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E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
T Kühlein, F Madlo-Thiess, V Wambach, S Schaffer
Background: Quality management (QM) became mandatory for the ambulatory sector of the German health care system 10 years ago. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how general practitioners (GPs) perceived the introduction of this measure, how they see it today and what they expect of the future concerning QM. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative study, interviews following a semi-structured guideline with GPs were conducted. Following transcription, interviews were coded in triangulation, first inductively, then deductively until saturation was reached...
October 25, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Nawel Haïli, Julien Louap, Michel Canonge, Franjo Jagic, Christelle Louis-Mondésir, Thierry Chardot, Pierre Briozzo
The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y...
2016: PloS One
James L Hoggan, David A Sabatini, Tohren C G Kibbey
Recent developments in nanotechnology have seen an increase in the use of manufactured nanomaterials. Although their unique physicochemical properties are desirable for many products and applications, concern continues to exist about their environmental fate and potential to cause risk to human and ecological health. The purpose of this work was to examine one aspect of nanomaterial environmental fate: transport and retention in the unsaturated zone during drainage. The work made use of tall segmented columns packed with layers of two different porous media, one medium sand and one fine sand...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Hayford M Avedzi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Stephanie Bearman, Kate Storey, Jeffrey A Johnson, Steven T Johnson
We examined self-care dietary practices and usual intakes among adults with Type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada, using data from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes study. Participants completed a modified Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener and answered questions about the number of days per week they followed specific diabetes self-care dietary recommendations. Capillary blood samples were collected to assess glycemic control measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). ANOVA was used to examine differences in dietary self-care, intakes, and glycemic control across categories of days/week of practicing recommended dietary behaviour...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Tavis Apramian, Sayra Cristancho, Chris Watling, Michael Ott, Lorelei Lingard
PURPOSE: Emerging research explores the educational implications of practice and procedural variation between faculty members. The potential effect of these variations on how surgeons make competence judgments about residents has not yet been thoroughly theorized. The authors explored how thresholds of principle and preference shaped surgeons' intraoperative judgments of resident competence. METHOD: This grounded theory study included reanalysis of data on the educational role of procedural variations and additional sampling to attend to their impact on assessment...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
I Lengyel, F Toth, D Biyashev, I Szatmari, K Monory, C Tomboly, G Toth, S Benyhe, A Borsodi
Endomorphins are natural amidated opioid tetrapeptides with the following structure: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-1), and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-2). Endomorphins interact selectively with the μ-opioid or MOP receptors and exhibit nanomolar or sub-nanomolar receptor binding affinities, therefore they suggested to be endogenous agonists for the μ-opioid receptors. Endomorphins mediate a number of characteristic opioid effects, such as antinociception, however there are several physiological functions in which endomorphins appear to act in a fashion that does not involve binding to and activation of the μ-opioid receptor...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Zohar A Arnon, Andreas Vitalis, Aviad Levin, Thomas C T Michaels, Amedeo Caflisch, Tuomas P J Knowles, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Ehud Gazit
The dynamic nature of supramolecular polymers has a key role in their organization. Yet, the manipulation of their dimensions and polarity remains a challenge. Here, the minimalistic diphenylalanine building block was applied to demonstrate control of nano-assemblies growth and shrinkage using microfluidics. To fine-tune differential local environments, peptide nanotubes were confined by micron-scale pillars and subjected to monomer flows of various saturation levels to control assembly and disassembly. The small-volume device allows the rapid adjustment of conditions within the system...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Salma A Khattab, Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Maivel H Ghattas, Noha M Mesbah, Eman T Mehanna
BACKGROUND: The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP-2) is expressed in enterocytes and binds saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. FABP-2 Ala54Thr polymorphism was reported to have an influence on lipid metabolism. This study aimed to assess the relation of this polymorphism with peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Egyptian population. METHODS: The study included 100 diabetic patients with peripheral atherosclerosis and 100 control subjects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Yohannes Yihdego, Len Drury
Analytical and empirical solution coupled with water balance method were used to predict the ground water inflow to a mine pit excavated below the water table, final pit lake level/recovery and radius of influence, through long-term and time variant simulations. The solution considers the effect of decreased saturated thickness near the pit walls, distributed recharge to the water table and upward flow through the pit bottom. The approach is flexible to accommodate the anisotropy/heterogeneity of the real world...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David James Davies, Michael Clancy, Daniel Lighter, George M Balanos, Samuel John Edwin Lucas, Hamid Dehghani, Zhangjie Su, Mario Forcione, Antonio Belli
The Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has not been adopted as a mainstream monitoring modality in acute neurosurgical care due to concerns about its reliability and consistency. However, improvements in NIRS parameter recovery techniques are now available that may improve the quantitative accuracy of NIRS for this clinical context. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the abilities of a continuous-wave (CW) NIRS device with a similarly clinically viable NIRS device utilising a frequency-domain (FD) parameter recovery technique in detecting changes in cerebral tissue saturation during stepwise increases of experimentally induced hypoxia...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Henry Oppermann, Yonghong Ding, Jeevan Sharma, Mandy Berndt Paetz, Jürgen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz, Claudia Birkemeyer
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells are highly dependent on glucose even in the presence of oxygen. This concept called the Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer and strategies are considered to therapeutically exploit the phenomenon such as ketogenic diets. The success of such strategies is dependent on a profound understanding of tumor cell metabolism. With new techniques it is now possible to thoroughly analyze the metabolic responses to the withdrawal of substrates and their substitution by others...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
E Sawicki, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, B Nuijen
Dissolution from the pharmaceutical formulation is a prerequisite for complete and consistent absorption of any orally administered drug, including anticancer agents (oncolytics). Poor dissolution of an oncolytic can result in low oral bioavailability, high variability in blood concentrations and with that suboptimal or even failing therapy. This review discusses pharmaceutical formulation aspects and absorption pharmacokinetics of currently licensed orally administered oncolytics. In nearly half of orally dosed oncolytics poor dissolution is likely to play a major role in low and unpredictable absorption...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Thomas Schmidt, Alan J Situ, Tobias S Ulmer
The solvation of membrane proteins by both lipids and water makes their membrane immersion difficult to predict and the choice of a membrane mimic challenging. To characterize protein-lipid contacts and bicelle membrane mimics, we examined protein-lipid cross-relaxation of integrin αIIb and β3(A711P) transmembrane helices in isotropic phospholipid bicelles (q=0.5 and 0.7). Long-chain bicelle lipids dominated contacts with central helix segments, whereas both short- and long-chain lipids contacted the terminal turns of each helix in corroboration of the mixed bicelle model...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Xiaobing Zhou, Hilda Smith, Ana Giraldo Silva, Jayne Belnap, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30-35°C...
2016: PloS One
Steven A Kahn, Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Nguyen, Takashi Shinha, Teri Huff, Amelia C Montgomery, Charles Stratton, Blair Summitt
Mafenide acetate is used in some burn wounds for its ability to penetrate eschar but requires frequent uncomfortable dressing changes for its application. The authors hypothesize that hydrofiber dressings will hold mafenide acetate solution for an extended period of time and maintain antimicrobial activity longer than traditional gauze, thus possibly obviating the need for frequent dressing changes. Four experimental arms included: 1) hydrofiber, stored on a dry well plate as control, 2) gauze saturated with 2...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Damián Rodríguez Sartori, Cristian R Lillo, Juan J Romero, María Laura Dell Arciprete, Alejandro Miñán, Mónica Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica C Gonzalez
Grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to ultrasmall photoluminescent silicon dots (SiDs) is expected to improve and expand the applications of these particles to aqueous environments and biological systems. Herein we report a novel one-pot synthesis of robust, highly water compatible PEG-coated SiDs (denoted as PEG-SiDs) of (3.3 ± 0.5) nm size. The nanoparticles' synthesis is based on the liquid phase oxidation of magnesium silicide using PEG as reaction media and leading to high PEG density grafting. PEG-SiDs enhanced photophysical, photosensitising, and solution properties in aqueous environments are described and compared to those of 2 nm size PEG-coated SiDs with low PEG density grafting (denoted as PEG-NHSiDs) obtained from a multistep synthesis strategy...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Duy Dao, S M A Salehizadeh, Yeon Noj, Jo Woon Chong, Chae Cho, Dave Mcmanus, Chad E Darling, Yitzhak Mendelson, Ki H Chon
Motion and noise artifacts (MNAs) impose limits on the usability of the photoplethysmogram (PPG), particularly in the context of ambulatory monitoring. MNAs can distort PPG, causing erroneous estimation of physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this study we present a novel approach, "TifMA," based on using the Time-frequency spectrum of PPG to first detect the MNA-corrupted data and next discard the non-usable part of the corrupted data. The term "non-usable" refers to segments of PPG data from which the HR signal cannot be recovered accurately...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Alexis Klengel, Patrick Stumpp, Steffen Klengel, Ina Böttger, Nadja Rönisch, Thomas Kahn
Purpose To compare single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with fat-saturated (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the detection of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) after knee trauma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained from Leipzig University. Written informed consent was waived. Three radiologists retrospectively re-examined 97 consecutive patients with reported knee trauma who underwent 1...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
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