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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093534/logistic-growth-of-a-surface-contamination-network-and-its-role-in-disease-spread
#1
Hao Lei, Yuguo Li, Shenglan Xiao, Xinyan Yang, ChaoHsin Lin, Sharon L Norris, Daniel Wei, Zhongmin Hu, Shengcheng Ji
Surfaces and objects surround us, and touching them is integral to everyday life. Pathogen contaminated surfaces (fomites) are known to transmit diseases. However, little is known about the ways and speed at which surfaces become contaminated. We found that under certain conditions, the number of contaminated surfaces grows logistically, corresponding to possible rapid transmission of infection. In such a surface network, pathogen can be transmitted great distances quickly-as far as people move. We found that the surface contamination network in aircraft cabins exhibits a community structure, with small communities connected by the aisle seatback surfaces and toilets, which are high-touch surfaces...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047476/inflight-observation-of-bottlinger-s-rings
#2
Joseph A Shaw
On the morning of 5 November 2013, a bright subsun was consistently visible during a flight from Bozeman, Montana, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Just after passing over the Wasatch Mountains and beginning to descend into the Salt Lake Valley, the subsun expanded to a rare display of Bottlinger's rings-an elliptical halo surrounding the subsun. The rings remained visible for 1 to 2 min. This paper shows photographs of the sequence, along with meteorological data from a nearby radiosonde. The display occurred in virga below clouds at an air temperature in the approximate range from -8°C to -12°C, in air saturated with respect to ice, at an altitude of approximately 2600-3600 m above mean sea level...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798205/cardiac-output-by-pulse-contour-analysis-does-not-match-the-increase-measured-by-rebreathing-during-human-spaceflight
#3
Richard L Hughson, Sean D Peterson, Nicholas J Yee, Danielle K Greaves
Pulse contour analysis of the non-invasive finger arterial pressure waveform provides a convenient means to estimate cardiac output (Q ̇). The method has been compared to standard methods under a range of conditions but never before during spaceflight. We compared pulse contour analysis with the Modelflow algorithm to estimates of Q ̇ obtained by rebreathing during pre-flight baseline testing and during the final month of long-duration spaceflight in nine healthy male astronauts. By Modelflow analysis, stroke volume was greater in supine baseline than seated baseline or inflight...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#4
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538345/ladies-gentlemen-this-is-your-captain-speaking-about-nurses-liability-during-inflight-medical-emergencies
#5
Kristopher T Starr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536727/comment-on-what-to-do-during-inflight-medical-emergencies-practice-pointers-from-a-medical-ethicist-and-an-aviation-medicine-specialist
#6
LETTER
Zohar Lederman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533143/drugs-in-space-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-astronauts
#7
REVIEW
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499454/risk-for-intracranial-pressure-increase-related-to-enclosed-air-in-post-craniotomy-patients-during-air-ambulance-transport-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-simulation
#8
Helge Brändström, Anna Sundelin, Daniela Hoseason, Nina Sundström, Richard Birgander, Göran Johansson, Ola Winsö, Lars-Owe Koskinen, Michael Haney
BACKGROUND: Post-craniotomy intracranial air can be present in patients scheduled for air ambulance transport to their home hospital. We aimed to assess risk for in-flight intracranial pressure (ICP) increases related to observed intracranial air volumes, hypothetical sea level pre-transport ICP, and different potential flight levels and cabin pressures. METHODS: A cohort of consecutive subdural hematoma evacuation patients from one University Medical Centre was assessed with post-operative intracranial air volume measurements by computed tomography...
