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gram-negative bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344356/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-bacteremia
#1
Swati Patolia, Getahun Abate, Nirav Patel, Setu Patolia, Sharon Frey
Background: The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms is increasing along with mortality. Identifying risk factors for the development of MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia could greatly impact patient care and management. Methods: Data from the electronic health record of patients with GNB over 13-month period were collected at a single university medical center. Baseline demographic data, risk factor, microbiological data, recurrence of bacteremia, and mortality were recorded...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330016/clinical-impact-of-delayed-catheter-removal-for-patients-with-central-venous-catheter-related-gram-negative-bacteremia
#2
Yu-Mi Lee, Chisook Moon, Young Jin Kim, Hee-Joo Lee, Mi Suk Lee, Ki-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly the cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), which show a rapidly rising prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. We evaluated the impact of delayed central venous catheter (CVC) removal on clinical outcomes in patients with gram-negative CRBSI. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2016, patients with gram-negative bacteremia and CVC placement, from two tertiary care hospitals, were retrospectively included...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311425/phylogeny-and-putative-virulence-gene-analysis-of-bartonella-bovis
#3
Sun Tee Tay, Kai Ling Kho, Siew Fen Lye, Yun Fong Ngeow
Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310696/methods-for-detecting-gemmata-spp-bacteremia-in-the-microbiology-laboratory
#4
Jacques-Robert Christen, Edwin Edmond, Michel Drancourt
OBJECTIVE: Gemmata bacteria are fastidious, Gram-negative and aerobic. The only representatives are Gemmata obscuriglobus and Gemmata massiliana. These Planctomycetes appear to be a part of human digestive tract microbiome, and G. massiliana has been isolated from water. Further specific detection in the blood of two patients with febrile neutropenia suggests that Gemmata bacteremia may remain under-documented. The objective of this study was to develop an effective protocol to document Gemmata spp...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303041/changes-in-the-microbiological-epidemiology-of-febrile-neutropenia-in-autologous-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#5
Rosa Rönkkö, Auni Juutilainen, Irma Koivula, Matti Vänskä, Tapio Nousiainen, Esa Jantunen, Sari Hämäläinen
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the incidence, microbiological etiology and outcome of febrile neutropenia among adult hematological patients following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: The study population consisted of patients who received ASCT between 1 December 2006 and 30 November 2012. The epidemiology was compared to a retrospective series covering eleven previous years at the same institution. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients, who had been identified as a risk group in the retrospective study, received ciprofloxacin prophylaxis from January 2008...
January 5, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288723/intravenous-colistin-combination-antimicrobial-treatment-versus-monotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether IV colistin in combination with other antibiotics (IVCC) was associated with lower mortality compared to colistin monotherapy (IVCM) and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with MDR/XDR Gram-negative infections and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IVCC versus IVCM...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278990/clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-gram-negative-infections-treated-with-optimized-dosing-cefepime-over-various-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations
#7
Jerry Altshuler, David J Guervil, Charles D Ericsson, Audrey Wanger, Samuel L Aitken, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
BACKGROUND: The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) revised cefepime interpretive criteria, introducing the susceptible dose-dependent category for Enterobacteriaceae with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 to 8 μg/mL in 2014. Limited clinical data support these new categories. This study compares outcomes of patients treated with standard and high-dose cefepime across various MICs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of pneumonia or bacteremia caused by gram-negative organisms treated with adequate doses of cefepime for ≥48 hours...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277528/determinants-of-inappropriate-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Elena Carrara, Iris Pfeffer, Oren Zusman, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: To assess study-level determinants of non-covering (inappropriate) empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT), focusing on the influence of study years and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the study. METHODS: Systematic review of prospective or retrospective observational studies reporting on the association between IEAT and mortality in adult patients with microbiologically documented infections published between 2008-2016. Meta-analysis of IEAT rates was conducted using a random-effects model...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277527/high-excess-costs-of-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-an-endemic-region
