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Hsin-Yi Wang, Han-Yi Chen, Ying-Ya Hsu, Ulrich Stimming, Hao Ming Chen, Bin Liu
We report that an ultrafast kinetics of reversible metal-ion insertion can be realized in anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2). Niobium ions (Nb5+) were carefully chosen to dope and drive anatase TiO2 into very thin nanosheets standing perpendicularly onto transparent conductive electrode (TCE) and simultaneously construct TiO2 with an ion-conducting surface together with expanded ion diffusion channels, which enabled ultrafast metal ions diffusion across the electrolyte/solid interface and into the bulk of TiO2...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ying Lan, Andrew S Elwood Madden, Elizabeth C Butler
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are common ground water contaminants susceptible to reductive dechlorination by FeS (mackinawite) in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to characterize the mineral-associated products that form when mackinawite reacts with TCE and PCE. The dissolved products of the reaction included Cl(-) and Fe(2+), and trace amounts of cis 1,2-dichloroethylene (for TCE) and TCE (for PCE). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis identified greigite as a mackinawite oxidation product formed after reaction between TCE or PCE and FeS over seven weeks...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Douglas I Walker, Karan Uppal, Luoping Zhang, Roel Vermeulen, Martyn Smith, Wei Hu, Mark P Purdue, Xiaojiang Tang, Boris Reiss, Sungkyoon Kim, Laiyu Li, Hanlin Huang, Kurt D Pennell, Dean P Jones, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Taiji Nomura
Plants have evolved secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of immense rich diversity. The genes encoding enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis have evolved through gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, thereby generating functional diversity. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some of those enzymes catalyze reactions entirely different from those usually catalyzed by other members of the same family; e.g. transacylation catalyzed by an enzyme similar to a hydrolytic enzyme. Tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE), which we recently discovered from tulip, catalyzes the conversion of major defensive secondary metabolites, tuliposides, to antimicrobial tulipalins...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Karin A Ebert, Christine Laskov, Martin Elsner, Stefan B Haderlein
RATIONALE: The recent development of compound-specific online chlorine isotope analysis ((37) Cl-CSIA) methods has fostered dual chlorine-carbon isotope studies to gain better insights into sources and environmental transformation reactions of chlorinated ethenes (CEs). 1-point and 2-point calibration schemes are currently used to convert raw data to the international δ(37) ClSMOC scale, but a critical evaluation of best practices to arrive at reliable δ(37) ClSMOC signatures and enrichment factors was missing and is presented here...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jeffrey D Wilcox, Kathy M Johnson
Tree cores were collected and analyzed for trichloroethylene (TCE) on a private property between a former electroplating facility in Asheville, North Carolina (USA), and a contaminated wetland/spring complex. TCE was detected in 16 of 31 trees, the locations of which were largely consistent with a "plume core" delineated by a more detailed subsurface investigation nearly 2 years later. Concentrations in tree cores and nearby soil borings were not correlated, perhaps due to heterogeneities in both geologic and tree root structure, spatial and temporal variability in transpiration rates, or interferences caused by other contaminants at the site...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Junho Jang, Hyeon-Gyun Im, Jungho Jin, Jaemin Lee, Jung-Yong Lee, Byeong-Soo Bae
In this paper, we report flexible transparent conducting electrode (TCE) film using a silver grid (Ag grid)/silver nanowire (AgNW) hybrid structure (AG/NW-GFRHybrimer). The AG/NW-GFRHybrimer consists of an AgNW-embedded glass-fabric reinforced plastic film (AgNW-GFRHybrimer) and an electroplated Ag grid. The AgNW-GFRHybrimer is used as a flexible transparent substrate and a seed layer for electroplating. The Ag grid is fabricated via an all-solution-process; the grid pattern is formed using conventional photolithography, and Ag is deposited through electroplating...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Junhui Li, Renata Alves de Toledo, Hojae Shim
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of some major parameters on the cometabolic removal of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), mixed with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, by an indigenous bacterial isolate Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. Such statistical methodologies as hierarchical cluster analysis heat map and principal component analysis were applied to better evaluate the effects of major parameters (soil pH, temperature, moisture, and cis-DCE/TCE concentrations) on the biological process...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Emanuele Moccia, Adriano Intiso, Angela Cicatelli, Antonio Proto, Francesco Guarino, Patrizia Iannece, Stefano Castiglione, Federico Rossi
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated aliphatic organic compound often detected as pollutant in soils and ground water. "Green technologies" based on phytoremediation were proven to be effective to reclaim organic pollutants (e.g. TCE) and heavy metals from different environmental matrices. In this work, we use Zea mays L. for the removal of high TCE concentrations from medium cultures. In particular, we investigated a sealed bioreactor where the growth medium was contaminated with an increasing amount of TCE, in the range 55-280 mg/L; the removal capability of the maize plants was assessed by means of GC-MS and LC-MS analyses...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan Jiang, Jiahong Chen, Cong Yue, Hang Zhang, Tao Chen
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common environmental contaminant, causes hepatocellular carcinoma in mice but not in rats. To understand the mechanisms of the species-specific hepatocarcinogenecity of TCE, we examined the methylation status of DNA in the liver of rats exposed to TCE at 0 or 1000 mg/kg b.w. for 5 days using MeDIP-chip, bisulfite sequencing, COBRA, and LC-MS/MS. The related mRNA expression levels were measured by qPCR. Although no global DNA methylation change was detected, 806 genes were hypermethylated and 186 genes were hypomethylated...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Wei Zhang, Tian Yu, Xiaolin Han, Weichi Ying
