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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027601/hysteresis-in-myo-inositol-utilization-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#1
Jessica Hellinckx, Thilo M Fuchs
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) as the sole carbon and energy source is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests in a growth phenotype with an extraordinarily long and length-variable lag phase. However, in the presence of hydrogen carbonate, in the absence of IolR that represses the MI degradation pathway, or if cells are already adapted to minimal medium (MM) with MI, the lag phase is drastically shortened, and the bistable phenotype is abolished...
December 27, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018990/the-tcf1-bcl6-axis-counteracts-type-i-interferon-to-repress-exhaustion-and-maintain-t-cell-stemness
#2
Tuoqi Wu, Yun Ji, E Ashley Moseman, Haifeng C Xu, Monica Manglani, Martha Kirby, Stacie M Anderson, Robin Handon, Elizabeth Kenyon, Abdel Elkahloun, Weiwei Wu, Philipp A Lang, Luca Gattinoni, Dorian B McGavern, Pamela L Schwartzberg
During chronic viral infections and in cancer, T cells become dysfunctional, a state known as T cell exhaustion. Although it is well recognized that memory CD8 T cells account for the persistence of CD8 T cell immunity after acute infection, how exhausted T cells persist remains less clear. Using chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 and tumor samples, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells differentiate into a less exhausted TCF1(high) and a more exhausted TCF1(low) population. Virus-specific TCF1(high) CD8 T cells, which resemble T follicular helper (TFH) cells, persist and recall better than do TCF1(low) cells and act as progenitor cells to replenish TCF1(low) cells...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011866/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-controls-cell-fate-decisions-in-b-cells
#3
Bharat Vaidyanathan, Ashutosh Chaudhry, William T Yewdell, Davide Angeletti, Wei-Feng Yen, Adam K Wheatley, Christopher A Bradfield, Adrian B McDermott, Jonathan W Yewdell, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jayanta Chaudhuri
Generation of cellular heterogeneity is an essential feature of the adaptive immune system. This is best exemplified during humoral immune response when an expanding B cell clone assumes multiple cell fates, including class-switched B cells, antibody-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. Although each cell type is essential for immunity, their generation must be exquisitely controlled because a class-switched B cell cannot revert back to the parent isotype, and a terminally differentiated plasma cell cannot contribute to the memory pool...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992519/site-dependent-differences-in-dna-methylation-and-their-impact-on-plant-establishment-and-phosphorus-nutrition-in-populus-trichocarpa
#4
Brigitte Schönberger, Xiaochao Chen, Svenja Mager, Uwe Ludewig
The propagation via clonal stem cuttings is a frequent practice in tree plantations. Despite their clonal origin, the trees establish differently according to weather, temperature and nutrient availability, as well as the presence of various stresses. Here, clonal Populus trichocarpa (cv. Muhle Larson) cuttings from different sites were transferred into a common, fully nutrient supplied environment. Despite identical underlying genetics, stem cuttings derived from sites with lower phosphorus availability established worse, independent of phosphorus (P) level after transplantation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984208/oral-administration-of-grape-seed-polyphenol-extract-restores-memory-deficits-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats
#5
Chen Chen, Yake Zheng, Tianwen Wu, Chuanjie Wu, Xuan Cheng
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated...