#9
Carlos Andrés Vargas-Alzate, Luis Felipe Higuita-Gutiérrez, Lucelly López López, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos Gallet, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
BACKGROUND: The financial burden of antibiotic resistance is a serious concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe the excess costs associated with pneumonia, bacteremia, surgical site infections and intra-abdominal infections caused by carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Medellín, Colombia, an endemic region for carbapenem resistance. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in a third level hospital from 2014 to 2015. All patients with carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible gram-negative bacteria infections were included...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248504/rapid-emergence-of-colistin-resistance-and-its-impact-on-mortality-in-healthcare-associated-infections
#10
Mehtap Aydin, Önder Ergönül, Alpay Azap, Hüseyin Bilgin, Güle Aydın, Sema Alp Çavuş, Yusuf Ziya Demiroğlu, Hikmet Eda Çalışkan, Osman Memikoğlu, Şirin Menekşe, Şafak Kaya, Nazlım Aktuğ Demir, İlkay Karaoğlan, Seniha Başaran, Çiğdem Hatipoğlu, Şebnem Erdinç, Emel Yılmaz, Ayhanım Tümtürk, Yasemin Tezer, Hamiyet Demirkaya, Şule Eren Çakar, Şiran Keske, SudaTekin, Cem Yardımcı, Çağla Karakoç, Pınar Ergen, Özlem Azap, Lütfiye Mülazımoğlu, Onur Ural, Füsun Can, Halis Akalın
We describe the emergence of resistance and predictors of fatality for 1556 cases of healthcare-associated Gram-negative bloodstream infections in 2014 and 2015. The colistin resistance rate in Klebsiella pneumoniae was 16.1%, compared with 6% in 2013. 660 (42.4%) cases were fatal. The highest fatality rate was among patients with Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia (58%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (41%), Enterobacter cloacae (32%), and Escherichia coli (28%). In multivariate analysis, MIC for carbapenem (OR:1...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236742/route-of-infection-alters-virulence-of-neonatal-septicemia-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates
#11
Bryan K Cole, Edgar Scott, Marko Ilikj, David Bard, Darrin R Akins, David W Dyer, Susana Chavez-Bueno
Escherichia coli is the leading cause of Gram-negative neonatal septicemia in the United States. Invasion and passage across the neonatal gut after ingestion of maternal E. coli strains produce bacteremia. In this study, we compared the virulence properties of the neonatal E. coli bacteremia clinical isolate SCB34 with the archetypal neonatal E. coli meningitis strain RS218. Whole-genome sequencing data was used to compare the protein coding sequences among these clinical isolates and 33 other representative E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230499/-fulminant-sepsis-after-capnocytophaga-canimorsus-infection
#12
K Feige, Pia Hartmann, J T Lutz
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a Gram-negative bacterium present in the oral cavities of cats and dogs. It is known for its capability to cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite, especially in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who suffered from septic shock and multiorgan failure presumably following contamination of a pre-existing minor skin lesion by canine saliva. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of Capnocytophaga canimorsus among physicians when faced with a patient presenting with fulminant septic shock and Gram-negative bacteremia, who has been exposed to dogs...
December 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230335/a-case-of-ignatzschineria-indica-bacteremia-following-maggot-colonization
#13
Hugh Muse, Rachel L Jenkins, Meredith B Oliver, Soomin Kim, Richard L Grantier, Bharat K Malhotra, Jason J Parham, Kayla R Stover
Ignatzschineria indica is a Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly associated with the larvae of flesh flies. I. indica is difficult to isolate in routine laboratory procedures but has been associated with neglected wounds infested with maggots, fever, elevated white blood count and C-reactive protein, and polymicrobial culture results. Other specific hematological/immunological changes are not known. We present a case of I. indica bacteremia and polymicrobial osteomyelitis resulting from infected decubitus ulcers...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204353/sphingomonas-paucimobilis-presenting-as-acute-phlebitis-a-case-report
#14
Saqib Walayat, Abdullah Malik, Nooreen Hussain, Teresa Lynch
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming Gram-negative bacillus, ubiquitous bacterium, thought to be an opportunistic pathogen and is rarely reported in clinical settings. Here in, is the first case report of Acute Sphingomonas phlebitis secondary to intravenous (IV) drug use. We present the case of a 39-year-old male who initially presented with pain in his right upper extremity, fevers and chills of three week duration. He admitted to regularly injecting heroin in his distal right upper extremity with visible erythema, tenderness and streaking along the path of vein along the injection site...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201568/diagnostic-value-of-serum-procalcitonin-lactate-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-for-predicting-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#15
