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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339695/incidence-and-outcomes-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-2007-2015
#1
Sharon B Meropol, Allison A Haupt, Sara M Debanne
Background.: The escalating incidence of invasive disease caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-GNE) is a global concern. Scant published studies in which the epidemiology of these infections in children is described exist; previous studies focused mainly on adults, described circumscribed populations, or lacked clinical detail. The objective of this study was to examine and describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with MDR-GNE infection in children...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#2
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#3
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338958/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-skin-of-hylarana-guentheri
#4
Zhu Dong, Wenjie Luo, Hengren Zhong, Manchuriga Wang, Yanting Song, Shiming Deng, Yingxia Zhang
The cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin of Hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-GHa-GHd and temporin-GUa), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1GUb), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2GHd-2GHj, and brevinin-2GHb). Eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. Synthesized temporin GHa-GHd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungus (Candida albicans)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338066/chemical-composition-antioxidant-dna-damage-protective-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-activities-of-cyperus-rotundus-rhizomes-essential-oil-against-foodborne-pathogens
#5
Qing-Ping Hu, Xin-Ming Cao, Dong-Lin Hao, Liang-Liang Zhang
Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#6
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337179/characterization-of-a-novel-nicotine-degradation-gene-cluster-ndp-in-sphingomonas-melonis-ty-and-its-evolutionary-analysis
#7
Haixia Wang, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Jiguo Qiu, Longxiang Shi, Zhenmei Lu
Sphingomonas melonis TY utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy through a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (VPP). A 31-kb novel nicotine-degrading gene cluster, ndp, in strain TY exhibited a different genetic organization with the vpp cluster in strains Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae SJY1 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33. Genes in vpp were separated by a 20-kb interval sequence, while genes in ndp were localized together. Half of the homolog genes were in different locus in ndp and vpp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336841/bulk-surfaces-coated-with-triangular-silver-nanoplates-antibacterial-action-based-on-silver-release-and-photo-thermal-effect
#8
Agnese D'Agostino, Angelo Taglietti, Roberto Desando, Marcella Bini, Maddalena Patrini, Giacomo Dacarro, Lucia Cucca, Piersandro Pallavicini, Pietro Grisoli
A layer of silver nanoplates, specifically synthesized with the desired localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features, was grafted on amino-functionalized bulk glass surfaces to impart a double antibacterial action: (i) the well-known, long-term antibacterial effect based on the release of Ag⁺; (ii) an "on demand" action which can be switched on by the use of photo-thermal properties of silver nano-objects. Irradiation of these samples with a laser having a wavelength falling into the so called "therapeutic window" of the near infrared region allows the reinforcement, in the timescale of minutes, of the classical antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles...
January 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336675/evolving-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-for-microbial-keratitis-at-a-large-county-hospital
#9
Haoxing Jin, Walter T Parker, Nathan W Law, Cameron L Clarke, Jordan D Gisseman, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Li Wang, Zaina N Al-Mohtaseb
Purpose: To identify the risk factors, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of microbial keratitis in a large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Design: Case series. METHODS: Setting: A large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Study Population: Patients with known diagnosis of microbial keratitis from January 2011 to May 2015. Observation Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Main Outcomes: Epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and antibiotic susceptibility of microbial keratitis...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336044/flexor-tenosynovitis
#10
REVIEW
Brad T Hyatt, Mark R Bagg
For patients with suspected flexor tenosynovitis, the mainstay of diagnosis is a thorough history and physical examination. The examination is guided by evaluating the patient for Kanavel's four cardinal signs. Empiric antibiotics should be started immediately on diagnosis covering skin flora and gram-negative bacteria. Typically, surgery is required. Appropriate exposure is required for adequate treatment and incisions should be tailored to preserve areas of skin compromised from draining sinuses and abscess pressure...
