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Th2 biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775896/dysregulated-network-of-mirnas-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Sanam Dolati, Faroogh Marofi, Zohreh Babaloo, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Leila Roshangar, Majid Ahmadi, Reza Rikhtegar, Mehdi Yousefi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and organ-specific autoimmune disease in which immune cells act against the myelin sheath, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) damage. It has been revealed that miRNAs can play significant role in the pathogenesis of MS. These regulatory molecules lead to the activation of different signaling pathways, regulation of several transcriptional factors, influencing the differentiation of Th17 cells, development of Tregs and alteration from Th2 to Th1 response in MS. New studies have discovered that dysregulation of miRNAs may trigger abnormal immune responses leading consequently in the emergence of autoimmunity...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758106/sputum-to-serum-hydrogen-sulfide-ratio-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-predicting-future-risks-of-asthma-exacerbation
#2
Yasuhito Suzuki, Junpei Saito, Masami Kikuchi, Manabu Uematsu, Atsuro Fukuhara, Suguru Sato, Mitsuru Munakata
BACKGROUND: Increased level of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in sputum is reported to be a new biomarker of neutrophilic airway inflammation in chronic airway disorders. However, the relationship between H2 S and disease activity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether H2 S levels could vary during different conditions in asthma. METHOD: H2 S levels in sputum and serum were measured using a sulfide-sensitive electrode in 47 stable asthmatic subjects (S-BA), 21 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects (UC-BA), 26 asthmatic subjects with acute exacerbation (AE-BA), and 15 healthy subjects...
May 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741411/biomarkers-for-severe-allergic-asthma-in-children-could-they-be-useful-to-guide-disease-control-and-use-of-omalizumab
#3
Flore Amat, André Labbé
Although symptom controls in asthmatic children can be achieved through compliant use of conventional medication, some children have uncontrolled severe persistent asthma, especially if they are allergic. For these children, omalizumab (approved by the EMA and FDA in children aged > 6 years) could be a therapeutic option. However, response to omalizumab varies from one child to another. Predictive biomarkers of omalizumab effectiveness could be useful to monitor response to treatment. Area covered: The authors searched in the PubMed database for publications related to the use of biomarkers in allergic asthma...
May 9, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684754/increases-in-helminth-induced-il-21-protein-levels-disappear-upon-sample-freezing
#4
Anupama Ariyaratne, Edina K Szabo, Joel Bowron, Constance A M Finney
IL-21 is a much studied cytokine that has been implicated in the regulation of TH1, TH2, TH17 and regulatory immune responses; its signalling is a promising therapeutic target for autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Despite its biological importance, measuring IL-21 reliably has proved difficult. ELISAs are commonly used to measure cytokines in various biological samples. However, results obtained are only as good as the quality of the sample. Here, we show that when using fresh samples, a significant increase in IL-21 was measured in the intestinal homogenate of mice infected with the intestinal worm Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680481/mycobacterium-avium-lysate-induces-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-in-intestinal-tissue-and-peripheral-blood-observations-from-selected-hospital-based-zambian-adults
#5
Gershom Chongwe, Charles Michelo, Edford Sinkala, Violet Kayamba, Jean-Baptiste Nzayisenga, Francis Drobniewski, Paul Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteropathy is prevalent in low-income countries, although its aetiology is unknown. We investigated if Mycobacterium avium antigens, which are commonly found in the environment, could contribute to its pathogenesis in a population known to have widespread environmental enteropathy. METHODS: Routine endoscopy patients at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka whose endoscopy results were normal submitted duodenal biopsies and whole blood samples...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652177/broncho-epithelial-iga-secretion-is-impaired-in-asthma-role-of-il-4-il-13
#6
Maha Zohra Ladjemi, Delphine Gras, Sébastien Dupasquier, Bruno Detry, Marylène Lecocq, Céline Garulli, Chantal Fregimilicka, Caroline Bouzin, Sophie Gohy, Pascal Chanez, Charles Pilette
RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with increased lung IgE production, but whether the secretory (S-)IgA system is affected in this disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We explored mucosal IgA transport in human asthma and its potential regulation by Th2 inflammation. METHODS: Bronchial biopsies from asthma and control subjects were assayed for broncho-epithelial pIgR expression and correlated to Th2 biomarkers. Bronchial epithelium reconstituted in vitro from these subjects, upon culture in air-liquid interface, was assayed for pIgR expression and regulation by IL-4/IL-13...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601354/phenotypes-endotypes-driven-treatment-in-asthma
#7
Fulvio Braido, Angelica Tiotiu, Krzysztof Kowal, Stefan Mihaicuta, Plamena Novakova, Ipek Kivilcim Oguzulgen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Target therapy is the necessary step towards personalized medicine. The definition of asthma phenotypes and underlying mechanisms (endotypes) represent a key point in the development of new asthma treatments. Big data analysis, biomarker research and the availability of monoclonal antibodies, targeting specific cytokines is leading to the rapid evolution of knowledge. In this review, we sought to outline many of the recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Several attempts have been made to identify asthma phenotypes, sometimes with contrasting results...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600943/silent-arterial-inflammation-during-the-apparent-remission-state-of-takayasu-s-arteritis-what-do-cytokines-tell-us
#8
Bruna Savioli, Bruno Ramos Salu, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Alexandre W S de Souza