Chiung-Tsung Lin, Jang-Jih Lu, Yu-Ching Chen, Victor C Kok, Jorng-Tzong Horng
Background: Few studies compared the diagnostic value of procalcitonin with a combination of other tests including lactate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the prediction of pathogenic bacteremia in emergency department adult patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study assessing the differences in performances of procalcitonin at a cutoff of 0.5 ng/mL, lactate at a cutoff of 19.8 mg/dL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at a cutoff of 0.8 mg/dL and their combinations for predicting bacteremia in emergency department adult patients...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201522/clinical-effect-of-discordance-in-empirical-treatment-of-cases-with-urinary-tract-infection-accompanied-by-bacteremia
#16
İlyas Dökmetaş, Aziz Ahmad Hamidi, Mehmet Emin Bulut, Sinan Çetin, Ahsen Öncül, Nuray Uzun
Objective: It has been shown in previous studies that inadequate empirical treatment is associated with mortality in a variety of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the clinical effect of discordance in empirical treatment was investigated in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) accompanied by bacteremia. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of adult (>18 years old) patients who were diagnosed with UTI in our clinic between January 2014 and December 2015...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201114/once-versus-thrice-daily-colistin-in-critically-ill-ptients-with-multi-drug-resistant-infections
#17
Monireh Ghazaeian, Majid Mokhtari, Mehran Kouchek, MirMohammad Miri, Reza Goharani, Robabeh Ghodssi-Ghassemabadi, Mohammad Sistanizad
The aim of this study was to evaluate the procalcitonin (PCT) changes in two different high-dose colistin regimens in the treatment of multi-drug resistant MDR gram negative infections in ICU patients. This is a prospective study of adult ICU patients with bacteremia and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by MDR gram negative pathogens. Patients were assigned to two colistin administration groups. Group A received 9 and group B received 3 million international units every 24 and 8 h respectively. Baseline characteristics and measurements of PCT concentrations at the start, the 3rd and the 5th day of the antibiotic therapy and their trends between the two groups were recorded and compared...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191537/risk-factors-and-microbiology-of-meningitis-and-or-bacteremia-after-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-pituitary-adenoma
#18
Yu Jin, Xiaohai Liu, Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Qiang Wang, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Ming Feng, Wei Lian, Renzhi Wang, Qiwen Yang, Yao Wang, Bing Xing
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, bacteriological features, and risk factors of post- transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) meningitis and/or bacteremia. METHODS: This retrospective study included 3242 patients who underwent TSS for pituitary adenoma at the Dept. of Neurosurgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. Clinical data for patients with and without post-TSS meningitis and/or bacteremia were compared and analyzed...
November 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190320/comparing-the-outcomes-of-adults-with-enterobacteriaceae-bacteremia-receiving-short-course-versus-prolonged-course-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-multicenter-propensity-score-matched-cohort
#19
Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Jennifer H Han, Sara E Cosgrove, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Anna T Conley, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen Wise, Pranita D Tamma
Background: The recommended duration of antibiotic treatment for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections is 7-14 days. We compared the outcomes of patients receiving short-course (6-10 days) vs prolonged-course (11-16 days) antibiotic therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 3 medical centers and included patients with monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia treated with in vitro active therapy in the range of 6-16 days between 2008 and 2014...
October 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186403/associations-between-enteral-colonization-with-gram-negative-bacteria-and-intensive-care-unit-acquired-infections-and-colonization-of-the-respiratory-tract
#20
Jos F Frencken, Bastiaan H J Wittekamp, Nienke L Plantinga, Cristian Spitoni, Kirsten van de Groep, Olaf L Cremer, Marc J M Bonten
Background: Enteral and respiratory tract colonization with gram-negative bacteria may lead to subsequent infections in critically ill patients. We aimed to clarify the interdependence between gut and respiratory tract colonization and their associations with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections in patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD). Methods: Colonization status of the rectum and respiratory tract was determined using twice-weekly microbiological surveillance in mechanically ventilated subjects receiving SDD between May 2011 and June 2015 in a tertiary medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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