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Riyoko Tamai, Michiyo Kobayashi-Sakamoto, Yusuke Kiyoura
Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are C-type lectin receptors that bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of galectin-1 and galectin-3 on adhesion to and invasion of the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 by Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogenic gram-negative bacterium. Recombinant galectin-1, but not galectin-3, enhanced P. gingivalis adhesion and invasion, although both galectins bound similarly to P. gingivalis...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Dehbia Benkerrou, Matteo Ceccarelli
One of the greatest health threats facing modern medicine is the emergence of new bacterial strains which are increasingly resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics. According to a CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) report published in 2013, 63% of Acinetobacter species have been identified as Multidrug resistant strains. As for other Gram-negative bacteria, the presence of an outer membrane increases the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii to most antibiotics. The outer membrane of A...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Moataz M Hassan, Zied Gaifer, Ibrahim S Al-Zakwani
Background Colistin is used to treat gram-negative infections but it's highly associated with nephrotoxicity. Objectives To determine the incidence and risk factors as well as mortality in patients on colistin. Setting Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted and who received colistin for ≥ 48 h. The exclusion criteria included inhaled colistin therapy, cystic fibrosis, or pregnancy. The study period was from January 2010 to June 2016...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Yehao Liu, Yongchun Li, Xiaomei Hua, Karin Müller, Hailong Wang, Tongyi Yang, Qiong Wang, Xin Peng, Mengcheng Wang, Yanjun Pang, Jinliang Qi, Yonghua Yang
Glyphosate is a non-selective organophosphate herbicide that is widely used in agriculture, but its effects on soil microbial communities are highly variable and often contradictory, especially for high dose applications. We applied glyphosate at two rates: the recommended rate of 50 mg active ingredient kg-1 soil and 10-fold this rate to simulate multiple glyphosate applications during a growing season. After 6 months, we investigated the effects on the composition of soil microbial community, the catabolic activity and the genetic diversity of the bacterial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs), and 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sheta M Sheta, Said M El-Sheikh, Mohkles M Abd-Elzaher
Novel copper metal organic framework nanoparticles Cu-MOF-NPs (C1) were prepared via two simple alternative methods and confirmed by analytical characterization using mass, IR, Raman, XRD spectrum, HR-TEM and TGA-DSC. Mass spectroscopy revealed the molecular ion peak at 647 m/z for the monomeric unit structure n[Cu(AIP)2 (PIY)(H2 O)2 ]·4H2 O, the presence of which was further supported by mass fragmentation. The Raman spectrum revealed two separate peaks corresponding to D and G bands of carbon in the structure of C1...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Patrice Rassam, Kathleen R Long, Renata Kaminska, David J Williams, Grigorios Papadakos, Christoph G Baumann, Colin Kleanthous
Gram-negative bacteria depend on energised protein complexes that connect the two membranes of the cell envelope. However, β-barrel outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) and α-helical inner-membrane proteins (IMPs) display quite different organisation. OMPs cluster into islands that restrict their lateral mobility, while IMPs generally diffuse throughout the cell. Here, using live cell imaging of Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that when transient, energy-dependent transmembrane connections are formed, IMPs become subjugated by the inherent organisation of OMPs and that such connections impact IMP function...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ishan Ghai, Harsha Bajaj, Jayesh Arun Bafna, Hussein Ali El Damrany Hussein, Mathias Winterhalter, Richard Wagner
The outer cell wall of the Gram-negative bacteria is a crucial barrier for antibiotics to reach their target. Here we show that the chemical stability of the widely used antibiotic ampicillin is a major factor in the permeation across OmpF to reach the target in the periplasm. Using planar lipid bilayer we investigated the interactions and permeation of OmpF with ampicillin, its basic pH induced primary degradation product (penicilloic acid), and the chemically more stable benzylpenicillin. We found that the solute induced ion current fluctuation is 10 times higher with penicilloic-acid than with ampicillin...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ronald Domalaon, Temilolu Idowu, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Truong Thi Tuong Vi, Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar, Bishakh Rout, Chi-Hsien Liu, Chak-Bor Wong, Chia-Wei Chang, Chien-Hao Chen, Dave W Chen, Shingjiang Jessie Lue
In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were decorated on thiol (-SH) grafted graphene oxide (GO) layers to investigate the antibacterial activities in Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa ). The quasi-spherical, nano-sized Ag NPs were attached to the GO surface layers, as confirmed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The average size of GO-Ag nanocomposites was significantly reduced (327 nm) from those of pristine GO (962 nm) while the average size of loaded Ag NPs was significantly smaller than the Ag NPs without GO...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kasandra R Dassoulas, Jessica Wang, Jenna Thuman, Idorenyin Ndem, Christine Schaeffer, Madeline Stovall, Alexandra Tilt, Andy Lee, Kant Y Lin, Christopher A Campbell
BACKGROUND: Infection is the most significant complication in implant-based breast reconstruction, potentially leading to reconstructive failure. We hypothesized that implementation of an evidence-based protocol marked by preoperative decolonization and sterility optimization would result in a decline in postoperative infection rates. METHODS: Informed by a literature review, we developed an evidence-based, perioperative infection prevention protocol implemented in 2015...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Pramod Gavel, Dharm Dev, Hamendra Singh Parmar, Sheetal Bhasin, Apurba K Das
Here, we report the self-assembly of Amoc (9-anthracenemethoxycarbonyl)-capped dipeptides, which self-assemble to form injectable, self-healable and shape-memory hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties. Amoc-capped dipeptides self-assemble to form nanofibrillar networks, which are established by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The inherent antibacterial properties of hydrogels are evaluated using two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James J Leyden, Vilma Sniukiene, David R Berk, Alexandre Kaoukhov
BACKGROUND: There is a need for new oral antibiotics for acne with improved safety profiles and targeted antibacterial spectra. Sarecycline is a novel, tetracycline-class antibiotic specifically designed for acne, offering a narrow spectrum of activity compared with currently available tetracyclines, including less activity against enteric Gram-negative bacteria. This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of sarecycline for moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Glenn T Werneburg, David G Thanassi
Gram-negative bacteria assemble a variety of surface structures, including the hair-like organelles known as pili or fimbriae. Pili typically function in adhesion and mediate interactions with various surfaces, with other bacteria, and with other types of cells such as host cells. The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway assembles a widespread class of adhesive and virulence-associated pili. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and integral outer membrane protein termed the usher, which forms a multifunctional assembly and secretion platform...
March 2018: EcoSal Plus
Krzysztof Rypuła, Aleksandra Kumala, Katarzyna Płoneczka-Janeczko, Paweł Lis, Ewa Karuga-Kuźniewska, Krzysztof Dudek, Ireneusz Całkosiński, Patrycja Kuźnik, Paweł Chorbiński
Chlamydiae are frequently encountered Gram-negative intracellular eubacteria that can cause clear manifestations or clinically asymptomatic disorders. C. suis and other chlamydia are primarily isolated in cases of reproductive disorders. This study was performed to estimate the impact of Chlamydia suis infection on reproduction in sows by analyzing reproduction rates and breeding parameters. The test was conducted on first generation (F1) pigs from Polish Landrace (PL) × Polish Large White (PLW). Sixty-four herds were investigated and 500 vaginal swabs were collected...
March 13, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kirill V Korneev, Anna N Kondakova, Ekaterina N Sviriaeva, Nikita A Mitkin, Angelo Palmigiano, Andrey A Kruglov, Georgy B Telegin, Marina S Drutskaya, Luisa Sturiale, Domenico Garozzo, Sergei A Nedospasov, Yuriy A Knirel, Dmitry V Kuprash
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni , the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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