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hypoxia ischemic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323006/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-cerebral-hypoxia-and-ischemia
#1
REVIEW
Myriam Peters, Betty Wielsch, Johannes Boltze
The process of protein modification by adding or detaching small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) proteins, called SUMOylation, contributes to the regulation of numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. SUMOylation also represents a key response and adaption mechanism to different forms of metabolic stress. The central nervous system (CNS) and neurons in particular are highly susceptible to hypoxic-ischemic stress due to the lack of significant oxygen and energy reserves. SUMOylation is observed in many molecular responses to metabolic stress in the brain, and is therefore supposed to represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism...
March 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299673/roles-of-runx-in-hypoxia-induced-responses-and-angiogenesis
#2
Sun Hee Lee, Sarala Manandhar, You Mie Lee
During the past two decades, Runt domain transcription factors (RUNX1, 2, and 3) have been investigated in regard to their function, structural elements, genetic variants, and roles in normal development and pathological conditions. The Runt family proteins are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to mammals, emphasizing their physiological importance. A hypoxic microenvironment caused by insufficient blood supply is frequently observed in developing organs, growing tumors, and tissues that become ischemic due to impairment or blockage of blood vessels...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273662/dedifferentiated-fat-cells-as-a-novel-source-for-cell-therapy-to-target-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Alkisti Mikrogeorgiou, Yoshiaki Sato, Taiki Kondo, Tetsuo Hattori, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Miharu Ito, Akiko Saito, Keiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Tsuji, Tomohiko Kazama, Koichiro Kano, Taro Matsumoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250763/molecular-chaperones-and-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#4
REVIEW
Cong Hua, Wei-Na Ju, Hang Jin, Xin Sun, Gang Zhao
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a disease that occurs when the brain is subjected to hypoxia, resulting in neuronal death and neurological deficits, with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitatory amino acid release, cellular proteolysis, reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide synthesis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular changes in HIE include protein misfolding, aggregation, and destruction of organelles. The apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia and hypoxia include the mitochondrial pathway, the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240297/abnormal-capillary-vasodynamics-contribute-to-ictal-neurodegeneration-in-epilepsy
#5
Rocio Leal-Campanario, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Hector Rieiro, Susana Martinez-Conde, Tugba Alarcon-Martinez, Xiuli Zhao, Jonathan LaMee, Pamela J Osborn Popp, Michael E Calhoun, Juan I Arribas, Alexander A Schlegel, Leandro L Di Stasi, Jong M Rho, Landon Inge, Jorge Otero-Millan, David M Treiman, Stephen L Macknik
Seizure-driven brain damage in epilepsy accumulates over time, especially in the hippocampus, which can lead to sclerosis, cognitive decline, and death. Excitotoxicity is the prevalent model to explain ictal neurodegeneration. Current labeling technologies cannot distinguish between excitotoxicity and hypoxia, however, because they share common molecular mechanisms. This leaves open the possibility that undetected ischemic hypoxia, due to ictal blood flow restriction, could contribute to neurodegeneration previously ascribed to excitotoxicity...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231545/aqueous-extract-of-cortex-dictamni-protects-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-from-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-by-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#6
Lin Li, Yunfeng Zhou, Yanlin Li, Lili Wang, Lan Sun, Lidong Zhou, Hiderori Arai, Yun Qi, Yang Xu
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major manifestation of ischemic heart disease, which facilitates cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and death. Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Modern pharmacological studies have indicated that the extracts and active compounds of Cortex Dictamni exhibit antioxidative and cardiovascular protective activities. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cortex Dictamni (CDAE) on regulating hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes oxidative stress and apoptosis...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223135/cell-physiology-regulation-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-targeting-oxygen-related-nanomachineries-of-hypoxic-cells
#7
REVIEW
Morteza Eskandani, Somayeh Vandghanooni, Jaleh Barar, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Yadollah Omidi
Any dysfunctionality in maintaining the oxygen homeostasis by mammalian cells may elicit hypoxia/anoxia, which results in inescapable oxidative stress and possible subsequent detrimental impacts on certain cells/tissues with high demands to oxygen molecules. The ischemic damage in turn can trigger initiation of a number of diseases including organs ischemia, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, different types of malignancies, and alteration in wound healing process. Thus, full comprehension of molecular mechanism(s) and cellular physiology of the oxygen homeostasis is the cornerstone of the mammalian cells metabolism, energetic pathways and health and disease conditions...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210211/app-as-a-protective-factor-in-acute-neuronal-insults
