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Philipp Wanner, Beth L Parker, Daniel Hunkeler
This modeling study aims to investigate how reactive processes in aquitards impact plume persistence in adjacent aquifers. For that purpose the migration of a trichloroethene (TCE) plume in an aquifer originating from dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source dissolution and back-diffusion from an underlying reactive aquitard was simulated in a 2D-numerical model. Two aquitard degradation scenarios were modeled considering one-step degradation from TCE to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE): a uniform (constant degradation with aquitard depth) and a non-uniform scenario (decreasing degradation with aquitard depth) and were compared with a no-degradation scenario...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ni Yan, Mengjiao Li, Yali Liu, Fei Liu, Mark L Brusseau
The efficacy of two oxidant systems, iron-activated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and iron-activated hydrogen peroxide coupled with persulfate (S2 O8 2- ), was investigated for treatment of two chlorinated organic compounds, trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA). Batch tests were conducted at multiple temperatures (10-50 °C) to investigate degradation kinetics and reaction thermodynamics. The influence of an inorganic salt, dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2 PO4 - ), on oxidative degradation was also examined...
December 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Tian Tao Zhao, Zhi He, Li Jie Zhang, Zhi Lin Xing, Yan Hui Gao, Xu Ya Peng
The biological oxidation capacity and change of microbial community structure of typical landfill cover soil cultured in situ by methane and trichloroethylene (TCE) were studied. The rates of CH4 oxidation and TCE degradation were 0.20-0.87 Μmol·g-1 soil·h-1 and 0.009-0.013 mg·L-1 ·h-1 among these landfill cover soils, respectively. The activity of CH4 oxidation in Shandong landfill cover soil was higher than that in landfill cover soils sampled from Guangdong, Shanghai and Chongqing. The α-diversity and microbial community structure before and after co-metabolism degradation were then investigated in all landfill cover soils by Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Endang Kumolosasi, Md Areeful Haque, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The in vivo immunomodulatory activities of Tinospora crispa have been reported but its molecular mechanisms underlying its immunomodulatory properties remains obscure and the active constituents contributing to the activities have not been identified. The present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of T. crispa extract (TCE) and its chemical constituents on RAW 264.7 macrophages. Six known compounds including magnoflorine and syringin were isolated by various chromatographic techniques from TCE and their structures were determined spectroscopically...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Stephen D Bird
Mast cells in the peritoneal membrane (PM) may degranulate to release preformed inflammatory mediators including histamine which is capable of diffusing into the surrounding interstitium, modulating cells in their vicinity including, human peritoneal mesothelial cells (hPMC). The present study aimed to investigate the quorum intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ i ]) response to histamine compared to the membrane soluble ionophore, A23187, in adherent cultured hPMC. To examine [Ca2+ i ] handling, Fura - 2 loaded cells were exposed to histamine and A23187...
February 21, 2018: Cell Calcium
Tatsushi Toyooka, Yukie Yanagiba, Yuko Ibuki, Rui-Sheng Wang
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated hydrocarbon, was recently reclassified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Genotoxic events are known to be crucial steps in the initiation of cancer. The genotoxic properties of TCE have been examined in many studies using a standard battery of genotoxicity tests both in vitro and in vivo. However, consistent results have not been obtained, and studies investigating the mechanism behind the genotoxicity of this compound are lacking...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Christian Pichlo, Christine Toelzer, Konrad Chojnacki, Sinan Öcal, Matthias Uthoff, Sabine Ruegenberg, Thomas Hermanns, Magdalena Schacherl, Martin S Denzel, Kay Hofmann, Karsten Niefind, Ulrich Baumann
The identification of initial lead conditions for successful protein crystallization is crucial for structural studies using X-ray crystallography. In order to reduce the number of false-negative conditions, an emerging number of fluorescence-based methods have been developed which allow more efficient identification of protein crystals and help to distinguish them from salt crystals. Detection of the native tryptophan fluorescence of protein crystals is one of the most widely used methods. However, this method can fail owing to the properties of the crystallized protein or the chemical composition of the crystallization trials...
May 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Min-Soo Kim, Dong Young Lee, Jun Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Sang Hyun Sung, Jung-Soo Han, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of T. chebula has not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to determine whether T. chebula extract (TCE) alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice. We also investigated possible mechanisms associated with cholinergic system and anti-oxidant effects...
May 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Bo Liu, Hao Zhang, Qi Lu, Guanghe Li, Fang Zhang
To address the challenges of low hydrodechlorination efficiency by non-noble metals, a CuNi bimetallic cathode with nanostructured copper array film was fabricated for effective electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution. The CuNi bimetallic cathodes were prepared by a simple one-step electrodeposition of copper onto the Ni foam substrate, with various electrodeposition time of 5/10/15/20 min. The optimum electrodeposition time was 10 min when copper was coated as a uniform nanosheet array on the nickel foam substrate surface...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yanlai Han, Changjie Liu, Juske Horita, Weile Yan
Amending bulk and nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) with catalytic metals significantly accelerates hydrodechlorination of groundwater contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE). The bimetallic design benefits from a strong synergy between Ni and Fe in facilitating the production of active hydrogen for TCE reduction, and it is of research and practical interest to understand the impacts of common groundwater solutes on catalyst and ZVI functionality. In this study, TCE hydrodechlorination reaction was conducted using fresh NiFe bimetallic nanoparticles (NiFe BNPs) and those aged in chloride, sulfate, phosphate, and humic acid solutions with concurrent analysis of carbon fractionation of TCE and its daughter products...
