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gram-negative bacteremia

Yuji Watanabe, Nozomi Oikawa, Maya Hariu, Ryota Fuke, Masafumi Seki
Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein serve as biomarkers of infection in patients with sepsis/bacteremia. The present study assessed the clinical characteristics of 280 patients with suspected sepsis who were admitted to Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Among the patients, 133 and 147 were positive and negative for PCT, respectively. Patients who were PCT positive were older and more frequently male, had reduced levels of platelets and albumin, and increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
Hirokazu Nishikawa, Michinori Shirano, Yu Kasamatsu, Ayumi Morimura, Ko Iida, Tomomi Kishi, Tetsushi Goto, Saki Okamoto, Eiji Ehara
BACKGROUND: The detection of infectious bacteria in blood culture samples is important for diagnosis and treatment, but this requires 1-2 days at least, and is not adequate as a rapid test. Therefore, we have investigated the diagnostic ability and the optimal cutoff value of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the bacteremias using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and relative cumulative frequency distribution (RCD) curves. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in inpatients (852 subjects: 426 positive cultures and 426 negative cultures) from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Beejal R Ganti, Bernard L Marini, Jerod Nagel, Dale Bixby, Anthony J Perissinotti
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the impact of antibacterial prophylaxis with levofloxacin in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Adult patients with relapsed/refractory AML admitted for reinduction chemotherapy between November 1, 2006 and June 15, 2015 were screened for inclusion. A protocol initiating levofloxacin prophylaxis was implemented on December 1, 2013. Patients receiving hypomethylating agents (decitabine/azacitidine) were not administered antibacterial prophylaxis and thus not included in this analysis...
October 14, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mohan V Sumedha Maturu, Chandrashekar U K, Shivashankara K N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
John J Veillette, James Truong, Steven C Forland
Limited data exist regarding optimal dosing of ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) in patients with unique physiology, who were excluded from published clinical trials. Data are also lacking regarding clinical efficacy of C/A in patients with infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. To expand knowledge in these areas, we present pharmacokinetic data from two patients with KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections, both of whom had renal impairment, and one of whom was morbidly obese...
September 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Glenn J Rapsinski, Jina Makadia, Nitin Bhanot, Zaw Min
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative microorganisms are uncommon pathogens responsible for infective endocarditis. Pseudomonas mendocina, a Gram-negative water-borne and soil-borne bacterium, was first reported to cause human infection in 1992. Since then, it has rarely been reported as a human pathogen in the literature. We describe the first case of native valve infective endocarditis due to P. mendocina in the USA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old white man presented with bilateral large leg ulcers, fever, and marked leukocytosis...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jina Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Tian Xia, Xiaojun Xu, Ning Zhao, Zebin Luo, Yongmin Tang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic power of the cytokine patterns and serum procalcitonin (PCT) level for predicting infection in pediatric hematology/oncology patients. METHODS: Retrospective study including hospitalized hematology-oncology children was conducted and their serum Th1/Th2 cytokines measured by a flow cytometric method were analyzed. According to clinical symptoms, imaging and microbiological findings, febrile episodes were divided into five diagnostic groups serving as reference standard; and also grouped according to disease severity...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Joon Hee Lee, Seul Ki Kim, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Hack Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Tyler J Loftus, Scott C Brakenridge, Frederick A Moore, Stephen J Lemon, Linda L Nguyen, Stacy A Voils, Janeen R Jordan, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Phillip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Despite the excellent negative predictive value of sterile respiratory cultures, antibiotics often are continued after negative endotracheal aspirate (ETA) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for critically ill trauma patients. We hypothesized that persistent elevation of the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) would predict continued antibiotic therapy after a negative respiratory culture for intubated trauma patients, and that prolonged antibiotics would provide no benefit...
September 16, 2016: Surgical Infections
Shimpei Ito, Hideharu Hagiya, Keigo Kimura, Isao Nishi, Hisao Yoshida, Hidetaka Kioka, Tomohito Ohtani, Osamu Yamaguchi, Kazuaki Tanabe, Kazunori Tomono, Yasushi Sakata
Gram-negative fusiform rods were detected in a blood culture obtained from a 63-year-old man who had been hospitalized for a long duration for severe heart failure. Although the organism could not be identified using a conventional method, it was finally identified as a bacterium of the Capnocytophaga ochracea group based on the results of biochemical testing, 16S rRNA sequencing and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Although neutropenic patients with poor oral hygiene are exclusively vulnerable to Capnocytophaga bacteremia, this case was unique because such predisposing conditions were not noted...
2016: Internal Medicine
Victoria I Holden, Paul Breen, Sébastien Houle, Charles M Dozois, Michael A Bachman
UNLABELLED: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia, and is rapidly acquiring antibiotic resistance. K. pneumoniae requires secretion of siderophores, low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators, for bacterial replication and full virulence. The specific combination of siderophores secreted by K. pneumoniae during infection can impact tissue localization, systemic dissemination, and host survival...
2016: MBio
Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Maneli Amin Shahidi, Gholam Reza Pouladfar, Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari, Jalal Mardaneh
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Filomena Febbraro, Donatella Maria Rodio, Gianluca Puggioni, Guido Antonelli, Valeria Pietropaolo, Maria Trancassini
We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of the combined use of MALDI-TOF MS and classical ID VITEK2 to identify monomicrobial infection in blood culture bottles. In total, 70 consecutive positive blood cultures were included in this study. Positive blood culture bottles were subjected to Gram staining and subcultured on solid media. Isolates grown from such culture media were used for classical ID using VITEK2 system. In parallel, an aliquot was subjected to a lysing-centrifugation method and used for the identification with the MALDI-TOF system...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Jong Eun Park, So-Young Park, Dong Joon Song, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee
Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. The microorganism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.
September 8, 2016: Anaerobe
Asada Leelahavanichkul, Wimonrat Panpetch, Navaporn Worasilchai, Poorichaya Somparn, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Somying Tumwasorn
Gastrointestinal (GI) leakage in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is well known but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), a fungal cell wall component used as a biomarker for invasive fungal disease, was tested in a CDAD mouse model with and without probiotics. Higher serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and spontaneous gram-negative bacteremia, GI leakage indicators, were frequently found in CDAD mice, which died compared with those which survived...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ji-Yong Lee, Cheol-In Kang, Jae-Hoon Ko, Woo Joo Lee, Hye-Ri Seok, Ga Eun Park, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of carbapenems, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have become a major concern in healthcare-associated infections. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical and microbiological features of breakthrough Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) during carbapenem therapy and to assess risk factors for development of breakthrough GNB. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2014. Cases were defined as individuals whose blood cultures grew Gram-negative bacteria while receiving carbapenems for at least 48 hours before breakthrough GNB...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fawzia E Al-Otaibi, Elham E Bukhari, Mona Badr, Abdulkarim A Alrabiaa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, and antibiotic resistance of Gram negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies.   METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 61 episodes of GNB bacteremia occurring in 56 patients with malignancy admitted to the Oncology Units in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2013 to October 2015. Data were retrieved from the computerized database of the microbiology laboratory and the patient's medical records...
September 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Chaitra Shankar, Laura E B Nabarro, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Carbapenem-resistant organisms are increasingly common worldwide, particularly in India and are associated with high mortality rates especially in patients with severe infection such as bacteremia. Existing drugs such as carbapenems and polymyxins have a number of disadvantages, but remain the mainstay of treatment. The tetracycline class of antibiotics was first produced in the 1940s. Minocycline, tetracycline derivative, although licensed for treatment of wide range of infections, has not been considered for treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms until recently and needs further in vivo studies...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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