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Nora Petersen, Gunda Lambrecht, Jonathan Scott, Natalie Hirsch, Maria Stokes, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Postflight reconditioning of astronauts is understudied. Despite a rigorous, daily inflight exercise countermeasures programme during six months in microgravity (μG) on-board the International Space Station (ISS), physiological impairments occur and postflight reconditioning is still required on return to Earth. Such postflight programmes are implemented by space agency reconditioning specialists. Case Description and Assessments: A 38 year old male European Space Agency (ESA) crewmember's pre- and postflight (at six and 21 days after landing) physical performance from a six-month mission to ISS are described...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
Hiroko P Indo, Hideyuki J Majima, Masahiro Terada, Shigeaki Suenaga, Kazuo Tomita, Shin Yamada, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Takuro Kanekura, Ikuya Nonaka, Clare L Hawkins, Michael J Davies, Daret K St Clair, Chiaki Mukai
The effects of long-term exposure to extreme space conditions on astronauts were investigated by analyzing hair samples from ten astronauts who had spent six months on the International Space Station (ISS). Two samples were collected before, during and after their stays in the ISS; hereafter, referred to as Preflight, Inflight and Postflight, respectively. The ratios of mitochondrial (mt) to nuclear (n) DNA and mtRNA to nRNA were analyzed via quantitative PCR. The combined data of Preflight, Inflight and Postflight show a significant reduction in the mtDNA/nDNA in Inflight, and significant reductions in the mtRNA/nRNA ratios in both the Inflight and Postflight samples...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Christian A Otto, Ashot E Sargsyan, Neil R Miller, Prem S Subramanian, Stephen F Hart, William Lipsky, Nimesh B Patel, Andrew G Lee
BACKGROUND: Several ophthalmic findings including optic disc swelling, globe flattening and choroidal folds have been observed in astronauts following long-duration space flight. The authors now report asymmetric choroidal expansion, disc swelling and optic disc morphologic changes in a 45-year-old astronaut which occurred during long-duration space flight and persisted following his space mission. METHODS: Case study of ocular findings in an astronaut documented during and after a long-duration space flight of approximately 6 months...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Shu Fang Ho, T Thirumoorthy, Benjamin Boon Lui Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
Koy Min Chue, Thiam Chye Lim, Jane Lim, Yan Lin Yap, Wei Chen Ong
Changes in cabin pressure can potentially cause expansion of any preexisting intracranial air resulting in tension pneumocephalus. The authors describe a 28-year-old man, who was involved in a motor vehicle accident complicated by multiple facial fractures and a dural tear while on his way to the airport. Instead of seeking medical attention after the accident, he proceeded with a 2-hour commercial flight. He did not suffer from any neurologic deterioration inflight, but upon presentation to our center, a computed tomography scan was done which revealed extensive pneumocephalus, for which he required intensive monitoring and subsequent surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Diane Naouri, Frederic Lapostolle, Claire Rondet, Olivier Ganansia, Dominique Pateron, Youri Yordanov
Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Alexander Haverkamp, Julia Bing, Elisa Badeke, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Cost efficient foraging is of especial importance for animals like hawkmoths or hummingbirds that are feeding 'on the wing', making their foraging energetically demanding. The economic decisions made by these animals have a strong influence on the plants they pollinate and floral volatiles are often guiding these decisions. Here we show that the hawkmoth Manduca sexta exhibits an innate preference for volatiles of those Nicotiana flowers, which match the length of the moth's proboscis. This preference becomes apparent already at the initial inflight encounter, with the odour plume...
2016: Nature Communications
In-Seok Hong, Yong-Hwan Kim, Bong-Hyuk Choi, Suk-Jin Choi, Bum-Sik Park, Hyun-Chang Jin, Hye-Jin Kim, Jeong-Il Heo, Deok-Min Kim, Ji-Ho Jang
The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation...