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum cytokines as biomarkers of smoldering disease activity in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) in remission. METHODS: Thirty-four TAK patients with stable disease during the last 6 months and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included in a cross-sectional study. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22 cytokines were measured by the multiplex technique. RESULTS: No significant differences regarding serum cytokine levels were found between TAK patients and HC...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581487/a-prominent-air-pollutant-indeno-1-2-3-cd-pyrene-enhances-allergic-lung-inflammation-via-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#9
Tzu-Hsuan Wong, Chon-Lin Lee, Hsiang-Han Su, Chin-Lai Lee, Chao-Chien Wu, Chin-Chou Wang, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Ruay-Sheng Lai, Sum-Yee Leung, Chi-Cheng Lin, Yu-Feng Wei, Chien-Jen Wang, Yu-Chun Lin, Hua-Ling Chen, Ming-Shyan Huang, Jeng-Hsien Yen, Shau-Ku Huang, Jau-Ling Suen
Chronic exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with asthma, but its regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We report herein that elevated levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a biomarker of PAH exposure, were found in asthmatic subjects (n = 39) as compared to those in healthy subjects (n = 43) living in an industrial city of Taiwan, where indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) was found to be a prominent PAH associated with ambient PM2.5 . In a mouse model, intranasal exposure of mice with varying doses of IP significantly enhanced antigen-induced allergic inflammation, including increased airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-5, as well as antigen-specific IgE level, which was absent in dendritic cell (DC)-specific aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-null mice...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554572/cytokine-and-soluble-adhesion-molecule-profiles-and-biomarkers-for-treatment-monitoring-in-re-treated-smear-positive-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Xue-Juan Bai, Hong-Min Li, You-Rong Yang, Jun-Xian Zhang, Yan Liang, Xue-Qiong Wu
Relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is associated with a failure of the host immune system to control the invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Severe immunodeficiency or immune disorders may be the main reason for TB recurrence. This study aimed to quantify serum inflammatory cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule levels in Re-treated smear-positive PTB patients before and after re-anti-TB drug therapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 healthy controls and 215 Treated active PTB patients at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 months post-re-treatment...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518197/multipolarity-of-cytokine-axes-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-terms-of-age-race-species-disease-stage-and-biomarkers
#11
Takashi Nomura, Tetsuya Honda, Kenji Kabashima
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease of the skin. Signatures of AD are characterized by an impaired skin barrier, aberrant Th2-type cytokine production and intensive pruritus. Transcriptomic analysis, however, has revealed a heterogeneous pathogenesis and the co-existence of multiple cytokine axes of Th17, Th22 and Th1 types, especially in intrinsic (a subtype of AD without skin barrier impairment), pediatric and Asian types of AD. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-4 receptor α against AD was not as high as that of IL-17 blockage against psoriasis, which implies a modification of the disease spectrum by non-Th2-type cytokine axes in AD...
March 6, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515128/the-cd14-159-c-t-snp-is-associated-with-scd14-levels-and-allergic-asthma-but-not-with-cd14-expression-on-monocytes
#12
J J Nieto-Fontarigo, F J Salgado, M E San-José, M J Cruz, A Casas-Fernández, M J Gómez-Conde, L Valdés-Cuadrado, M Á García-González, P Arias, M Nogueira, F J González-Barcala
LPS-ligation to CD14/TLR-4 on monocytes/macrophages triggers the production of IL-12-family cytokines. IL12/18 promote TH1 -differentiation, counteracting the TH2 -driven asthma. Therefore, CD14 modulation could alter the TH2 -differentiation and should be taken into account when studying asthma. To analyse the alteration in CD14 levels and its association with CD14 (-159 C/T) SNP (rs2569190) in Caucasian adults with stable allergic asthma, we performed a cross-sectional study (277 healthy subjects vs. 277 patients) where clinical parameters, CD14 values and the CD14 (-159 C/T) SNP were studied...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504235/cytokine-profile-il-2-il-6-il-17-il-22-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-vitiligo-new-insight-into-pathogenesis-of-disease
#13
Sushama Sushama, Niharika Dixit, Ram Krishna Gautam, Pooja Arora, Ananta Khurana, Anubhuti Anubhuti
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease associated with alteration in levels of various cytokines. However, there are very few studies in this regard. OBJECTIVES: To assess the serum levels of cytokines secreted by Th1 (IL-2, TNF-α), Th2 (IL-6), and Th17 cells (IL-17, IL-22) in patients with localized vitiligo and generalized vitiligo and to correlate their levels with the extent, duration, and activity of disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients of vitiligo (30 each of localized and generalized) and 30 controls were recruited in the study...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498549/potential-of-serum-soluble-cd93-as-a-biomarker-for-asthma-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-murine-model
#14
Hye Jung Park, Eun-Yi Oh, Yoon Hee Park, Misuk Yang, Kyung Hee Park, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: CD93 is a membrane-associated glycoprotein, which can be released in a soluble form (sCD93) into the serum. CD93 has received renewed attention as a candidate biomarker of inflammation in various inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of airway inflammation on CD93 levels in murine models. METHODS: We established an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced acute asthma murine model (OVA model) and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation murine model (LPS model)...
