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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693899/porosity-and-pore-size-distribution-in-a-sedimentary-rock-implications-for-the-distribution-of-chlorinated-solvents
#1
Allen M Shapiro, Christopher E Evans, Erin C Hayes
Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685912/understanding-noncovalent-interactions-of-small-molecules-with-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Joaquin Calbo, Alejandro López-Moreno, Alberto de Juan, Jeffrey Comer, Enrique Ortí, Emilio Manuel Pérez
We combine experiment, density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the quantitative analyses of the noncovalent interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), as hosts, and a set of pyrene derivatives with different electronic properties and surface area, as guests. The experiments and calculations were carried out in two solvents with markedly different polarities: 1,1',2,2'-tetrachloroethane (TCE) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Our results show that dispersion forces govern the supramolecular association of small molecules with SWNTs, with negligible contribution from ground-state charge-transfer effects...
July 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671809/aln-ito-based-hybrid-electrodes-with-conducting-filaments-their-application-to-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diodes
#3
Kyeong Heon Kim, Tae Ho Lee, Tae Geun Kim
A hybrid-type transparent conductive electrode (H-TCE) structure comprising an AlN rod array with conducting filaments (CFs) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films is proposed to improve both current injection and distribution as well as optical transmittance in the UV region. These CFs, generated in UV-transparent AlN rod areas using an electric field, can be used as conducting paths for carrier injection from a metal to a semiconductor such as p-(Al)GaN, which allows perfect Ohmic behavior with high transmittance (>95% at 365 nm) to be obtained...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671642/acoustic-sensing-and-ultrasonic-drug-delivery-in-multimodal-theranostic-capsule-endoscopy
#4
Fraser R Stewart, Yongqiang Qiu, Holly S Lay, Ian P Newton, Benjamin F Cox, Mohammed A Al-Rawhani, James Beeley, Yangminghao Liu, Zhihong Huang, David R S Cumming, Inke Näthke, Sandy Cochran
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is now a clinically accepted diagnostic modality in which miniaturized technology, an on-board power supply and wireless telemetry stand as technological foundations for other capsule endoscopy (CE) devices. However, VCE does not provide therapeutic functionality, and research towards therapeutic CE (TCE) has been limited. In this paper, a route towards viable TCE is proposed, based on multiple CE devices including important acoustic sensing and drug delivery components. In this approach, an initial multimodal diagnostic device with high-frequency quantitative microultrasound that complements video imaging allows surface and subsurface visualization and computer-assisted diagnosis...
July 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665587/organohalide-respiration-with-chlorinated-ethenes-under-low-ph-conditions
#5
Yi Yang, Natalie L Cápiro, Tyler F Marcet, Jun Yan, Kurt D Pennell, Frank E Löffler
Bioremediation at chlorinated solvent sites often leads to groundwater acidification due to electron donor fermentation and enhanced dechlorination activity. The microbial reductive dechlorination process is robust at circumneutral pH, but activity declines at groundwater pH values below pH 6.0. Consistent with this observation, the activity of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorinating cultures declined at pH 6.0 and was not sustained in pH 5.5 medium, with one notable exception. Sulfurospirillum multivorans dechlorinated PCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) in pH 5...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659017/effect-of-tio2-gac-and-water-vapor-on-chloroform-decomposition-in-a-hybrid-plasma-catalytic-system
#6
Abedi Kamal Ad-Din, Ghorbani-Shahna Farshid, Bahrami Abdulrahman, Ebrahimi Hossein, Maleki Afshin, Madjidi Faramarz, Musavi Saeed, Mohammadi Ebrahim, Giahi Omid
This paper presents the combination of TiO2/GAC catalyst and NTP for the decomposition of chloroform using a DBD reactor. The experiments were performed using an AC transformer as the power supply system to determine the optimal conditions of the chloroform conversion in the presence of a hydrogen-rich substance i.e. water vapor. TiO2/GAC enhanced the removal efficiency and also CO2 selectivity significantly, leading to an acceptable conversion rate at SIEs higher than 400 J L(-1). The adsorption property of GAC was noticed to be an effective factor for catalytic activity by increasing the residence time, although the higher retention time prevented the accurate determination of chlorine and carbon balance...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647265/evaluation-of-co-metabolic-removal-of-trichloroethylene-in-a-biotrickling-filter-under-acidic-conditions
#7
Dhawal Chheda, George A Sorial