#8
REVIEW
Dimitri Hefter, Andreas Draguhn
Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197101/the-combination-of-three-components-derived-from-sheng-maisan-protects-myocardial-ischemic-diseases-and-inhibits-oxidative-stress-via-modulating-mapks-and-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathways-based-on-bioinformatics-approach
#9
Fang Li, Yu Zhang, Donglin Zeng, Yu Xia, Xiaoxue Fan, Yisha Tan, Junping Kou, Boyang Yu
GRS is a drug combination of three components including ginsenoside Rb1, ruscogenin and schisandrin. It derived from the well-known TCM formula Sheng MaiSan, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinic. The present study illuminates its underlying mechanisms against myocardial ischemic diseases based on the combined methods of bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification. A protein database was established through constructing the drug-protein network...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173835/endothelial-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchyme-stem-cells-applicable-to-hypoxia-and-increased-migration-through-akt-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signals
#10
Cheng Liu, An-Ly Tsai, Ping-Chia Li, Chia-Wei Huang, Chia-Ching Wu
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used to repair hypoxic or ischemic tissue. However, the underlining mechanism of resistance in the hypoxic microenvironment and the efficacy of migration to the injured tissue are still unknown. The current study aims to understand the hypoxia resistance and migration ability of MSCs during differentiation toward endothelial lineages by biochemical and mechanical stimuli. METHOD: MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of 6-8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142140/dha-reduces-oxidative-stress-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-study-in-newborn-piglets
#11
Rønnaug Solberg, Mariangela Longini, Fabrizio Proietti, Serafina Perrone, Cosetta Felici, Alessio Porta, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Oxidative stress due to free radical formation and the initiation of abnormal oxidative reactions appears to play a key role. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a main component of brain membrane phospholipids, may act as a neuroprotectant after hypoxia-ischemia by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that DHA provides significant protection against lipoperoxidation damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in a neonatal piglet model of severe hypoxia-reoxygenation...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138561/cd44-expression-in-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-regulates-neurovascular-trophic-effect
#12
Susumu Sakimoto, Valentina Marchetti, Edith Aguilar, Kelsey Lee, Yoshihiko Usui, Salome Murinello, Felicitas Bucher, Jennifer K Trombley, Regis Fallon, Ravenska Wagey, Carrie Peters, Elizabeth L Scheppke, Peter D Westenskow, Martin Friedlander
Vascular abnormalities are a common component of eye diseases that often lead to vision loss. Vaso-obliteration is associated with inherited retinal degenerations, since photoreceptor atrophy lowers local metabolic demands and vascular support to those regions is no longer required. Given the degree of neurovascular crosstalk in the retina, it may be possible to use one cell type to rescue another cell type in the face of severe stress, such as hypoxia or genetically encoded cell-specific degenerations. Here, we show that intravitreally injected human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) that can be isolated and differentiated from cord blood in xeno-free media collect in the vitreous cavity and rescue vaso-obliteration and neurodegeneration in animal models of retinal disease...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134843/role-of-antioxidants-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-new-therapeutic-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Álvarez, Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Andoni Urtasun, Enrique Hilario
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is an alarming health and economic problem in spite of the advances in neonatal care. It can cause mortality or detrimental neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits in neonates. When hypoxia-ischemia occurs, a multi-faceted cascade of events starts out, which can eventually cause cell death. Lower levels of oxygen due to reduced blood supply increase the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress, a higher concentration of free cytosolic calcium and impaired mitochondrial function, triggering the activation of apoptotic pathways, DNA fragmentation and cell death...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087295/postconditioning-induced-neuroprotection-mechanisms-and-applications-in-cerebral-ischemia
#14
REVIEW
Yan-Ying Fan, Wei-Wei Hu, Fang Nan, Zhong Chen
Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) is defined as a series of rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the phase of reperfusion, which produces neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via mobilizing the brain's own endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Now the concept of conventional ischemic PostC has been extended to limb remote ischemic PostC and chemical PostC with hypoxia, volatile anesthetic, CO2, etc. According to the different temporal profile of PostC, it is divided into rapid and delayed PostC...