February 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Naoto Shiba, Hiroo Matsuse, Yoshio Takano, Kazuhiro Yoshimitsu, Masayuki Omoto, Ryuki Hashida, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Tomohisa Inada, Shin Yamada, Hiroshi Ohshima
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy...
2015: PloS One
Aurore Bourrelly, Joseph McIntyre, Marion Luyat
On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions...
September 2015: Cognitive Processing
Mustafa Kesapli, Can Akyol, Faruk Gungor, Angelika Janitzky Akyol, Dilek Soydam Guven, Gokhan Kaya
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the incidence and status of urgent medical conditions, the attitudes of health professionals who encounter such conditions, the adequacy of medical kits and training of cabin crew in data-received-company aircrafts suggested by Aerospace Medical Association, and the demographic data of patients. METHODS: Data were collected from medical records of a major flight company from 2011 through 2013. All patients with complete records were included in the study...
November 2015: Journal of Travel Medicine
Cheryl A Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Kara H Beaton, W Cary Huffman, Michael C Schubert
Increased ocular positioning misalignments upon exposure to altered gravity levels (g-levels) have been strongly correlated with space motion sickness (SMS) severity, possibly due to underlying otolith asymmetries uncompensated in novel gravitational environments. We investigated vertical and torsional ocular positioning misalignments elicited by the 0 and 1.8 g g-levels of parabolic flight and used these data to develop a computational model to describe how such misalignments might arise. Ocular misalignments were inferred through two perceptual nulling tasks: Vertical Alignment Nulling (VAN) and Torsional Alignment Nulling (TAN)...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Carlos Echevarria, Richard N Harrison
Ms L is a 47-year-old lady who was referred with severe, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and painful left arm weakness that occurred predictably during consecutive commercial flights. Subsequent investigations diagnosed a large left-sided, isolated bulla. A VATS bullectomy was performed with no complications, and a symptomless flight followed. We discuss here the physiological explanation for her symptoms and the treatment of bulla in this unusual case.
2012: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Otmar Bock, Nadja Schott, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. Unfortunately, similar training methods can't be used to prepare re-adaptation to planetary gravity. Here, we propose a quick, simple and inexpensive approach that could be used to prepare astronauts both for the absence and for the renewed presence of gravity. This approach is based on motor imagery (MI), a process in which actions are produced in working memory without any overt output...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Philippe Arbeille, R Provost, K Zuj, N Vincent
PURPOSE: To determine if 6 months in microgravity resulted in significant changes in the major central and peripheral veins indicating a redistribution of venous blood flow. METHODS: Ten astronauts participated in the study. Jugular vein (JV), portal vein (PV), femoral vein (FV), tibial vein (TibV), and gastrocnemius vein (Gast V) were assessed by echography for the measurement of vessel cross-sectional area. Inflight exams were conducted by astronauts using a volume capture method in which images collected were processed to produce a 3D reconstruction of the vessel which was later analyzed by a trained sonographer...
October 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kristina Bolinder, Karl J Niklas, Catarina Rydin
UNLABELLED:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollen dispersal is affected by the terminal settling velocity (Ut) of the grains, which is determined by their size, bulk density, and by atmospheric conditions. The likelihood that wind-dispersed pollen is captured by ovulate organs is influenced by the aerodynamic environment created around and by ovulate organs. We investigated pollen ultrastructure and Ut of Ephedra foeminea (purported to be entomophilous), and simulated the capture efficiency of its ovules...
March 2015: American Journal of Botany
Sarah Majercik, Thomas W White, Don H Van Boerum, Steven Granger, Joseph Bledsoe, Karen Conner, Emily Wilson, Lindell K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that traumatic pneumothorax (tPTX) is a contraindication to commercial airline travel, and patients should wait at least 2 weeks after radiographic resolution of tPTX to fly. This recommendation is not based on prospective, physiologic study. We hypothesized that despite having a radiographic increase in pneumothorax size while at simulated altitude, patients with a recently treated tPTX would not exhibit any adverse physiologic changes and would not report any symptoms of cardiorespiratory compromise...
November 2014: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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