This study investigated the removal of hydrophobic trichloroethylene (TCE) in the presence of methanol (co-metabolite) in a biotrickling filter, which was seeded with fungi at pH4. Starvation was chosen as the biomass control strategy. Two systems, Biofilter I (methanol:TCE 70:30) and Biofilter II (methanol:TCE 80:20) were run in parallel, each with varying composition ratios. The TCE loading rates for both biofilters ranged from 3.22 to 12.88g/m(3)/hr. Depending on the ratio, methanol concentrations varied from 4...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640797/rural-and-urban-differences-in-air-quality-2008-2012-and-community-drinking-water-quality-2010-2015-united-states
#8
Heather Strosnider, Caitlin Kennedy, Michele Monti, Fuyuen Yip
PROBLEM/CONDITION: The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639018/test-of-aerobic-tce-degradation-by-willows-salix-viminalis-and-willows-inoculated-with-tce-cometabolizing-strains-of-burkholderia-cepacia
#9
Lauge Peter Westergaard Clausen, Mette Martina Broholm, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Stefan Trapp
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B. cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634321/a-central-mechanism-enhances-pain-perception-of-noxious-thermal-stimulus-changes
#10
B Petre, P Tetreault, V A Mathur, M W Schurgin, J Y Chiao, L Huang, A V Apkarian
Pain perception temporarily exaggerates abrupt thermal stimulus changes revealing a mechanism for nociceptive temporal contrast enhancement (TCE). Although the mechanism is unknown, a non-linear model with perceptual feedback accurately simulates the phenomenon. Here we test if a mechanism in the central nervous system underlies thermal TCE. Our model successfully predicted an optimal stimulus, incorporating a transient temperature offset (step-up/step-down), with maximal TCE, resulting in psychophysically verified large decrements in pain response ("offset-analgesia"; mean analgesia: 85%, n = 20 subjects)...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631622/highly-flexible-ultra-thin-and-transparent-single-layer-graphene-silver-composite-electrodes-for-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#11
Kun Li, Hu Wang, Huiying Li, Ye Li, Guangyong Jin, LanLan Gao, Mazzeo Marco, Yu Duan
Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) platforms are required in many optoelectronic devices, including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). To date, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) based electrodes are widely used in TCEs but they still have few limitations in term of achieving flexible OLEDs and display techniques. In this paper, highly-flexible and ultra-thin TCEs were fabricated for use in OLEDs by combining single-layer graphene (SLG) with thin silver layers of only several nanometers in thickness. The as-prepared SLG+Ag (8nm) composite electrodes showed low sheet resistances of 9Ω/sq, high stability over 500 bending cycles, and 74% transmittance at 550nm wavelength...
June 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617497/flexible-hybrid-graphene-a-si-h-multispectral-photodetectors
#12
D S Schneider, A Bablich, M C Lemme
We report on the integration of large area CVD grown single- and bilayer graphene transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) on amorphous silicon multispectral photodetectors. The broadband transmission of graphene results in 440% enhancement of the detectors' spectral response in the ultraviolet (UV) region at λ = 320 nm compared to reference devices with conventional aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) electrodes. The maximum responsivity of the multispectral photodetectors can be tuned in their wavelength from 320 nm to 510 nm by an external bias voltage, allowing single pixel detection of UV to visible light...
June 29, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614920/-role-of-complement-regulatory-protein-cd55-in-the-liver-immune-injury-of-trichloroethylene-sensitized-mice
#13
X Wang, C Zhang, X D Yang, B D Li, D D Zang, P Yang, J X Zhang, Q X Zhu
Objective: To explore the expression of CD55 in liver tissue of trichloroethylene-sensitized mice and discuss the role of CD55 in the liver immune injury of trichloroethylene-sensitized mice. Methods: 6-8 weeks specific pathogen free female BALB/c were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent control group and TCE treatment group to establish BALB/c mice sensitized model. According to mouse skin sensitization reaction score, TCE treatment mice were divided into sensitized and non-sensitized group at 24 h after the last challenge...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597389/enhanced-fenton-like-degradation-of-tce-in-sand-suspensions-with-magnetite-by-nta-edta-at-circumneutral-ph
#14
Na Wang, Daqing Jia, Yaoyao Jin, Sheng-Peng Sun, Qiang Ke
The present study investigated the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in sand suspensions by Fenton-like reaction with magnetite (Fe3O4) in the presence of various chelators at circumneutral pH. The results showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) greatly improved the rate of TCE degradation, while [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (s,s-EDDS), malonate, citrate, and phytic acid (IP6) have minimal effects on TCE degradation. Quenching tests suggested that TCE was mainly degraded by hydroxyl radical (HO(·)) attack, with about 90% inhibition on TCE degradation by the addition of HO(·) scavenger 2-propanol...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582974/breathable-vapor-toxicant-barriers-based-on-multilayer-graphene-oxide
