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Infectious disease. Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238636/-kawasaki-disease-is-more-prevalent-in-rural-areas-of-catalonia-spain
#1
Judith Sánchez-Manubens, Jordi Antón, Rosa Bou, Estibaliz Iglesias, Joan Calzada-Hernandez, Xavier Rodó, Josep-Antón Morguí
INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis relatively common in childhood. The etiology of KD is still unknown, although clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features suggest an infectious origin or trigger. Differences on incidence between countries have been related to specific genetic factors, ethnicity, country of birth and some other sociocultural and environmental factors. We present a population-based study on incidence of KD in Catalonia (Spain), focusing on differences between patients in rural and non-rural areas of the region...
February 23, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229097/pediatric-hypovitaminosis-d-molecular-perspectives-and-clinical-implications
#2
Rafiu Ariganjoye
Vitamin D, a secosteroid, is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bone in both the adult and pediatric populations. Low level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)-D) is highly prevalent in children worldwide and has been linked to various adverse health outcomes including rickets, osteomalacia, osteomalacic myopathy, sarcopenia, and weakness, growth retardation, hypocalcemia, seizure and tetany, autism, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers (prostate, colon, breast), infectious diseases (viral, tuberculosis), and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222841/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#3
Pramod N Nehete, Bharti P Nehete, Sriram Chitta, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218726/biomarkers-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218003/virulotyping-of-shigella-spp-isolated-from-pediatric-patients-in-tehran-iran
#5
Reza Ranjbar, Masomeh Bolandian, Payam Behzadi
Shigellosis is a considerable infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. In this survey the prevalence of four important virulence genes including ial, ipaH, set1A, and set1B were investigated among Shigella strains and the related gene profiles identified in the present investigation, stool specimens were collected from children who were referred to two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The samples were collected during 3 years (2008-2010) from children who were suspected to shigellosis...
February 20, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217467/pattern-of-inpatient-referrals-to-dermatology-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-south-rajasthan
#6
Manisha Balai, Lalit K Gupta, Ashok K Khare, Asit Mittal, Sharad Mehta, Garima Bharti
BACKGROUND: Dermatologists besides providing service to patients in the outdoors, also play a vital role in the care of inpatients admitted to dermatology unit and other departments. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of referrals sent to the dermatology department by other departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included all inpatients referred to dermatology department of a tertiary care centre of South Rajasthan during a 5-year period from October 2008 to September 2013...
January 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198956/evaluating-pharmaceutical-waste-disposal-in-pediatric-units
#7
Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida, Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson, Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini
OBJECTIVE: To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD: A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS: 356 drugs disposals were identified (35...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194210/recommended-immunization-schedule-for-children-and-adolescents-immunization-guideline-8th-edition-released-by-the-korean-pediatric-society-in-2015
#8
REVIEW
Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Jina Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the horizontal axis; reflecting the inclusion of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and hepatitis A vaccine into the National Immunization Program since 2012; addition of general recommendations for 2 new Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines and their interchangeability with existing JE vaccines; addition of general recommendations for quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines and scope of the recommended targets for vaccination; and emphasizing catch-up immunization of Tdap vaccine...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192579/infectious-diseases-and-immunizations-in-international-adoption
#9
Emily Obringer, Linda Walsh
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192577/diagnosing-acute-hiv-infection
#10
Paul Devine Bottone, Allison H Bartlett
Acute HIV infection (AHI) represents the first 6 to 12 weeks of the disease process, when the virus is aggressively replicating in the lymphoid tissues. Accordingly, high viral loads are often present during this phase, with declining lymphocyte levels, as the CD4+ T-cell subset is preferentially commandeered to facilitate viral reproduction. Detection at this stage is imperative-the affected are often unaware, but highly infectious. Unfortunately, correct diagnosis of AHI can be challenging because the more traditional, frequently used tests, which rely on antibody detection, will often produce false-negative results during the "window period" (usually 3 to 4 weeks from infection) due to slow production of HIV antibodies...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192575/less-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases-revisited
#11
EDITORIAL
Julia Rosebush, Ram Yogev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192049/establishing-a-hospital-response-network-among-children-s-hospitals
#12
Michael T Bartenfeld, Stephanie E Griese, Steven E Krug, Joanne Andreadis, Georgina Peacock
