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gram-negative bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418298/esbl-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-patients-with-bacteremia-yangon-myanmar-2014
#1
Tin O Myat, Rachel F Hannaway, Khwar N Zin, Wah W Htike, Kyu K Win, John A Crump, David R Murdoch, James E Ussher
Among 42 gram-negative bloodstream isolates from inpatients in 3 hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, admitted during July-December 2014, 16 (38%) were extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and 6 (14%) produced carbapenemase. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria raises concerns about the empiric treatment of patients with sepsis in Yangon.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414672/a-strong-and-fortuitous-case-of-dyspnea
#2
R Hammer, M Sciaudone
CASE: A 48 year-old man with no past medical history was sent to our emergency department (ED); from a primary care clinic for hypertensive urgency of 200/130. The man reported an intermittent non-productive cough of approximately one year's duration and worsening dyspnea on exertion and orthopnea over the last month with lower extremity swelling. Of note, he emigrated from Honduras twenty years ago. Blood pressure normalized with administration of Lasix in the ED. Physical exam revealed rales in lung bases bilaterally, jugular venous distension, lower extremity pitting edema with serpiginous patches of erythema and excoriation, and a cardiac gallop...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407420/dental-biofilm-infections-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Tove Larsen, Nils-Erik Fiehn
Teeth are colonized by oral bacteria from saliva containing more than 700 different bacterial species. If removed regularly, the dental biofilm mainly comprises oral streptococci and is regarded as resident microflora. But if left undisturbed, a complex biofilm containing up to 100 bacterial species at a site will build up and may eventually cause development of disease. Depending on local ecological factors, the composition of the dental biofilm may vary considerably. With access to excess carbohydrates, the dental biofilm will be dominated by mainly gram-positive carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria causing demineralization of teeth, dental caries, which may further lead to inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and periapical region, i...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403835/bacteremia-caused-by-bergeyella-zoohelcum-in-an-infective-endocarditis-patient-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Yili Chen, Kang Liao, Lu Ai, Penghao Guo, Han Huang, Zhongwen Wu, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Bergeyella zoohelcum is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that is frequently isolated from the upper respiratory tract of dogs, cats and other mammals. Clinically, B. zoohelcum has been reported causing cellulitis, tenosynovitis, leg abscess and septicemia, which is closely connected with animal bites. Here we describe a case of bacteremia in an infective endocarditis (IE) patient caused by B. zoohelcum, in China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old infective endocarditis woman who had no history of dog bite nor other mammal exposure suffered bacteremia caused by B...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386776/real-world-experience-with-oritavancin-therapy-in-invasive-gram-positive-infections
#5
Cassie L Stewart, Michelle S Turner, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Jordan R Smith
INTRODUCTION: Oritavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. The pharmacokinetic profile and convenient one-time dosing make oritavancin an enticing option for other serious Gram-positive infections requiring prolonged treatment courses. Unfortunately, data for using oritavancin in these populations are limited. METHODS: We report ten cases of oritavancin use for invasive Gram-positive infections in our health system, and provide a review of the currently available literature regarding oritavancin therapy for invasive infections...
April 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358803/efficacy-of-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-hemoperfusion-for-patients-with-septic-shock-caused-by-gram-negative-bacillus-infection
#6
Nobuyuki Saito, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Testu Ohnuma, Takashi Kanemura, Michitaka Nasu, Yuya Yoshidomi, Yuta Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Adachi, Hiroyuki Koami, Aito Tochiki, Kota Hori, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Hisashi Matsumoto
Septic shock-associated mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) remains high, with reported rates ranging 30-50%. In particular, Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which induce significant inflammation and consequent multiple organ failure, are the etiological bacterial agent in 40% of severe sepsis cases. Hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX), which adsorbs endotoxin, is expected to reduce the inflammatory sepsis cascade due to GNB. However, the clinical efficacy of this treatment has not yet been demonstrated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352667/hepcidin-mediated-iron-sequestration-protects-against-bacterial-dissemination-during-pneumonia
#7
Kathryn R Michels, Zhimin Zhang, Alexandra M Bettina, R Elaine Cagnina, Debora Stefanova, Marie D Burdick, Sophie Vaulont, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz, Borna Mehrad
Gram-negative pneumonia is a dangerous illness, and bacterial dissemination to the bloodstream during the infection is strongly associated with death. Antibiotic resistance among the causative pathogens has resulted in diminishing treatment options against this infection. Hepcidin is the master regulator of extracellular iron availability in vertebrates, but its role in the context of host defense is undefined. We hypothesized that hepcidin-mediated depletion of extracellular iron during Gram-negative pneumonia protects the host by limiting dissemination of bacteria to the bloodstream...