December 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983596/estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-influencing-nrf1-regulated-gene-networks-in-the-development-of-complex-human-brain-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Mark Preciados, Changwon Yoo, Deodutta Roy
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939580/microrna-101-regulates-multiple-developmental-programs-to-constrain-excitation-in-adult-neural-networks
#7
Giordano Lippi, Catarina C Fernandes, Laura A Ewell, Danielle John, Benedetto Romoli, Giulia Curia, Seth R Taylor, E Paxon Frady, Anne B Jensen, Jerry C Liu, Melanie M Chaabane, Cherine Belal, Jason L Nathanson, Michele Zoli, Jill K Leutgeb, Giuseppe Biagini, Gene W Yeo, Darwin K Berg
A critical feature of neural networks is that they balance excitation and inhibition to prevent pathological dysfunction. How this is achieved is largely unknown, although deficits in the balance contribute to many neurological disorders. We show here that a microRNA (miR-101) is a key orchestrator of this essential feature, shaping the developing network to constrain excitation in the adult. Transient early blockade of miR-101 induces long-lasting hyper-excitability and persistent memory deficits. Using target site blockers in vivo, we identify multiple developmental programs regulated in parallel by miR-101 to achieve balanced networks...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939357/%C3%AE-isocubebenol-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-impairment-by-repressing-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#8
Sung Hwa Song, Seong Mi Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Yung Hyun Choi, Chang Joon Bae, Young Whan Choi, Dae Youn Hwang
α-Isocubebenol (ICO) isolated from Schisandra chinensis fruit was recently shown to exert neuroprotective properties with significant anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Here, we present evidence of the novel effects of ICO on alleviation of cognitive impairment. To confirm these effects, ICR mice were pretreated with two different doses of ICO for 3 weeks and scopolamine (SP) to induce memory impairment for the last 7days of the period. A passive avoidance test showed that ICO pretreatment recovered memory impairment in SP treated mice, although there was no difference between the two doses...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933319/a-metabolic-widget-adjusts-the-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent-fructose-influx-in-pseudomonas-putida
#9
Max Chavarría, Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo, Pablo I Nikel
Fructose uptake in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida occurs through a canonical phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar transport system (PTS(Fru)). The logic of the genetic circuit that rules its functioning is puzzling: the transcription of the fruBKA operon, encoding all the components of PTS(Fru), can escape the repression exerted by the catabolite repressor/activator protein Cra solely in the presence of intracellular fructose-1-P, an agonist formed only when fructose has been already transported...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932388/from-embryo-to-adult-pirna-mediated-silencing-throughout-germline-development-in-drosophila
#10
Pauline P Marie, Stéphane Ronsseray, Antoine Boivin
In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development, has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920256/a-transcription-factor-pulse-can-prime-chromatin-for-heritable-transcriptional-memory
#11
Aimee Iberg-Badeaux, Samuel Collombet, Benoit Laurent, Chris van Oevelen, Kuo-Kai Chin, Denis Thieffry, Thomas Graf, Shi Yang
Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in post-mitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM), and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907249/grainyhead-like-3-grhl3-deficiency-in-brain-leads-to-altered-locomotor-activity-and-decreased-anxiety-like-behaviours-in-aged-mice
#12
Sebastian Dworkin, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Maria Daglas, Robert L Medcalf, Theo Mantamadiotis, Smitha R Georgy, Charbel Darido, Stephen M Jane, Stephen B Ting
The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861791/foxp1-is-a-key-regulator-of-quiescence-in-healthy-human-cd3-cd4-t-cells-and-is-constitutively-repressed-in-cd3-cd4-t-cells-from-patients-with-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#13
Soizic Garaud, Florence Roufosse, Pushpamali De Silva, Chunyan Gu-Trantien, Jean-Nicolas Lodewyckx, Hugues Duvillier, Sarah Dedeurwaerder, Martin Bizet, Matthieu Defrance, François Fuks, Françoise Bex, Karen Willard-Gallo
The forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) transcription factor has been shown to regulate the generation and maintenance of quiescent naïve murine T cells. In humans, FOXP1 expression has been correlated with overall survival in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), although its regulatory role in T-cell function is currently unknown. We found that FOXP1 is normally expressed in all human leukocyte subpopulations. Focusing on primary human CD4(+) T cells, we show that nuclear expression of FOXP1 predominates in naïve cells with significant downregulation detected in memory cells from blood and tonsils...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860263/activation-and-clustering-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-var-gene-are-affected-by-subtelomeric-sequences
#14
Michael F Duffy, Jingyi Tang, Fransisca Sumardy, Hanh H T Nguyen, Shamista A Selvarajah, Gabrielle A Josling, Karen P Day, Michaela Petter, Graham V Brown
The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching...