January 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073079/trail-facilitates-cytokine-expression-and-macrophage-migration-during-hypoxia-reoxygenation-via-er-stress-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Yinan Jiang, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengya Fan, Hui Li, Weina Zhu, Xi Chen, Chenghua Cao, Rui Xu, Yaohui Wang, Yuanfang Ma
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is known as a key molecule to induce cancer cell apoptosis, has also been found to participate in the process of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infiltrated macrophages play dual roles in inflammatory injury and healing following I/R. Whether TRAIL has any effect on macrophages during this process remains elusive. Here we showed that I/R triggered the expressions of TRAIL, DR5 and cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, CCL-2 and ICAM-1), in addition to macrophage infiltration, which could be abolished by TRAIL neutralizing antibody...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019006/glucose-and-intermediary-metabolism-and-astrocyte-neuron-interactions-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rat
#16
REVIEW
Eva Brekke, Hester Rijkje Berger, Marius Widerøe, Ursula Sonnewald, Tora Sund Morken
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools during normal brain development...
January 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011948/molecular-hydrogen-affords-neuroprotection-in-a-translational-piglet-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#17
J Nemeth, V Toth-Szuki, V Varga, V Kovacs, G Remzso, F Domoki
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987381/hypoxia-ischemia-activate-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-impact-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Kai Kaarniranta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deficiencies in cerebrovascular functions, e.g. reduced cerebral blood flow and capillary amyloid angiopathy, both of which are evident during the early phase of AD, thus local hypoxia/ischemia could augment the pathogenesis of AD. There is abundant literature revealing that exposures to hypoxia/ischemia increase the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) leading to the accumulation of amyloid-β peptides in brain. This hypoxia-induced response has been attributed to a significant increase in the activities of β- and γ-secretases, whereas α-secretase activity decreases in hypoxia...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973415/oxidative-stress-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Mingyi Zhao, Ping Zhu, Masayuki Fujino, Jian Zhuang, Huiming Guo, IdrisAhmed Sheikh, Lingling Zhao, Xiao-Kang Li
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Because of high concentrations of sensitive immature cells, metal-catalyzed free radicals, non-saturated fatty acids, and low concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, the brain requires high levels of oxygen supply and is, thus, extremely sensitive to hypoxia. Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis and progression. Following hypoxia and ischemia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rapidly increases and overwhelms antioxidant defenses...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940344/melatonin-influences-no-nos-pathway-and-reduces-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-in-a-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#20
Santos Blanco, Raquel Hernández, Gustavo Franchelli, Manuel Miguel Ramos-Álvarez, María Ángeles Peinado
In this work, using a rat model combining ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia (IH), we evaluate the relationships between the antioxidant melatonin and the cerebral nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase (NO/NOS) system seeking to ascertain whether melatonin exerts its antioxidant protective action by balancing this key pathway, which is highly involved in the cerebral oxidative and nitrosative damage underlying these pathologies. The application of the IH model increases the expression of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, as well as nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels and nitrotyrosine (n-Tyr) impacts on the cerebral cortex...
January 30, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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