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Repressed memories

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474581/thermopriming-triggers-splicing-memory-in-arabidopsis
#1
Yu Ling, Natalia Serrano, Ge Gao, Mohamed Atia, Morad Mokhtar, Yong H Woo, Jeremie Bazin, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Moussa Benhamed, Martin Crespi, Christoph Gehring, A S N Reddy, Magdy M Mahfouz
Abiotic and biotic stresses limit crop productivity. Exposure to a non-lethal stress, referred to as priming, can allow plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal conditions; the priming effect persists even after a prolonged stress-free period. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying priming are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of heat shock memory and the role of priming in Arabidopsisthaliana. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in primed and non-primed plants revealed that alternative splicing functions as a novel component of heat shock memory...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470492/memory-functions-reveal-structural-properties-of-gene-regulatory-networks
#2
Edgar Herrera-Delgado, Ruben Perez-Carrasco, James Briscoe, Peter Sollich
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459824/-egr3-immediate-early-gene-and-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
Bianca Pfaffenseller, Flavio Kapczinski, Amelia L Gallitano, Fábio Klamt
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness with a consistent genetic influence, involving complex interactions between numerous genes and environmental factors. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are activated in the brain in response to environmental stimuli, such as stress. The potential to translate environmental stimuli into long-term changes in brain has led to increased interest in a potential role for these genes influencing risk for psychiatric disorders. Our recent finding using network-based approach has shown that the regulatory unit of early growth response gene 3 ( EGR3 ) of IEGs family was robustly repressed in postmortem prefrontal cortex of BD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301062/regulatory-roles-of-histone-deacetylases-1-and-2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#4
Yulan Wu, Yi Xu, Xiyao Huang, Danlei Ye, Miaomiao Han, Hui-Li Wang
Lead (Pb) prevails among the environmental hazards against human health. Although increasing evidence highlights the epigenetic roles underlying the Pb-induced neurotoxicity, the exact mechanisms concerning histone acetylation and its causative agents are still at its infancy. In the present study, the roles of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), as well as histone H3 Lys9 acetylation (Ac-H3K9), in Pb-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Pb was administered to PC12 cells at 10 μM for 24 hours. And Sprague- Dawley rats were chronically exposed to Pb through drinking water containing 250 ppm Pb for 2 months...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249600/exhaustion-and-inflation-at-antipodes-of-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-virus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Luka Cicin-Sain, Ramon Arens
Viruses that have coevolved with their host establish chronic infections that are well tolerated by the host. Other viruses, that are partly adapted to their host, may induce chronic infections where persistent replication and viral antigen expression occur. The former induce highly functional and resilient CD8T cell responses called memory inflation. The latter induce dysfunctional and exhausted responses. The reasons compelling T cell responses towards inflationary or exhausted responses are only partly understood...
December 14, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246443/transcription-factor-irf4-promotes-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-and-limits-the-development-of-memory-like-t-cells-during-chronic-infection
#6
Kevin Man, Sarah S Gabriel, Yang Liao, Renee Gloury, Simon Preston, Darren C Henstridge, Marc Pellegrini, Dietmar Zehn, Friederike Berberich-Siebelt, Mark A Febbraio, Wei Shi, Axel Kallies
During chronic stimulation, CD8+ T cells acquire an exhausted phenotype characterized by expression of inhibitory receptors, down-modulation of effector function, and metabolic impairments. T cell exhaustion protects from excessive immunopathology but limits clearance of virus-infected or tumor cells. We transcriptionally profiled antigen-specific T cells from mice infected lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains that cause acute or chronic disease. T cell exhaustion during chronic infection was driven by high amounts of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced transcription factors IRF4, BATF, and NFATc1...
December 11, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236683/effector-cd8-t-cells-dedifferentiate-into-long-lived-memory-cells
#7
Ben Youngblood, J Scott Hale, Haydn T Kissick, Eunseon Ahn, Xiaojin Xu, Andreas Wieland, Koichi Araki, Erin E West, Hazem E Ghoneim, Yiping Fan, Pranay Dogra, Carl W Davis, Bogumila T Konieczny, Rustom Antia, Xiaodong Cheng, Rafi Ahmed
Memory CD8 T cells that circulate in the blood and are present in lymphoid organs are an essential component of long-lived T cell immunity. These memory CD8 T cells remain poised to rapidly elaborate effector functions upon re-exposure to pathogens, but also have many properties in common with naive cells, including pluripotency and the ability to migrate to the lymph nodes and spleen. Thus, memory cells embody features of both naive and effector cells, fuelling a long-standing debate centred on whether memory T cells develop from effector cells or directly from naive cells...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212661/disruption-of-an-rna-binding-hinge-region-abolishes-lhp1-mediated-epigenetic-repression
#8
Scott Berry, Stefanie Rosa, Martin Howard, Marc Bühler, Caroline Dean
Epigenetic maintenance of gene repression is essential for development. Polycomb complexes are central to this memory, but many aspects of the underlying mechanism remain unclear. LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) binds Polycomb-deposited H3K27me3 and is required for repression of many Polycomb target genes in Arabidopsis Here we show that LHP1 binds RNA in vitro through the intrinsically disordered hinge region. By independently perturbing the RNA-binding hinge region and H3K27me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27) recognition, we found that both facilitate LHP1 localization and H3K27me3 maintenance...