November 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836963/phosphorylated-groucho-delays-differentiation-in-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-by-providing-a-molecular-memory-of-egfr-signaling-in-the-niche
#15
Michael J Johnston, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Ze'ev Paroush, Todd G Nystul
In the epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) of the Drosophila ovary, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling promotes self-renewal, whereas Notch signaling promotes differentiation of the prefollicle cell (pFC) daughters. We have identified two proteins, Six4 and Groucho (Gro), that link the activity of these two pathways to regulate the earliest cell fate decision in the FSC lineage. Our data indicate that Six4 and Gro promote differentiation towards the polar cell fate by promoting Notch pathway activity...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819840/repressive-coping-does-not-contribute-to-anosognosia-in-first-diagnosis-patients-with-alzheimer-disease
#16
Sandra Verhülsdonk, Christian Lange-Asschenfeldt, Barbara Höft, Holger Schwender, Tillmann Supprian, Florence Hellen, Elke Kalbe
Anosognosia is common in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) even in early stages. Although neural correlates and the impact of cognitive dysfunctions have been described, possible psychodynamic processes such as a repressive coping style as described in other illnesses, have not been examined. Our study aimed to examine possible psychological influence factors on illness perception embracing a repressive coping style and cognitive functions in AD patients in the diagnostic process. Fifty-four subjects with mild AD diagnosed in our memory clinic were enrolled...
November 4, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819666/a-cis-cold-memory-element-and-a-trans-epigenome-reader-mediate-polycomb-silencing-of-flc-by-vernalization-in-arabidopsis
#17
Wenya Yuan, Xiao Luo, Zicong Li, Wannian Yang, Yizhong Wang, Rui Liu, Jiamu Du, Yuehui He
Some plants acquire competence to flower in spring after experiencing a seasonal temperature drop-winter cold, in a process termed vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, prolonged exposure to cold induces epigenetic silencing of the potent floral repressor locus FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, and this silencing is stably maintained in subsequent growth and development upon return to warm temperatures. Here we show that a cis-regulatory DNA element in the nucleation region for PcG silencing at FLC and two homologous trans-acting epigenome readers, VAL1 and VAL2, control vernalization-mediated FLC silencing...
November 7, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815505/transcription-factor-ets-2-acts-as-a-preinduction-repressor-of-interleukin-2-il-2-transcription-in-naive-t-helper-lymphocytes
#18
Ioannis Panagoulias, Tassos Georgakopoulos, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Marios Agelopoulos, Dimitris Thanos, Athanasia Mouzaki
IL-2 is the first cytokine produced when naive T helper (Th) cells are activated and differentiate into dividing pre-Th0 proliferating precursors. IL-2 expression is blocked in naive, but not activated or memory, Th cells by the transcription factor Ets-2 that binds to the antigen receptor response element (ARRE)-2 of the proximal IL-2 promoter. Ets-2 acts as an independent preinduction repressor in naive Th cells and does not interact physically with the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) that binds to the ARRE-2 in activated Th cells...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795436/naf1-regulates-hiv-1-latency-by-suppressing-viral-promoter-driven-gene-expression-in-primary-cd4-t-cells
#19
Chuan Li, Hai-Bo Wang, Wen-Dong Kuang, Xiao-Xin Ren, Shu-Ting Song, Huan-Zhang Zhu, Qiang Li, Li-Ran Xu, Hui-Jun Guo, Li Wu, Jian-Hua Wang
: HIV-1 latency is characterized by reversible silencing of viral transcription driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of HIV-1. Cellular and viral factors regulating LTR activity contribute to HIV-1 latency, and certain repressive cellular factors modulate viral transcription silencing. Nef-associated factor 1 (Naf1) is a host nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that regulates multiple cellular signaling pathways and HIV-1 production. We recently reported that nuclear Naf1 promoted nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA, leading to increased Gag production...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776275/war-and-remembrance-combat-exposure-in-young-adulthood-and-memory-function-sixty-years-later
#20
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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