April 12, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477354/cytokine-expression-and-cytokine-based-t-cell-profiling-in-occupational-medicamentosa-like-dermatitis-due-to-trichloroethylene
#15
Yang Xueqin, Li Wenxue, Li Peimao, Zhang Wen, Huang Xianqing, Zhuang Zhixiong
Early diagnosis and treatment of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMLDT) are absence of specific and reliable diagnostic/therapeutic biomarkers. This study was conducted on 30 cases of OMLDT, 58 workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and 40 unexposed controls in order to identify any cytokine signatures that give an index to CD4+ T cell differential and serve as biomarkers of OMLDT. Expression profiles of Th1 , Th2 , Th17 and Treg cell type-specifying transcription factors and cytokines were analyzed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471919/dupilumab-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Melinda J Gooderham, H Chih-Ho Hong, Panteha Eshtiaghi, Kim A Papp
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis characterized by a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response phenotype and may be associated with systemic inflammation. Dupilumab is an interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor α-antagonist that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through blockade of the shared IL-4α subunit. Blockade of IL-4/13 is effective in reducing Th2 response. Dupilumab has recently been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453280/elevated-expression-of-il-33-and-tslp-in-the-airways-of-human-asthmatics-in-vivo-a-potential-biomarker-of-severe-refractory-disease
#17
Yan Li, Wei Wang, Zhe Lv, Yun Li, Yan Chen, Kewu Huang, Chris J Corrigan, Sun Ying
The epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and IL-25 have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis because they promote Th2-type cytokine synthesis, but their expression is relatively poorly documented in "real-life" human asthma. Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we measured airway concentrations of these mediators and compared them with those of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, airway infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and lung function in a large group of asthmatic patients with a range of disease severity ( n = 70) and control subjects ( n = 30)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445292/late-onset-asthma-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Tsunahiko Hirano, Kazuto Matsunaga
Because the pathophysiology of asthma has diverse characteristics, to manage the disease effectively, it is important for clinicians to distinguish among the clinical phenotypes. Among them, adult-onset asthma, that is, late-onset asthma (LOA), is increasing because of the aging of the population. The phenotype of LOA is largely divided into two types according to the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, T-helper (Th)2- and non-Th2-associated LOA. Especially in Th2 LOA related to rhinosinusitis, as pulmonary function at onset is poor and asthma exacerbations occur frequently, it is important to detect this phenotype in the early phase by using a biomarker of Th2-type inflammation such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO )...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431689/dysregulated-th1-immune-and-vascular-responses-in-scrub-typhus-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Lynn Soong
Scrub typhus is an emerging, insect-transmitted disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram- and LPS-negative bacterium that replicates freely within professional phagocytes and endothelial cells. Scrub typhus is prevalent with high mortality rates, but information regarding its molecular pathogenesis, microbial virulence determinants, and key immune responses is limited. Improved animal models have recently been developed that respectively resemble the pathological features of self-limiting or severe scrub typhus in humans...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427986/airway-inflammation-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#20
Hui Fang Lim, Parameswaran Nair
Severe asthma is a complex disease consisting of different endotypes with different inflammatory and clinicopathological characteristics due to the heterogeneity of immune responses and smooth muscle dysfunction. There is an unmet clinical need to develop and to validate biomarkers that can differentiate between the asthma endotypes and guide clinical management, particularly since the availability of biologicals directed against T2 cytokines. The presence of a "Th2 endotype" is currently assessed in clinical practice using markers, such as eosinophil count in sputum or blood, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and immunoglobulin E...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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