March 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317027/the-type-a-and-type-b-polysaccharide-capsules-predominate-in-an-international-collection-of-invasive-kingella-kingae-isolates
#8
Eric A Porsch, Kimberly F Starr, Pablo Yagupsky, Joseph W St Geme
Kingella kingae is an encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium and an important etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children. A recent study examining a diverse collection of carrier and invasive K. kingae isolates from Israel revealed four distinct polysaccharide capsule types. In this study, to obtain a global view of K. kingae capsule type diversity, we examined an international collection of isolates using a multiplex PCR approach. The collection contained all four previously identified capsule types and no new capsule types...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291719/immunization-with-outer-membrane-proteins-oprf-and-opri-and-flagellin-b%C3%A2-protects-mice-from-pulmonary-infection-with-mucoid-and-nonmucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Ramadan Hassan, Wael El-Naggar, Abeer M Abd El-Aziz, Mona Shaaban, Hany I Kenawy, Youssif M Ali
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterium, which considered as a common cause of nosocomial infection and life-threatening complications in immunocompromized and cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we evaluate the protective effect of recombinant vaccines composed of outer membrane proteins OprF and OprI alone or in combination with flagellin B against mucoid and nonmucoid pseudomonas infection. METHODS: BALB/C mice were immunized subcutaneous using OprF and OprI with or without flagellin B and antibody titers were determined...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282773/association-of-periodontitis-with-preterm-birth-and-low-birth-weight-a-comprehensive-review
#10
Alberto Puertas, Antonio Magan-Fernandez, Vanessa Blanc, Laura Revelles, Francisco O'Valle, Elena Pozo, Ruben León, Francisco Mesa
It is estimated that six million perinatal deaths occur every year worldwide, with premature birth being the main cause. Scientific evidence has shown that there is an association between periodontal health during pregnancy and adverse outcomes of labor, although interventional studies based on the treatment of periodontitis have failed to document an impact on reducing the incidence of preterm birth (PB) or low birth weight (LBW). Two pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. The direct pathway is based on the presence of gram-negative anaerobic bacteremia originating in the gingival biofilm, whereas the indirect pathway involves the production of pro-inflammatory markers which enter the bloodstream from the gingival submucosa...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255504/usefulness-of-urinoculture-to-patients-with-dementia-and-femoral-neck-fracture-at-admission-to-hospital-preliminary-results
#11
Laura Garcia-Nuño, Carlos Villamil, Araceli González-Cuevas, David Martí, Silvia Capilla, Maria José Vives, Xavier Oncins, Pere Torner, Juan Castellanos, Lluís Font-Vizcarra
INTRODUCTION: While preoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) has the potential to cause bacteremia and postsurgical acute prosthetic joint infections (APJIs), the influence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in these infections remains unclear. So the majority of guidelines not recommend the treatment of AB prior to the surgery. However, as patients with dementia usually cannot explain the symptoms of dysuria, the differential diagnosis between AB and UTI may be very difficult in this group of patients...
March 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241746/factors-influencing-mortality-in-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteremia
#12
Bingbing Qiao, Jianzhen Wu, Qiquan Wan, Sheng Zhang, Qifa Ye
BACKGROUND: Although multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) has been recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality among abdominal solid organ transplant (ASOT) recipients, there are no data on its prognostic factors after an interim standard definition of MDR was proposed in 2012. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, and predictors of infection-related 30-day mortality in ASOT recipients with MDR GNB. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, double-center analysis of ASOT patients with MDR GNB over a 13-year study period...
