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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#1
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570867/what-to-do-during-inflight-medical-emergencies-practice-pointers-from-a-medical-ethicist-and-an-aviation-medicine-specialist
#2
Shu Fang Ho, Thirumoorthy Thamotharampillai, Benjamin Boon Lui Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464559/pneumocephalus-following-air-travel-in-a-patient-with-preexisting-facial-fractures-and-dural-tears
#3
Koy Min Chue, Thiam Chye Lim, Jane Lim, Yan Lin Yap, Wei Chen Ong
Changes in cabin pressure can potentially cause expansion of any preexisting intracranial air resulting in tension pneumocephalus. The authors describe a 28-year-old man, who was involved in a motor vehicle accident complicated by multiple facial fractures and a dural tear while on his way to the airport. Instead of seeking medical attention after the accident, he proceeded with a 2-hour commercial flight. He did not suffer from any neurologic deterioration inflight, but upon presentation to our center, a computed tomography scan was done which revealed extensive pneumocephalus, for which he required intensive monitoring and subsequent surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267286/prevention-of-medical-events-during-air-travel-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Diane Naouri, Frederic Lapostolle, Claire Rondet, Olivier Ganansia, Dominique Pateron, Youri Yordanov
Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173441/innate-olfactory-preferences-for-flowers-matching-proboscis-length-ensure-optimal-energy-gain-in-a-hawkmoth
#5
Alexander Haverkamp, Julia Bing, Elisa Badeke, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Cost efficient foraging is of especial importance for animals like hawkmoths or hummingbirds that are feeding 'on the wing', making their foraging energetically demanding. The economic decisions made by these animals have a strong influence on the plants they pollinate and floral volatiles are often guiding these decisions. Here we show that the hawkmoth Manduca sexta exhibits an innate preference for volatiles of those Nicotiana flowers, which match the length of the moth's proboscis. This preference becomes apparent already at the initial inflight encounter, with the odour plume...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931946/heavy-ion-injector-based-on-an-electron-cyclotron-ion-source-for-the-superconducting-linear-accelerator-of-the-rare-isotope-science-project
#6
In-Seok Hong, Yong-Hwan Kim, Bong-Hyuk Choi, Suk-Jin Choi, Bum-Sik Park, Hyun-Chang Jin, Hye-Jin Kim, Jeong-Il Heo, Deok-Min Kim, Ji-Ho Jang
The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation...
February 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747504/increased-postflight-carotid-artery-stiffness-and-inflight-insulin-resistance-resulting-from-6-mo-spaceflight-in-male-and-female-astronauts
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard L Hughson, Andrew D Robertson, Philippe Arbeille, J Kevin Shoemaker, James W E Rush, Katelyn S Fraser, Danielle K Greaves
Removal of the normal head-to-foot gravity vector and chronic weightlessness during spaceflight might induce cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations related to changes in arterial pressure and reduction in physical activity. We tested hypotheses that stiffness of arteries located above the heart would be increased postflight, and that blood biomarkers inflight would be consistent with changes in vascular function. Possible sex differences in responses were explored in four male and four female astronauts who lived on the International Space Station for 6 mo...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296204/electrically-stimulated-antagonist-muscle-contraction-increased-muscle-mass-and-bone-mineral-density-of-one-astronaut-initial-verification-on-the-international-space-station
#8
Naoto Shiba, Hiroo Matsuse, Yoshio Takano, Kazuhiro Yoshimitsu, Masayuki Omoto, Ryuki Hashida, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Tomohisa Inada, Shin Yamada, Hiroshi Ohshima
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224263/perception-of-affordances-during-long-term-exposure-to-weightlessness-in-the-international-space-station
#9
Aurore Bourrelly, Joseph McIntyre, Marion Luyat
On Earth, visual eye height (VEH)--the distance from the observer's line of gaze to the ground in the visual scene--constitutes an effective cue in perceiving affordance such as the passability through apertures, based on the assumption that one's feet are on the ground. In the present study, we questioned whether an observer continues to use VEH to estimate the width of apertures during long-term exposure to weightlessness, where contact with the floor is not required. Ten astronauts were tested in preflight, inflight in the International Space Station, and postflight sessions...
September 2015: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26201833/inflight-emergencies-during-eurasian-flights
#10
Mustafa Kesapli, Can Akyol, Faruk Gungor, Angelika Janitzky Akyol, Dilek Soydam Guven, Gokhan Kaya
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the incidence and status of urgent medical conditions, the attitudes of health professionals who encounter such conditions, the adequacy of medical kits and training of cabin crew in data-received-company aircrafts suggested by Aerospace Medical Association, and the demographic data of patients. METHODS: Data were collected from medical records of a major flight company from 2011 through 2013. All patients with complete records were included in the study...
