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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812869/entry-inhibitors-a-perspective-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-organ-transplantation
#1
Che C Colpitts, Raymond T Chung, Thomas F Baumert
Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation...
August 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811950/autoscopic-hallucination-in-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-a-rare-or-missed-phenomenon
#2
Sulochana Joshi, Binita Thapa, Rabi Shakya
Autoscopic phenomenon, a psychic illusionary duplication of one's own self, has been the subject of interest in the literature and science for years. It has been reported in various diseases of the central nervous system but with an unknown mechanism. Hallucinations are a common presentation in alcohol dependence syndrome during delirium tremens and as induced disorder. However, autoscopic hallucination has been rarely reported in the cases of alcohol dependence. We present a case of a 40-year-old man who experienced autoscopic hallucination during the withdrawal state of alcohol...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811823/protective-barrier-properties-of-rhinosectan-%C3%A2-spray-containing-xyloglucan-on-an-organotypic-3d-airway-tissue-model-mucilair-results-of-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Barbara De Servi, Francesco Ranzini, Núria Piqué
BACKGROUND: To evaluate barrier protective properties of Rhinosectan(®) spray, a medical device containing xyloglucan, on nasal epithelial cells (MucilAir). METHODS: MucilAir-Nasal, a three-dimensional organotypic (with different cell types) airway tissue model, was treated with the medical device Rhinosectan(®) (30 µL) or with controls (Rhinocort-budesonide-or saline solution). The protective barrier effects of Rhinosectan(®) were evaluated by: TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance) (preservation of tight junctions), Lucifer Yellow assay (preservation of paracellular flux) and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy (localization of tight junction proteins)...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811131/assessment-of-translational-risk-in-drug-research-role-of-biomarker-classification-and-mechanism-based-pkpd-concepts
#4
Sandra A G Visser, Tjerk J H Bueters
In 2005, Danhof and coauthors proposed a new biomarker classification in the context of the application of mechanism-based PKPD modeling. They defined the term 'biomarker' as a measure that characterizes a drug-induced response, which is on the causal path between drug administration and clinical outcome. The biomarker classification identified seven categories that provide different insights into the kinetics of drug action, such as target site distribution, target engagement, or into the impact of the drug on physiology or disease...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810098/a-rare-case-of-pulmonary-lymphomatoid-granulomatosis
#5
Ukamaka Nwakife Nwadibia, Kalyan Chakravarthy Potu, Eric A Larson, Galal Ahmed
In this report, we discuss an unusual case of pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG), a rare form of angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. This disease is thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferation. A 39-year-old male with no signi ficant past medical history presented with flu-like symptoms. Upon further evaluation, laboratory studies noted pancytopenia, and a chest X-ray showed bilateral nodular densities. A computerized tomography (CT) scan demonstrated bilateral pulmonary nodules and splenomegaly...
January 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809934/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#6
Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Jung Hung, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chon-Haw Tsai, Trong-Neng Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that chronic exposure to air pollution can significantly increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), but this relationship is inconclusive as large-scale prospective studies are limited and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure in a nationwide population using a longitudinal approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD), which consisted of 1,000,000 beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Program (NHI) in the year 2000 and their medical records from 1995 to 2013 and using public data on air pollution concentrations from monitoring stations across Taiwan released from the Environmental Protection Administration to identify people with ages ≥ 40 years living in areas with monitoring stations during 1995-1999 as study subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808688/adaptive-mistranslation-accelerates-the-evolution-of-fluconazole-resistance-and-induces-major-genomic-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-candida-albicans
#7
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808393/evaluation-of-the-antidiabetic-properties-of-s-1708-mulberry-variety
#8
Brijesh Ranjan, Randhir Kumar, Neeraj Verma, Swati Mittal, Pranab Lal Pakrasi, R Venkatesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals. AIM: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of mulberry leaf extract in diabetic mice...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805813/analysis-of-genome-wide-association-data-highlights-candidates-for-drug-repositioning-in-psychiatry
#9
Hon-Cheong So, Carlos Kwan-Long Chau, Wan-To Chiu, Kin-Sang Ho, Cho-Pong Lo, Stephanie Ho-Yue Yim, Pak-Chung Sham
Knowledge of psychiatric disease genetics has advanced rapidly during the past decade with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, less progress has been made in harnessing these data to reveal new therapies. Here we propose a framework for drug repositioning by comparing transcriptomes imputed from GWAS data with drug-induced gene expression profiles from the Connectivity Map database and apply this approach to seven psychiatric disorders. We found a number of repositioning candidates, many supported by preclinical or clinical evidence...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805585/understanding-and-treating-pain-syndromes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Christian Geroin, Angelo Antonini, Nicola Smania, Michele Tinazzi