November 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190361/shaping-epigenetic-memory-via-genomic-bookmarking
#9
Davide Michieletto, Michael Chiang, Davide Colì, Argyris Papantonis, Enzo Orlandini, Peter R Cook, Davide Marenduzzo
Reconciling the stability of epigenetic patterns with the rapid turnover of histone modifications and their adaptability to external stimuli is an outstanding challenge. Here, we propose a new biophysical mechanism that can establish and maintain robust yet plastic epigenetic domains via genomic bookmarking (GBM). We model chromatin as a recolourable polymer whose segments bear non-permanent histone marks (or colours) which can be modified by 'writer' proteins. The three-dimensional chromatin organisation is mediated by protein bridges, or 'readers', such as Polycomb Repressive Complexes and Transcription Factors...
November 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178433/triptolide-inhibits-donor-specific-antibody-production-and-attenuates-mixed-antibody-mediated-renal-allograft-injury
#10
Daqiang Zhao, Siwen Li, Tao Liao, Yuan Wei, Mingyu Liu, Fei Han, Zihuan Luo, Xiaonan Liu, Qiquan Sun
Donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are major mediators of renal allograft injury, and strategies to inhibit DSAs are important in promoting long-term graft survival. Triptolide exhibits a wide spectrum of antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, and in autoimmune diseases it inhibits autoantibody levels. In this study, we investigated the suppressive role of triptolide in the generation of DSAs in transplant recipients. We found that triptolide treatment of skin allograft recipients in mice significantly suppressed the development of circulating anti-donor-specific IgG and effectively alleviated DSA-mediated renal allograft injury, which led to prolonged allograft survival...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155979/epigenetic-editing-of-the-dlg4-psd95-gene-improves-cognition-in-aged-and-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#11
Fernando J Bustos, Estibaliz Ampuero, Nur Jury, Rodrigo Aguilar, Fahimeh Falahi, Jorge Toledo, Juan Ahumada, Jaclyn Lata, Paula Cubillos, Berta Henríquez, Miguel V Guerra, Jimmy Stehberg, Rachael L Neve, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Ursula Wyneken, Marco Fuenzalida, Steffen Härtel, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Lorena Varela-Nallar, Marianne G Rots, Martin Montecino, Brigitte van Zundert
The Dlg4 gene encodes for post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), a major synaptic protein that clusters glutamate receptors and is critical for plasticity. PSD95 levels are diminished in ageing and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. The epigenetic mechanisms that (dys)regulate transcription of Dlg4/PSD95, or other plasticity genes, are largely unknown, limiting the development of targeted epigenome therapy. We analysed the Dlg4/PSD95 epigenetic landscape in hippocampal tissue and designed a Dlg4/PSD95 gene-targeting strategy: a Dlg4/PSD95 zinc finger DNA-binding domain was engineered and fused to effector domains to either repress (G9a, Suvdel76, SKD) or activate (VP64) transcription, generating artificial transcription factors or epigenetic editors (methylating H3K9)...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153325/genetic-and-epigenetic-strategies-potentiate-gal4-activation-to-enhance-fitness-in-recently-diverged-yeast-species
#12
Varun Sood, Jason H Brickner
Certain genes show more rapid reactivation for several generations following repression, a conserved phenomenon called epigenetic transcriptional memory. Following previous growth in galactose, GAL gene transcriptional memory confers a strong fitness benefit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapting to growth in galactose for up to 8 generations. A genetic screen for mutants defective for GAL gene memory revealed new insights into the molecular mechanism, adaptive consequences, and evolutionary history of memory...
November 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122005/memories-of-paternal-relations-are-associated-with-coping-and-defense-mechanisms-in-breast-cancer-patients-an-observational-study
#13
Chiara Renzi, Giada Perinel, Paola Arnaboldi, Sara Gandini, Valeria Vadilonga, Nicole Rotmensz, Angela Tagini, Florence Didier, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood...