#15
Ruben Spitz Steinberg, Michelle Cruz, Naser G A Mahfouz, Yang Qiu, Robert H Hurt
There is tremendous interest in graphene-based membranes as protective molecular barriers or molecular sieves for separation technologies. Graphene oxide (GO) films in the dry state are known to be effective barriers for molecular transport and to expand in the presence of moisture to create enlarged intersheet gallery spaces that allow rapid water permeation. Here we explore an application for GO membranes as water-breathable barrier layers for personal protective equipment, which are designed to allow outward perspiration while protecting the wearer from chemical toxicants or biochemical agents in the local environment...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581467/directionality-of-non-permissive-hla-dpb1-t-cell-epitope-group-mismatches-does-not-improve-clinical-risk-stratification-in-8-8-matched-unrelated-donor-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#16
K Fleischhauer, K W Ahn, H L Wang, L Zito, P Crivello, C Müller, M Verneris, B E Shaw, J Pidala, M Oudshorn, S J Lee, S R Spellman
In 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (UD) hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT), HLA-DPB1 mismatches between alleles from different T-cell epitope (TCE) groups (non-permissive mismatches) are associated with significantly higher risks of mortality compared with those between alleles from the same TCE group (permissive mismatches); however, the relevance of mismatch directionality, that is (host vs graft (uni-directional HvG), graft vs host (uni-directional GvH) or both (bi-directional) in the non-permissive setting is unknown...
June 5, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581437/silver-nanowire-graphene-hybrid-transparent-conductive-electrodes-for-highly-efficient-inverted-organic-solar-cells
#17
Neng Ye, Jielin Yan, Shuang Xie, Yuhan Kong, Tao Liang, Hongzheng Chen, Mingsheng Xu
Silver nanowires (AgNWs) and graphene are both promising candidates as a transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to replace expensive and fragile indium tin oxide (ITO) TCE. A synergistically optimized performance is expected when the advantages of AgNWs and graphene are combined. In this paper, the AgNW-graphene hybrid electrode is constructed by depositing a graphene layer on top of the network of AgNWs. Compared with the pristine AgNWs electrode, the AgNW-graphene TCE exhibits reduced sheet resistance, lower surface roughness, excellent long-term stability, and corrosion resistance in corrosive liquids...
June 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551209/electromagnetic-induction-of-foam-based-nanoscale-zerovalent-iron-nzvi-particles-to-thermally-enhance-non-aqueous-phase-liquid-napl-volatilization-in-unsaturated-porous-media-proof-of-concept
#18
Supawan Srirattana, Kitsanateen Piaowan, Gregory V Lowry, Tanapon Phenrat
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is a promising remediation agent for volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in saturated sub-surfaces, but is rarely applied to the vadose zone as there are not enough water molecules in the unsaturated zone to participate in reductive dechlorination. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using foam as a carrying vehicle to emplace NZVI in unsaturated porous media followed by the application of low frequency-electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) to enhance VOC volatilization in laboratory batch reactors...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527388/abiotic-transformation-of-hexabromocyclododecane-by-sulfidated-nanoscale-zerovalent-iron-kinetics-mechanism-and-influencing-factors
#19
Dan Li, Xifen Zhu, Yin Zhong, Weilin Huang, Ping'an Peng
Recent studies showed that sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is a better reducing agent than nanoscale zerovalen iron (nZVI) alone for reductive dechlorination of several organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) due to the catalytic role of iron sulfide (FeS). We measured the rates of transformation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) by S-nZVI and compared them to those by FeS, nZVI, and reduced sulfur species. The results showed that: i) HBCD (20 mg L(-1)) was almost completely transformed by S-nZVI (0...
May 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525874/less-studied-tce-are-their-environmental-concentrations-increasing-due-to-their-use-in-new-technologies
#20
M Filella, J C Rodríguez-Murillo
The possible environmental impact of the recent increase in use of a group of technology-critical elements (Nb, Ta, Ga, In, Ge and Te) is analysed by reviewing published concentration profiles in environmental archives (ice cores, ombrotrophic peat bogs, freshwater sediments and moss surveys) and evaluating temporal trends in surface waters. No increase has so far been recorded. The low potential direct emissions of these elements, resulting from their absolute low production levels, make it unlikely that the increasing use of these elements in modern technology has any noticeable effect on their environmental concentrations on a global scale...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
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