
October 28, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790717/in-utero-coxsackievirus-b4-infection-of-the-mouse-thymus
#14
Hela Jaïdane, Aymen Halouani, Habib Jmii, Firas Elmastour, Saïda Abdelkefi, Gwennaëlle Bodart, Hélène Michaux, Tahar Chakroun, Famara Sane, Moncef Mokni, Vincent Geenen, Didier Hober, Mahjoub Aouni
Type B Coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are frequently involved in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis, or Sjögren's syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance...
October 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759443/epidemiology-of-critical-states-during-pregnancy-after-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#15
N V Bashmakova, N B Davydenko, G B Malgina, N V Putilova
AIM: The aim of this research was to have a thorough study of predictors of critical states during pregnancy after assisted reproductive technologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 303 patients with "near-miss," out of which 37 are pregnancy cases after ART (the main group) and 265 are spontaneous pregnancy cases (the control group). RESULTS: Pregnancy after ART constituted 12.3% of all critical states. In the main group (10...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757202/evaluation-of-soluble-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-in-peripheral-blood-of-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Saeide-Sadat Shobeiri, Saeid Abediankenari, Bahareh Lashtoo-Aghaee, Zahra Rahmani, Bahareh Esmaeili-Gorji
BACKGROUND: Research says that diabetes may develop in over 10% of non-diabetic pregnant women. Diabetes which generally occurs late in second trimester and third trimester of pregnancy, it is called gestational diabetes. Overweight or suffering from obesity before pregnancy is type 2 diabetes risk factor. In most cases, diabetic symptoms disappear after delivery. HLA-G has an important role both in mother and fetus tolerance during pregnancy, it may also be effective in the protection of pancreatic islet cells...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716570/ectopic-pregnancy-in-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report
#17
Shinji Yamamoto, Maria Nelander
INTRODUCTION: We present a case report of ectopic pregnancy (EP) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SKPTx). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 33-year-old female status post SKPTx suddenly got abdominal pain in the lower level. She had high human chorionic Gonadotropin test. Ultrasonography revealed that there was no fetus in the uterus but a dilated right fallopian tube, which strongly suggested ectopic pregnancy. An emergency operation was performed and a dilated right side uterine tube was found with adhesions to her transplant...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632150/effect-of-diabetes-on-circulating-pancreatic-hormones-in-pregnant-rats-and-their-offspring
#18
I L Iessi, Y K Sinzato, F Q Gallego, J H Nielsen, D C Damasceno
The aim of the study was to investigate the role of diabetic intrauterine environment on circulating insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin levels in pregnant rats, fetuses, and offspring. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by streptozotocin at birth or as adult and the animals were assigned into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance...
September 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623287/maternal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-during-pregnancy-increases-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-growth-during-early-life-in-male-mice-offspring
#19
Marta García-Arévalo, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Joan-Marc Servitja, Talía Boronat, Beatriz Merin, Sabrina Villar, Gema Medina-Gómez, Anna Novials, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal
Alterations during development of metabolic key organs such as the endocrine pancreas affect the phenotype later in life. There is evidence that in utero or perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA), leads to impaired glucose metabolism during adulthood. However, how BPA exposure during pregnancy affects pancreatic β-cell growth and function in offspring during early life has not been explored. We exposed pregnant mice to either vehicle (Control) or BPA (10 and 100 μ g/kg/day, BPA10 and BPA100) and examined offspring on postnatal days (P) P0, P21, P30 and P120...
September 13, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615133/%C3%AE-cell-adaptation-in-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
L Baeyens, S Hindi, R L Sorenson, M S German
Pregnancy in placental mammals places unique demands on the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The pancreas anticipates the increase in insulin resistance that occurs late in pregnancy by increasing β-cell numbers and function earlier in pregnancy. In rodents, this β-cell expansion depends on secreted placental lactogens that signal through the prolactin receptor. Then at the end of pregnancy, the β-cell population contracts back to its pre-pregnancy size. In the current review, we focus on how glucose metabolism changes during pregnancy, how β-cells anticipate these changes through their response to lactogens and what molecular mechanisms guide the adaptive compensation...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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