November 9, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114037/reducing-eif4e-eif4g-interactions-restores-the-balance-between-protein-synthesis-and-actin-dynamics-in-fragile-x-syndrome-model-mice
#14
Emanuela Santini, Thu N Huynh, Francesco Longo, So Yeon Koo, Edward Mojica, Laura D'Andrea, Claudia Bagni, Eric Klann
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA-binding protein that represses the translation of its target mRNAs. One mechanism by which FMRP represses translation is through its association with cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1), which subsequently sequesters and inhibits eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). CYFIP1 shuttles between the FMRP-eIF4E complex and the Rac1-Wave regulatory complex, thereby connecting translational regulation to actin dynamics and dendritic spine morphology, which are dysregulated in FXS model mice that lack FMRP...
November 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101321/contribution-of-epigenetic-landscapes-and-transcription-factors-to-x-chromosome-reactivation-in-the-inner-cell-mass
#15
Maud Borensztein, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Laurène Syx, Guillaume Guilbaud, Christel Picard, Katia Ancelin, Rafael Galupa, Patricia Diabangouaya, Nicolas Servant, Emmanuel Barillot, Azim Surani, Mitinori Saitou, Chong-Jian Chen, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, Edith Heard
X-chromosome inactivation is established during early development. In mice, transcriptional repression of the paternal X-chromosome (Xp) and enrichment in epigenetic marks such as H3K27me3 is achieved by the early blastocyst stage. X-chromosome inactivation is then reversed in the inner cell mass. The mechanisms underlying Xp reactivation remain enigmatic. Using in vivo single-cell approaches (allele-specific RNAseq, nascent RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence), we show here that different genes are reactivated at different stages, with more slowly reactivated genes tending to be enriched in H3meK27...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089052/epigenetic-control-of-epilepsy-target-genes-contributes-to-a-cellular-memory-of-epileptogenesis-in-cultured-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#16
K Kiese, J Jablonski, J Hackenbracht, J K Wrosch, T W Groemer, J Kornhuber, I Blümcke, K Kobow
Hypersynchronous neuronal excitation manifests clinically as seizure (ictogenesis), and may recur spontaneously and repetitively after a variable latency period (epileptogenesis). Despite tremendous research efforts to describe molecular pathways and signatures of epileptogenesis, molecular pathomechanisms leading to chronic epilepsy remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications may form the basis for a cellular memory of epileptogenesis, and used a primary neuronal cell culture model of the rat hippocampus to study the translation of massive neuronal excitation into persisting changes of epigenetic signatures and pro-epileptogenic target gene expression...
October 31, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081819/cognitive-function-of-artemisia-argyi-h-fermented-by-monascus-purpureus-under-tmt-induced-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-icr-mice
#17
Jin Yong Kang, Du Sang Lee, Seon Kyeong Park, Jeong Su Ha, Jong Min Kim, Gi Jeong Ha, Weon Taek Seo, Ho Jin Heo
The cognitive effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM), which has cellular antioxidant activity and neuronal cell viability, on trimethyltin- (TMT-) induced learning and memory impairment in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was confirmed. Tests were conducted to determine the neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, and the results showed that AAFM has protective effects through the repression of mitochondrial injury and cellular membrane damage against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034500/how-communication-between-nucleosomes-enables-spreading-and-epigenetic-memory-of-histone-modifications
#18
REVIEW
Fabian Erdel
Nucleosomes "talk" to each other about their modification state to form extended domains of modified histones independently of the underlying DNA sequence. At the same time, DNA elements promote modification of nucleosomes in their vicinity. How do these site-specific and histone-based activities act together to regulate spreading of histone modifications along the genome? How do they enable epigenetic memory to preserve cell identity? Many models for the dynamics of repressive histone modifications emphasize the role of strong positive feedback loops, which reinforce histone modifications by recruiting histone modifiers to preexisting modifications...
October 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970783/the-histone-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognitive-behaviors-in-mice
#19
Gang-Bin Tang, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Pei-Pei Liu, Ting-Wei Mi, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Shang-Kun Dai, Qing-Yuan Tang, Lin Yang, Ya-Jie Xu, Hai-Liang Yan, Hong-Zhen Du, Zhao-Qian Teng, Feng-Quan Zhou, Chang-Mei Liu
Histone demethylase UTX mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to establish a mechanistic switch to activate large sets of genes. Mutation of Utx has recently been shown to be associated with Kabuki syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly syndrome with dementia. However, its biological function in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we observe that deletion of Utx results in increased anxiety-like behaviors and impaired spatial learning and memory in mice. Loss of Utx in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959219/investigating-behavioral-and-psychophysiological-reactions-to-conflict-related-and-individualized-stimuli-as-potential-correlates-of-repression
#20
Henrik Kessler, Anna Christine Schmidt, Oliver Hildenbrand, Daniela Scharf, Aram Kehyayan, Nikolai Axmacher
Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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