A timely and effective response to public health threats requires a broad-reaching infrastructure. Children's hospitals are focused on evaluating and managing some of the most vulnerable patients and thus have unique preparedness and response planning needs. A virtual forum was established specifically for children's hospitals during the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak, and it demonstrated the importance and utility of connecting these specialty hospitals to discuss their shared concerns. Developing a successful children's hospital response network could build the national infrastructure for addressing children's needs in preparedness and response and for enhancing preparedness and response to high-consequence pathogens...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187060/risk-factors-in-children-older-than-5-years-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-data-from-a-national-network
#13
Fanny Hénaff, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Capucine Picard, Emmanuelle Varon, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of meningitis in children > 5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children > 5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network. METHODS: We analyzed all data for children 5 to 15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167517/the-need-to-optimize-adolescent-immunization
#14
Henry H Bernstein, Joseph A Bocchini
The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations.In the past decade, the adolescent immunization schedule has expanded to include 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, absorbed vaccine, 2 or 3 doses of human papillomavirus vaccine, depending on the child's age, and an annual influenza vaccine...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167515/practical-approaches-to-optimize-adolescent-immunization
#15
Henry H Bernstein, Joseph A Bocchini
With the expansion of the adolescent immunization schedule during the past decade, immunization rates notably vary by vaccine and by state. Addressing barriers to improving adolescent vaccination rates is a priority. Every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations. It is essential to continue to focus and refine the appropriate techniques in approaching the adolescent patient and parent in the office setting. Health care providers must continuously strive to educate their patients and develop skills that can help parents and adolescents overcome vaccine hesitancy...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164036/primary-extrapulmonary-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child-presenting-with-pleural-effusion
#16
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
The developing countries are having a number of public health issues. The situation in these resource-limited countries is scary due to the huge burden of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB). The latest reports from the WHO shows a high number of drug resistant cases even in the pediatric age groups. Also, the lack of suspicion of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) in the pediatric cases, especially in the absence of a past or family history may lead to delay in diagnosis and flaring-up of the disease. We herein present the very first case of the primary multidrug-resistant TB in an HIV negative child who presented with the left sided pleural effusion...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163428/pediatric-cardiovascular-care-in-uganda-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#17
Twalib Olega Aliku, Sulaiman Lubega, Judith Namuyonga, Tom Mwambu, Michael Oketcho, John O Omagino, Craig Sable, Peter Lwabi
In many developing countries, concerted action against common childhood infectious diseases has resulted in remarkable reduction in infant and under-five mortality. As a result, pediatric cardiovascular diseases are emerging as a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. Pediatric cardiac surgery and cardiac catheterization interventions are available in only a few of Sub-Saharan African countries. In Uganda, open heart surgeries (OHSs) and interventional procedures for pediatric cardiovascular disease are only possible at the Uganda Heart Institute (UHI), having been started with the help of expatriate teams from the years 2007 and 2012, respectively...
January 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157251/varicella-a-potential-threat-to-maternal-and-fetal-health
#18
Maria Biskupska, Ilona Małecka, Joanna Stryczyńska-Kazubska, Jacek Wysocki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the following: i) number of midwives and nurses at risk for contracting varicella; ii) effectiveness of infectious disease prevention among healthcare personnel; iii) attitude of healthcare person-nel towards immunization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 524 midwives and nurses from obstetric, neonatal, and pediatric wards were investigated. Quantitative data analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 14...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154346/unequal-accessibility-of-nurseries-for-sick-children-in-over-and-under-populated-areas-of-japan
#19
Akira Ehara
Infants and toddlers are prone to rapidly contracting illnesses, which are usually attributed to infectious diseases. Most nurseries and schools in Japan, however, refuse to accept children even with mild illnesses. For working parents, a sick child may therefore create new problems as the situation requires new day-care arrangements. To support such families, the Japanese government subsidizes construction and management of nurseries that operate especially for sick children. However, it has not been known whether most families are able to access such nurseries...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149700/retrospective-study-of-prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#20
Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsin Chi, Chun-Chih Peng, Hung-Yang Chang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei...
2017: PeerJ
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