May 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395095/comparison-of-inflight-first-aid-performed-by-cabin-crew-members-and-medical-volunteers
#9
Jung Ha Kim, Smi Choi-Kwon, Young Hwan Park
Background: Since the number of air travellers, including the elderly and passengers with an underlying disease, is increasing every year, the number of inflight emergency patients is expected to increase as well. We attempted to identify the incidence and types of reported inflight medical incidents and analyse the first aid performed by cabin crew members or medical volunteers in flights by an Asian airline. We also investigated the cases of inflight deaths and aircraft diversions. Methods: We reviewed the cabin reports and medical records submitted by cabin crew members and inflight medical volunteers from 2009 to 2013...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173929/postflight-reconditioning-for-european-astronauts-a-case-report-of-recovery-after-six-months-in-space
#10
Nora Petersen, Gunda Lambrecht, Jonathan Scott, Natalie Hirsch, Maria Stokes, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Postflight reconditioning of astronauts is understudied. Despite a rigorous, daily inflight exercise countermeasures programme during six months in microgravity (μG) on-board the International Space Station (ISS), physiological impairments occur and postflight reconditioning is still required on return to Earth. Such postflight programmes are implemented by space agency reconditioning specialists. Case Description and Assessments: A 38 year old male European Space Agency (ESA) crewmember's pre- and postflight (at six and 21 days after landing) physical performance from a six-month mission to ISS are described...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982062/changes-in-mitochondrial-homeostasis-and-redox-status-in-astronauts-following-long-stays-in-space
#11
Hiroko P Indo, Hideyuki J Majima, Masahiro Terada, Shigeaki Suenaga, Kazuo Tomita, Shin Yamada, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Takuro Kanekura, Ikuya Nonaka, Clare L Hawkins, Michael J Davies, Daret K St Clair, Chiaki Mukai
The effects of long-term exposure to extreme space conditions on astronauts were investigated by analyzing hair samples from ten astronauts who had spent six months on the International Space Station (ISS). Two samples were collected before, during and after their stays in the ISS; hereafter, referred to as Preflight, Inflight and Postflight, respectively. The ratios of mitochondrial (mt) to nuclear (n) DNA and mtRNA to nRNA were analyzed via quantitative PCR. The combined data of Preflight, Inflight and Postflight show a significant reduction in the mtDNA/nDNA in Inflight, and significant reductions in the mtRNA/nRNA ratios in both the Inflight and Postflight samples...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930421/persistent-asymmetric-optic-disc-swelling-after-long-duration-space-flight-implications-for-pathogenesis
#12
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Christian A Otto, Ashot E Sargsyan, Neil R Miller, Prem S Subramanian, Stephen F Hart, William Lipsky, Nimesh B Patel, Andrew G Lee
BACKGROUND: Several ophthalmic findings including optic disc swelling, globe flattening and choroidal folds have been observed in astronauts following long-duration space flight. The authors now report asymmetric choroidal expansion, disc swelling and optic disc morphologic changes in a 45-year-old astronaut which occurred during long-duration space flight and persisted following his space mission. METHODS: Case study of ocular findings in an astronaut documented during and after a long-duration space flight of approximately 6 months...
June 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#13
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570867/what-to-do-during-inflight-medical-emergencies-practice-pointers-from-a-medical-ethicist-and-an-aviation-medicine-specialist
#14
Shu Fang Ho, T Thirumoorthy, Benjamin Boon Lui Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464559/pneumocephalus-following-air-travel-in-a-patient-with-preexisting-facial-fractures-and-dural-tears
#15
Koy Min Chue, Thiam Chye Lim, Jane Lim, Yan Lin Yap, Wei Chen Ong
Changes in cabin pressure can potentially cause expansion of any preexisting intracranial air resulting in tension pneumocephalus. The authors describe a 28-year-old man, who was involved in a motor vehicle accident complicated by multiple facial fractures and a dural tear while on his way to the airport. Instead of seeking medical attention after the accident, he proceeded with a 2-hour commercial flight. He did not suffer from any neurologic deterioration inflight, but upon presentation to our center, a computed tomography scan was done which revealed extensive pneumocephalus, for which he required intensive monitoring and subsequent surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267286/prevention-of-medical-events-during-air-travel-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Diane Naouri, Frederic Lapostolle, Claire Rondet, Olivier Ganansia, Dominique Pateron, Youri Yordanov
Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173441/innate-olfactory-preferences-for-flowers-matching-proboscis-length-ensure-optimal-energy-gain-in-a-hawkmoth
#17
Alexander Haverkamp, Julia Bing, Elisa Badeke, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Cost efficient foraging is of especial importance for animals like hawkmoths or hummingbirds that are feeding 'on the wing', making their foraging energetically demanding. The economic decisions made by these animals have a strong influence on the plants they pollinate and floral volatiles are often guiding these decisions. Here we show that the hawkmoth Manduca sexta exhibits an innate preference for volatiles of those Nicotiana flowers, which match the length of the moth's proboscis. This preference becomes apparent already at the initial inflight encounter, with the odour plume...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931946/heavy-ion-injector-based-on-an-electron-cyclotron-ion-source-for-the-superconducting-linear-accelerator-of-the-rare-isotope-science-project
#18
In-Seok Hong, Yong-Hwan Kim, Bong-Hyuk Choi, Suk-Jin Choi, Bum-Sik Park, Hyun-Chang Jin, Hye-Jin Kim, Jeong-Il Heo, Deok-Min Kim, Ji-Ho Jang
The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation...
February 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747504/increased-postflight-carotid-artery-stiffness-and-inflight-insulin-resistance-resulting-from-6-mo-spaceflight-in-male-and-female-astronauts
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296204/electrically-stimulated-antagonist-muscle-contraction-increased-muscle-mass-and-bone-mineral-density-of-one-astronaut-initial-verification-on-the-international-space-station
#20
Naoto Shiba, Hiroo Matsuse, Yoshio Takano, Kazuhiro Yoshimitsu, Masayuki Omoto, Ryuki Hashida, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Tomohisa Inada, Shin Yamada, Hiroshi Ohshima
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy...
2015: PloS One
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