November 2015: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26150560/pharmacists-respond-to-inflight-medical-event-perhaps-prevent-flight-diversion
#11
Cheryl A Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082691/binocular-misalignments-elicited-by-altered-gravity-provide-evidence-for-nonlinear-central-compensation
#12
Kara H Beaton, W Cary Huffman, Michael C Schubert
Increased ocular positioning misalignments upon exposure to altered gravity levels (g-levels) have been strongly correlated with space motion sickness (SMS) severity, possibly due to underlying otolith asymmetries uncompensated in novel gravitational environments. We investigated vertical and torsional ocular positioning misalignments elicited by the 0 and 1.8 g g-levels of parabolic flight and used these data to develop a computational model to describe how such misalignments might arise. Ocular misalignments were inferred through two perceptual nulling tasks: Vertical Alignment Nulling (VAN) and Torsional Alignment Nulling (TAN)...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26057108/recurrent-inflight-chest-pain-due-to-a-solitary-bulla
#13
Carlos Echevarria, Richard N Harrison
Ms L is a 47-year-old lady who was referred with severe, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and painful left arm weakness that occurred predictably during consecutive commercial flights. Subsequent investigations diagnosed a large left-sided, isolated bulla. A VATS bullectomy was performed with no complications, and a symptomless flight followed. We discuss here the physiological explanation for her symptoms and the treatment of bulla in this unusual case.
2012: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042004/motor-imagery-lessons-learned-in-movement-science-might-be-applicable-for-spaceflight
#14
Otmar Bock, Nadja Schott, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. Unfortunately, similar training methods can't be used to prepare re-adaptation to planetary gravity. Here, we propose a quick, simple and inexpensive approach that could be used to prepare astronauts both for the absence and for the renewed presence of gravity. This approach is based on motor imagery (MI), a process in which actions are produced in working memory without any overt output...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25991027/measurements-of-jugular-portal-femoral-and-calf-vein-cross-sectional-area-for-the-assessment-of-venous-blood-redistribution-with-long-duration-spaceflight-vessel-imaging-experiment
#15
Philippe Arbeille, R Provost, K Zuj, N Vincent
PURPOSE: To determine if 6 months in microgravity resulted in significant changes in the major central and peripheral veins indicating a redistribution of venous blood flow. METHODS: Ten astronauts participated in the study. Jugular vein (JV), portal vein (PV), femoral vein (FV), tibial vein (TibV), and gastrocnemius vein (Gast V) were assessed by echography for the measurement of vessel cross-sectional area. Inflight exams were conducted by astronauts using a volume capture method in which images collected were processed to produce a 3D reconstruction of the vessel which was later analyzed by a trained sonographer...
October 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25784479/aerodynamics-and-pollen-ultrastructure-in-ephedra
#16
Kristina Bolinder, Karl J Niklas, Catarina Rydin
UNLABELLED:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollen dispersal is affected by the terminal settling velocity (Ut) of the grains, which is determined by their size, bulk density, and by atmospheric conditions. The likelihood that wind-dispersed pollen is captured by ovulate organs is influenced by the aerodynamic environment created around and by ovulate organs. We investigated pollen ultrastructure and Ut of Ephedra foeminea (purported to be entomophilous), and simulated the capture efficiency of its ovules...
March 2015: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25494425/cleared-for-takeoff-the-effects-of-hypobaric-conditions-on-traumatic-pneumothoraces
#17
Sarah Majercik, Thomas W White, Don H Van Boerum, Steven Granger, Joseph Bledsoe, Karen Conner, Emily Wilson, Lindell K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that traumatic pneumothorax (tPTX) is a contraindication to commercial airline travel, and patients should wait at least 2 weeks after radiographic resolution of tPTX to fly. This recommendation is not based on prospective, physiologic study. We hypothesized that despite having a radiographic increase in pneumothorax size while at simulated altitude, patients with a recently treated tPTX would not exhibit any adverse physiologic changes and would not report any symptoms of cardiorespiratory compromise...
November 2014: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24170178/inoculation-of-silicon-nanoparticles-with-silver-atoms
#18
Cathal Cassidy, Vidyadhar Singh, Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Flyura Djurabekova, Kai Nordlund, Mukhles Sowwan
Silicon (Si) nanoparticles were coated inflight with silver (Ag) atoms using a novel method to prepare multicomponent heterostructured metal-semiconductor nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations were employed, supported by high-resolution bright field (BF) transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a resolution ≤0.1 nm in high angle annular dark field (HAADF) mode. These studies revealed that the alloying behavior and phase dynamics during the coating process are more complex than when attaching hetero-atoms to preformed nanoparticles...
2013: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23865806/short-term-outcomes-of-us-air-force-critical-care-air-transport-team-ccatt-patients-evacuated-from-a-combat-setting
#19
Julio Lairet, James King, Leslie Vojta, William Beninati
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the short-term outcomes (during air transport) of patients managed by the United States Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT). METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were transported by CCATT between March 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. A standardized abstraction form was used. Patients were classified as medical or trauma. Care given inflight was documented, including mechanical ventilation, vasoactive medication administration, and administration of blood products...
October 2013: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23814087/hypoxic-challenge-test-applied-to-healthy-children-influence-of-body-positions-and-exertion-on-pulse-oximetric-saturation
#20
Helene Elgaard Kobbernagel, Kim Gjerum Nielsen, Birgitte Hanel
BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised if pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) decreases <90%. OBJECTIVE: Study responses to a modified HCT, encompassing various body positions and light physical activity, reflecting relevant activities of children during flight, with a view to challenge the evidence of the current cut-off...
August 2013: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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