April 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Munegowda C Koralur, Gregory A Dasch
Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ots) is an obligate, intracellular, mite-transmitted human pathogen which causes scrub typhus. Understanding the diversity of Ots antigens is essential for designing specific diagnostic assays and efficient vaccines. The protective immunodominant type-specific 56 kDa antigen (TSA) of Ots varies locally and across its geographic distribution. TSA contains four hypervariable domains. We bioinformatically analyzed 345 partial sequences of TSA available from India, most of which contain only the three variable domains (VDI-III) and three spacer conserved domains (SVDI, SVDII/III, SVDIII)...
2018: PloS One
Shan Feng, Xin He, Peiru Zhong, Jinyi Zhao, Cong Huang, Zhuohan Hu
Radix Angelicae dahuricae , containing coumarins, which might affect cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450) activity, has been co-administered with ligustrazine, a substrate of CYP450s, for the clinical treatment of migraine. However, whether a pharmacokinetic-based synergy exists between Radix Angelicae dahuricae and ligustrazine is still unknown. In this study, the total coumarin extract (TCE) of Radix Angelicae dahuricae (50 mg/kg, orally) reinforced the anti-migraine activity of ligustrazine by declining head scratching, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide, and serum nitric oxide, as well as increasing plasma endothelin levels in rats ( p < 0...
April 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sarah J Blossom, Lorenzo Fernandes, Shasha Bai, Sangeeta Khare, Kuppan Gokulan, Youzhong Yuan, Michael Dewall, Frank A Simmen, Kathleen M Gilbert
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread environmental pollutant associated with immunotoxicity and autoimmune disease. Previous studies showed that mice exposed from gestation through early life demonstrated CD4+ T cell alterations and autoimmune hepatitis. Determining the role of one environmental risk factor for any disease is complicated by the presence of other stressors. Based on its known effects, we hypothesized that developmental overnutrition in the form of a moderately high fat diet (HFD) consisting of 40% kcal fat would exacerbate the immunotoxicity and autoimmune-promoting effects of low-level (<10 μg/kg/day) TCE in autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice over either stressor alone...
April 12, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Peter F Andersen, James L Ross, Jon P Fenske
Groundwater models developed for specific sites generally become obsolete within a few years due to changes in: 1) modeling technology, 2) site/project personnel, 3) project funding, and 4) modeling objectives. Consequently, new models are sometimes developed for the same sites using the latest technology and data, but without potential knowledge gained from the prior models. When it occurs, this practice is particularly problematic because, although technology, data, and observed conditions change, development of the new numerical model may not consider the conceptual model's underpinnings...
April 17, 2018: Ground Water
James L Ross, Peter F Andersen
The Kalman filter is an efficient data assimilation tool to refine an estimate of a state variable using measured data and the variable's correlations in space and/or time. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) (Evensen, 2004, 2009) is a Kalman filter variant that employs Monte Carlo analysis to define the correlations that help to refine the updated state. While use of EnKF in hydrology is somewhat limited, it has been successfully applied in other fields of engineering (e.g. oil reservoir modeling, weather forecasting)...
April 17, 2018: Ground Water
Kewei Chen, Hongbin Zhan
The reactive solute transport in a single fracture bounded by upper and lower matrixes is a classical problem that captures the dominant factors affecting transport behavior beyond pore scale. A parallel fracture-matrix system which considers the interaction among multiple paralleled fractures is an extension to a single fracture-matrix system. The existing analytical or semi-analytical solution for solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix simplifies the problem to various degrees, such as neglecting the transverse dispersion in the fracture and/or the longitudinal diffusion in the matrix...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Yang Su, Yingqing Wang, Olasehinde Owoseni, Yueheng Zhang, Vijay John, Gary L McPherson, David Pierce Gamliel, Julia A Valla
Thin-shelled hollow silica particles are synthesized using an aerosol based process where the concentration of a silica precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) determines the shell thickness. The synthesis involves a novel concept of the salt-bridging of an iron salt, FeCl3 to a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which modulates the templating effect of the surfactant on silica porosity. The salt bridging leads to a sequestration of the surfactant in the interior of the droplet with the formation of a dense silica shell around the organic material...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kwang Jeong Son, Tae Kyoung Kim, Yu-Jung Cha, Seung Kyu Oh, Shin-Jae You, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Joon Seop Kwak
The origin of plasma-induced damage on a p -type wide-bandgap layer during the sputtering of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact layers by using radiofrequency-superimposed direct current (DC) sputtering and its effects on the forward voltage and light output power (LOP) of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with sputtered ITO transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) is systematically studied. Changing the DC power voltage from negative to positive bias reduces the forward voltages and enhances the LOP of the LEDs...
February 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Young Joong Kang, Jihye Lee, Jungho Ahn, Soonwoo Park, Mu Young Shin, Hye Won Lee
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent that is used for degreasing and removing impurities from metal parts. However, this solvent's characteristics and hypersensitivity can produce clinical patterns and laboratory data that mimic drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. Thus, exposure confirmation is critical to making an accurate diagnosis. This is a case of TCE-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (TCE HS) in a 24-year-old Indonesian man who was working in an electro-plating business...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Inga J Schreiter, Wolfgang Schmidt, Christoph Schüth
Biochar is increasingly deemed a potential sorbent for contaminants in soil and water remediation. We tested three biochars from different feedstocks (cattle manure, grain husk, and wood chips) produced at relatively low pyrolysis temperature (450 °C), for their sorption behavior towards trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in single- and bi-solute systems. In single-solute experiments, all biochars show stronger sorption for TCE (about 50% based on solubility-normalized Freundlich coefficients)...
March 26, 2018: Chemosphere
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