February 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224775/laboratory-identification-of-leptotrichia-species-isolated-from-bacteremia-patients-at-a-single-institution
#13
Eun Hye Cho, Kyung Sun Park, Mina Yang, Dong Joon Song, Hee Jae Huh, Chang Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee
We describe the laboratory identification of Leptotrichia species from clinical isolates collected over a six-year period. Five isolates from blood cultures were identified as Leptotrichia species. Gram stain showed large, fusiform, gram-negative or -variable bacilli. Identification based on biochemical testing was unsuccessful; however, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proved to be a useful tool for identifying Leptotrichia species to the genus level. Species level identification was successfully achieved by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219601/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuretic-hormone-secretion-secondary-to-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-in-an-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
M Khushman, M I Morris, L Diaz, M Goodman, D Pereira, K Fuller, M Garcia-Buitrago, B Moshiree, S Zelaya, A Nayer, C L Benjamin, K V Komanduri
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) has been reported to be associated with systemic Strongyloides stercoralis. Here, we report a case of a stem cell transplant (SCT) recipient who developed severe SIADH secondary to systemic S Stercoralis. The SIADH resolved quickly after treating the systemic S Stercoralis with ivermectin. A systematic review of the literature was performed by PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane database search. Only eight cases of S Stercoralis in allogeneic SCT recipients have been previously reported...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207376/hookworm-infection-in-south-american-fur-seal-arctocephalus-australis-pups
#15
M Seguel, F Muñoz, M J Navarrete, E Paredes, E Howerth, N Gottdenker
Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343...
March 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205160/non-fermentative-gram-negative-rods-bacteremia-in-children-with-cancer-a-14-year-single-center-experience
#16
D Averbuch, C Avaky, M Harit, P Stepensky, I Fried, T Ben-Ami, V Temper, Y Peled, H Troen, R Masarwa, W Abu Ahmad, M Weintraub, S Revel-Vilk, D Engelhard
PURPOSE: Data on non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NFGNR) bacteremia in children with malignancies are limited. The aim of this study was to present clinical picture, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, risk factors for resistance and outcome in NFGNR bacteremia in children with cancer. METHODS: All episodes of NFGNR bacteremia occurring during 2001-2014 in children with cancer in a tertiary-care hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp...
February 15, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203469/salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-bacteremia-complicating-pregnancy-in-the-third-trimester
#17
George F Guirguis, Krunal Patel, Lisa Gittens-Williams, Joseph J Apuzzio, Kristina Martimucci, Shauna F Williams
Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes.
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194286/central-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-with-kocuria-kristinae-in-a-patient-with-propionic-acidemia
#18
Masato Kimura, Eichiro Kawai, Hisao Yaoita, Natsuko Ichinoi, Osamu Sakamoto, Shigeo Kure
Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182347/the-diagnostic-value-of-procalcitonin-versus-other-biomarkers-in-prediction-of-bloodstream-infection
#19
Ya-Ping Pan, Ya-Ping Fang, Yuan-Hong Xu, Zhong-Xin Wang, Ji-Lu Shen
BACKGROUND: We compared the diagnostic utility of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and hematological markers, including white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils (NEU), percentage of neutrophils (NEU%), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and platelet count (PLT) for predicting bloodstream infection (BSI), which was confirmed by blood culture (BC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for 1807 inpatients. The level of PCT, CRP, blood cells, and blood culture results were compared between the positive blood culture group and negative blood culture group; each indicator was analyzed in the performance of bacterial BSI diagnosis by drawing ROC curves...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178107/late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-a-10-year-review-from-north-queensland-australia
#20
Harsha Gowda, Robert Norton, Andrew White, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
OBJECTIVE: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in neonates contributes significantly to both morbidity and mortality. To determine the incidence of LOS, risk factors for disease, and the impact on subsequent hospital course, we evaluated a cohort of 6340 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and of neonates (3-28 days) admitted from the community between January 2005 and January 2016. METHODS: This was a retrospective case review of all neonates admitted with suspected LOS who had positive blood culture and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, for an organism determined to be a pathogen...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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