We explored the feasibility and removal mechanism of removing 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) from soil-water system using granular activated carbon (GAC) impregnated with nanoscale zerovalent iron (reactive activated carbon or RAC). The RAC samples were successfully synthesized by the liquid precipitation method. The mesoporous GAC based RAC with low iron content (1.32%) exhibited higher 2-ClBP removal efficiency (54.6%) in the water phase. The result of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model implied that the different molecular structures between 2-ClBP and trichloroethylene (TCE) resulted in more difference in dechlorination reaction rates on RAC than adsorption capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Susan L Makris, Cheryl Siegel Scott, John Fox, Thomas B Knudsen, Andrew K Hotchkiss, Xabier Arzuaga, Susan Y Euling, Christina M Powers, Jennifer Jinot, Karen A Hogan, Barbara D Abbott, E Sidney Hunter, Michael G Narotsky
The 2011 EPA trichloroethylene (TCE) IRIS assessment, used developmental cardiac defects from a controversial drinking water study in rats (Johnson et al. [51]), along with several other studies/endpoints to derive reference values. An updated literature search of TCE-related developmental cardiac defects was conducted. Study quality, strengths, and limitations were assessed. A putative adverse outcome pathway (AOP) construct was developed to explore key events for the most commonly observed cardiac dysmorphologies, particularly those involved with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endothelial origin (EndMT); several candidate pathways were identified...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Kathleen M Gilbert, Sarah J Blossom, Stephen W Erickson, Brannon Broadfoot, Kirk West, Shasha Bai, Jingyun Li, Craig A Cooney
CD4(+) T cells in female MRL+/+ mice exposed to solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) skew toward effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, and demonstrate seemingly non-monotonic alterations in IFN-γ production. In the current study we examined the mechanism for this immunotoxicity using effector/memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells isolated every 6 weeks during a 40 week exposure to TCE (0.5mg/ml in drinking water). A time-dependent effect of TCE exposure on both Ifng gene expression and IFN-γ protein production was observed in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, with an increase after 22 weeks of exposure and a decrease after 40 weeks of exposure...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Linda Larkey, Jennifer Huberty, Maja Pedersen, Karen Weihs
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) often report fatigue that persists for years following treatment. Despite a growing body of evidence for meditative movement practices to improve symptoms among BCSs, few studies have explored using Qigong/Tai Chi to reduce fatigue. Additionally, few have examined the biological mechanisms through which fatigue may be reduced using Qigong/Tai Chi. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: We will recruit 250 fatigued, post-menopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer (stage 0-III), between 6months and 5years past primary treatment and randomize to a standardized Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE) intervention, a "sham" Qigong group (movements without a focus on the breath and meditative state) (SQG), or an educational support (ES) group...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Ramanan Sekar, Martial Taillefert, Thomas J DiChristina
: Improper disposal of 1,4-dioxane and the chlorinated organic solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene [PCE]) has resulted in widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. In the present study, a previously designed microbially driven Fenton reaction system was reconfigured to generate hydroxyl (HO˙) radicals for simultaneous transformation of source zone levels of single, binary, and ternary mixtures of TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Joseph A Cichocki, Kathryn Z Guyton, Neela Guha, Weihsueh A Chiu, Ivan Rusyn, Lawrence H Lash
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are high-production volume chemicals with numerous industrial applications. As a consequence of their widespread use, these chemicals are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which the general population is commonly exposed. It is widely assumed that TCE and PCE are toxicologically similar; both are simple olefins with three (TCE) or four (PCE) chlorines. Nonetheless, despite decades of research on the adverse health effects of TCE or PCE, few studies have directly compared these two toxicants...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Michele Scian, Miklos Guttman, Samantha D Bouldin, Caryn E Outten, William M Atkins
The myeloablative agent busulfan (1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate) is an old drug that is used routinely to eliminate cancerous bone marrow prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The myeloablative activity and systemic toxicity of busulfan have been ascribed to its ability to cross-link DNA. In contrast, here we demonstrate that incubation of busulfan with the thiol redox proteins glutaredoxin or thioredoxin at pH 7.4 and 37 °C results in the formation of putative S-tetrahydrothiophenium adducts at their catalytic Cys residues, followed by β-elimination to yield dehydroalanine...
August 23, 2016: Biochemistry
Iman Hassan, Anjana M Kumar, Hae-Ryung Park, Lawrence H Lash, Rita Loch-Caruso
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental pollutant associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in humans. TCE intoxication is primarily through its biotransformation to bioactive metabolites, including S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). TCE induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver and kidney. Although the placenta is capable of xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress and inflammation in placenta have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, TCE toxicity in the placenta remains poorly understood...
August 3, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Shu Zhang, Phillip B Gedalanga, Shaily Mahendra
This study investigated the impacts of individual chlorinated solvents and their mixtures on aerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The established association of these co-occurring compounds suggests important considerations for their respective biodegradation processes. Our kinetics and mechanistic studies demonstrated that individual solvents inhibited biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the following order: 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) > cis-1,2-diochloroethene (cDCE) > trichloroethene (TCE) > 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA)...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Huanyu Zhou, Hahn-Gil Cheong, Jin-Woo Park
We investigated the electronic properties of composite-type hybrid transparent conductive electrodes (h-TCEs) based on Ag nanowire networks (AgNWs) and indium tin oxide (ITO). These h-TCEs were developed to replace ITO, and their mechanical flexibility is superior to that of ITO. However, the characteristics of charge carriers and the mechanism of charge-carrier transport through the interface between the h-TCE and an organic material are not well understood when the h-TCE is used as the anode in a flexible organic light-emitting diode (f-OLED)...
May 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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