Pain affects many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and diminishes their quality of life. Different types of pain have been described, but their related pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this chapter is to provide movement disorders specialists an update about the pathophysiology of pain and a practical guide for the management of pain syndromes in clinical practice. This chapter reviews current knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of sensory changes and pain in PD, as well as assessment and treatment procedures to manage these symptoms...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805197/family-of-a-person-suffering-from-schizophrenia-in-the-context-of-a-qualitative-approach-to-understanding-the-family-as-a-system
#11
Andrzej Witusik
Qualitative analysis of the family system including a person suffering from schizophrenia is an underestimated research paradigm in modern psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychotherapy. This method is important both from the cognitive point of view and for evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy. AIM: The aim of the study was a qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process in a family whose member is suffering from schizophrenic psychosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study of the process using qualitative research methodology in the paradigm of systemic thinking pointing to the mutual interactions in the family system inducing relapses in the identified patient, with identification of triangulation processes, transgenerational myths inheritance and coalitions formed by the family members...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802578/purification-of-functional-reprogramming-factors-in-mammalian-cell-using-flag-tag
#13
Min-Joon Han, HaRam Kim, Carla O'Reilly, Chun-Hyung Kim
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology is a method for generating pluripotent stem cells in vitro from fully differentiated cells such as fibroblast cells. The potential applications of iPSC technology in cell therapy and disease modeling could influence current medical practices. Despite current advances in iPSC technology, many patient-derived reprogrammed cells are not suitable for clinical trial because most protocols rely on virus-based techniques, which pose the risk of integration of the viral genome into the chromosomes...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#14
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798797/the-effects-of-guizhi-gancao-decoction-on-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure-and-posttranslational-modifications-of-tubulin-in-mice
#15
Hui-Hua Chen, Pei Zhao, Jing Tian, Wei Guo, Ming Xu, Chen Zhang, Rong Lu
Guizhi Gancao Decoction (GGD), a traditional Chinese medical recipe, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China for centuries. The present study was carried out to determine whether GGD exerts direct protective effects against pressure overload-induced heart failure. Moreover, we investigated whether GGD affects tubulin expression and posttranslational modifications. We demonstrated that GGD ameliorated TAC caused cardiac hypertrophy by gravimetric and echocardiography analysis in C57BL/6 mice...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795550/-management-of-chronic-osteomyelitis-by-long-term-antibiotic-suppression
#16
C Kabore, A Wouters, F Frippiat, P Gillet
Chronic osteomyelitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bone infection. It may be limited to a single portion of bone or involve several areas such as marrow, cortical, periosteum and adjacent soft tissues. Being able to persist for weeks, months or even years, it remains a therapeutic challenge in spite of the important medical and surgical advances, with a prolonged and complex management given the nature of the surgical interventions and the antibiotherapies required. We report a case of chronic osteomyelitis treated by long-term suppressive antibiotic therapy, which may be a reasonable alternative to surgery in inoperable clinical situations, but taking into account the risks associated with it in terms of side effects and selection of resistant organisms, as well as the cost of treatment and the quality of life of the patient...
July 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#17
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790453/perianal-fistulizing-crohn-s-disease-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Julián Panés, Jordi Rimola
Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease has a major negative effect on patient quality of life and is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease include an increased production of transforming growth factor β, TNF and IL-13 in the inflammatory infiltrate that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases, leading to tissue remodelling and fistula formation. Care of patients with perianal Crohn's disease requires a multidisciplinary approach...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781108/exenatide-once-weekly-versus-placebo-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Dilan Athauda, Kate Maclagan, Simon S Skene, Martha Bajwa-Joseph, Dawn Letchford, Kashfia Chowdhury, Steve Hibbert, Natalia Budnik, Luca Zampedri, John Dickson, Yazhou Li, Iciar Aviles-Olmos, Thomas T Warner, Patricia Limousin, Andrew J Lees, Nigel H Greig, Susan Tebbs, Thomas Foltynie
BACKGROUND: Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether these effects would be apparent in a clinical trial. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with moderate Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous injections of exenatide 2 mg or placebo once weekly for 48 weeks in addition to their regular medication, followed by a 12-week washout period...
August 3, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777755/ads-5102-amantadine-extended-release-capsules-for-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-ease-lid-2-study-interim-results-of-an-open-label-safety-study
#20
Robert A Hauser, Rajesh Pahwa, Caroline M Tanner, Wolfgang Oertel, Stuart H Isaacson, Reed Johnson, Larissa Felt, Mary Jean Stempien
BACKGROUND: Medical treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need. ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules is being developed for the treatment of LID in patients with PD. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of 274 mg ADS-5102 for LID in PD. METHODS: In an ongoing, open-label safety study (NCT02202551), PD patients with LID received 274 mg of ADS-5102 once daily at bedtime...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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