April 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335611/evaluation-of-thioesterases-from-acinetobacter-baylyi-for-production-of-free-fatty-acids
#11
Rahul Ukey, William E Holmes, Rakesh Bajpai, Andrei Y Chistoserdov
Acinetobacter baylyi is one of few Gram-negative bacteria capable of accumulating storage lipids in the form of triacylglycerides and wax esters, which makes it an attractive candidate for production of lipophilic products, including biofuel precursors. Thioesterases play a significant dual role in the triacylglyceride and wax ester biosynthesis by either providing or removing acyl-CoA from this pathway. Therefore, 4 different thioesterase genes were cloned from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 and expressed in Escherichia coli to investigate their contribution to free fatty acids (FFAs) accumulation...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335481/genetic-variants-contributing-to-colistin-cytotoxicity-identification-of-tgif1-and-hoxd10-using-a-population-genomics-approach
#12
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335342/innovative-self-cleaning-and-biocompatible-polyester-textiles-nano-decorated-with-fe-n-doped-titanium-dioxide
#13
Ionela Cristina Nica, Miruna Silvia Stan, Anca Dinischiotu, Marcela Popa, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Veronica Lazar, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Ovidiu G Iordache, Elena Varzaru, Iuliana Dumitrescu, Marcel Feder, Florin Vasiliu, Ionel Mercioniu, Lucian Diamandescu
The development of innovative technologies to modify natural textiles holds an important impact for medical applications, including the prevention of contamination with microorganisms, particularly in the hospital environment. In our study, Fe and N co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles have been obtained via the hydrothermal route, at moderate temperature, followed by short thermal annealing at 400 °C. These particles were used to impregnate polyester (PES) materials which have been evaluated for their morphology, photocatalytic performance, antimicrobial activity against bacterial reference strains, and in vitro biocompatibility on human skin fibroblasts...
November 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335299/synthesis-of-sic-ag-cellulose-nanocomposite-and-its-antibacterial-activity-by-reactive-oxygen-species-generation
#14
Andrzej Borkowski, Tomasz Cłapa, Mateusz Szala, Arkadiusz Gąsiński, Marek Selwet
We describe the synthesis of nanocomposites, based on nanofibers of silicon carbide, silver nanoparticles, and cellulose. Silver nanoparticle synthesis was achieved with chemical reduction using hydrazine by adding two different surfactants to obtain a nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles of different diameters. Determination of antibacterial activity was based on respiration tests. Enzymatic analysis indicates oxidative stress, and viability testing was conducted using an epifluorescence microscope. Strong bactericidal activity of nanocomposites was found against bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus, which were used in the study as typical Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively...
September 13, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335288/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-taxus-yunnanensis-callus-and-their-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-human-cancer-cells
#15
Qian Hua Xia, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Plant constituents could act as chelating/reducing or capping agents for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The green synthesis of AgNPs has been considered as an environmental friendly and cost-effective alternative to other fabrication methods. The present work described the biosynthesis of AgNPs using callus extracts from Taxus yunnanensis and evaluated their antibacterial activities in vitro and potential cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Callus extracts were able to reduce silver nitrate at 1 mM in 10 min...
September 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335201/size-and-shape-dependent-antibacterial-studies-of-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-wet-chemical-routes
#16
Muhammad Akram Raza, Zakia Kanwal, Anum Rauf, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Saira Riaz, Shahzad Naseem
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm...
April 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#17
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#18
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334028/providencia-stuartii-form-biofilms-and-floating-communities-of-cells-that-display-high-resistance-to-environmental-insults
#19
Mariam El Khatib, Que-Tien Tran, Chady Nasrallah, Julie Lopes, Jean-Michel Bolla, Michel Vivaudou, Jean-Marie Pagès, Jacques-Philippe Colletier
Biofilms are organized communities of bacterial cells that are responsible for the majority of human chronic bacterial infections. Providencia stuartii is a Gram-negative biofilm-forming bacterium involved in high incidence of urinary tract infections in catheterized patients. Yet, the structuration of these biofilms, and their resistance to environmental insults remain poorly understood. Here, we report on planktonic cell growth and biofilm formation by P. stuartii, in conditions that mimic its most common pathophysiological habitat in humans, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334005/multi-scale-model-of-drug-induced-adaptive-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacteria-to-polymyxin-b
#20
Wojciech Krzyzanski, Gauri G Rao
The purpose of this report is to apply multi-scale modeling using the theory of physiologically structured populations (PSP) to develop a mathematical model for antimicrobial resistance based on a heterogeneous distribution of receptors and affinities among bacterial cells. The theory has been tested on data obtained from an in vitro static time-kill infection model analyzing the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Gram-negative bacteria. The drug binding parameter KD (dissociation equilibrium constant) is assumed to vary between the bacterial cells...
2017: PloS One
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