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Infectious disease. Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894445/usual-and-unusual-manifestations-of-systemic-and-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#1
REVIEW
James J Nocton
The idiopathic vasculitides are a group of inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions associated with inflammation of blood vessels. They affect multiple organ and body systems, and vary in their clinical manifestations, severity, prognosis, and pathology. They frequently present a diagnostic challenge for clinicians because of their complexity, overlapping features, and similar findings to other noninflammatory, genetic, or infectious conditions. This article summarizes some of the common pediatric vasculitides, emphasizing both the characteristic and unusual clinical manifestations of these diseases...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892444/mortality-patterns-among-hospital-deaths
#2
R K Karki
Background Death occurring in hospital is medically certified by attending physicians with cause of death. In developing countries such as Nepal, limited resources are available related to the pattern of deaths that occur in hospitals, so that the health priorities can be selected wisely. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the pattern, frequency and causes of inpatient mortality in hospital. Method This was a retrospective study of all deaths occurred at the Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#3
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886579/a-cytokine-study-of-pediatric-tourette-s-disorder-without-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Seung-Min Yeon, Ju Hyung Lee, Daewon Kang, Hyuna Bae, Ki Yong Lee, Seohoon Jin, Jung Ryul Kim, Yong Woo Jung, Tae Won Park
It has been suggested that post-infectious inflammation in central nervous system is a cause of tic disorder including Tourette's disorder (TD). Since pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators inducing inflammation, the cytokine levels are regarded as one of the important indicators of inflammation. Several studies have investigated the relationship of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of TD by measuring the inflammatory cytokine levels of blood. However, when using human samples, the experimental results can be affected by the factors like size of sample, comorbidity, medication that patients take and the severity of the diseases...
November 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#5
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878966/risk-adapted-stratification-for-optimally-intensive-treatment-assignment-of-pediatric-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-is-an-effective-strategy-in-developing-countries
#6
Asim F Belgaumi, Mohammed Anas, Khawar S Siddiqui, Mohammed F Akhter, Amani Al-Kofide
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in developing countries (DCs) present with greater tumor load even at lower stages and with comorbidities that impact therapy delivery. This causes toxic mortality with "standard" intensive protocols or recurrences with "gentler" treatment. OBJECTIVES: We developed and evaluated a risk stratification schema that guides intensity of therapy. DESIGN/METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were prospectively assigned to five risk groups (A-E; n = 6, 15, 16, 15, and 17) following staging and treated with protocols of risk-stratified intensity...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878782/trajectory-of-cause-of-death-among-brought-dead-neonates-in-tertiary-care-public-facilities-of-pakistan-a-multicenter-study
#7
Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Munir Ahmed Sheikh, Ijaz-Ul-Haque Taseer, Syed Jamal Raza, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Tasleem Akhter, Ghazala Mohyuddin Arain, Sultana Habibullah, Sohail Safdar, Rukhsana Firdous, Muhammad Adnan
BACKGROUND: Considering the fact that Pakistan is amongst the countries with very high neonatal mortality rates, we conducted a research study to determine the possible causes and characteristics of neonates presenting dead to the emergency department of tertiary public health care facilities of Pakistan using verbal autopsies. METHODS: A descriptive case series study was conducted in emergency department/pediatrics ward/neonatal ward/nursery unit of ten tertiary care public health facilities, situated in seven major cities of Pakistan from November, 2011 to June, 2013...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875955/detection-the-mycoplasma-pneumonia-in-synovial-fluid-of-children-with-negative-culture-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#8
Samileh Noorbakhsh, Mohammad Reza Shokrollahi, Farideh Ebrahimi Taj, Vida Zarabi, Azardokht Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: arthritis could be caused by different etiologies ranging from rheumatologic diseases to infectious conditions. Therefore, early diagnosis of etiology and treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the the M.pneumonia in synovial fluid of children with arthritis by 2 methods (serology and qualitative PCR). Methods & materials: this trial was carried out as a cross sectional study in pediatric and orthopedic ward of Rasoul-e Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran...
November 21, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866110/dysbiosis-in-the-intensive-care-unit-microbiome-science-coming-to-the-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Georgios D Kitsios, Michael J Morowitz, Robert P Dickson, Gary B Huffnagle, Bryan J McVerry, Alison Morris
Complex microbial communities within the human body, constituting the microbiome, have a broad impact on human health and disease. A growing body of research now examines the role of the microbiome in patients with critical illness, such as sepsis and acute respiratory failure. In this article, we provide an introduction to microbiome concepts and terminology and we systematically review the current evidence base of the critical-illness microbiome, including 51 studies in animal models and pediatric and adult critically ill patients...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863269/mortality-length-of-stay-bloodstream-and-respiratory-viral-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#10
Kam Lun Hon, Man Ping Luk, Wing Ming Fung, Cho Ying Li, Hiu Lee Yeung, Pui Kwun Liu, Shun Li, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Chi Kong Li, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Kam Lau Cheung, Ting Fan Leung, Pei Lin Koh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether diagnostic categories and presence of infections were associated with increased mortality or length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective study of all PICU admissions between October 2002 and April 2016 was performed. Oncologic vs nononcologic, trauma/injuries vs nontraumatic, infectious (gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal bloodstream infections, common respiratory viruses) vs noninfectious diagnoses were evaluated for survival and LOS...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858841/marshall-syndrome-in-a-young-child-a-reality-case-report
#11
Laura Mihaela Trandafir, Madalina Ionela Chiriac, Smaranda Diaconescu, Ileana Ioniuc, Ingrith Miron, Daniel Rusu
BACKGROUND: Recurrent fever syndrome, known as the Marshall syndrome (MS), is a clinical entity that includes several clinical features, such as: fever (39-40°C) that occurs repeatedly at variable intervals (3-8 weeks) and in episodes of 3 to 6 days, cervical adenopathy, pharyngitis, and aphthous stomatitis. The diagnosis of MS is one of exclusions; laboratory data is nonspecific and no abnormalities correlated with MS have been detected thus far. METHODS: The authors report the case of a 2-year-old girl admitted to a tertiary pediatric center for repeated episodes of fever with aphthous stomatitis and laterocervical adenopathy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856770/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#12
Jennifer E Schuster, Sean O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of medical and public health experts who develop recommendations on vaccine use in the United States. The ACIP meets 3 times per year, and members and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) staff present findings and discuss vaccine research, vaccine effectiveness (VE) and safety, clinical trial results, and labeling/package insert information. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine shortages are also discussed. Nonvoting representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society are present...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846055/a-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial-of-an-investigational-hexavalent-vaccine-given-at-2-3-4-and-12-months
#13
Timo Vesikari, Thomas Becker, Andre F Vertruyen, Katleen Poschet, Sheryl A Flores, Marco F Pagnoni, Jin Xu, G Frank Liu, Jon E Stek, Florence Boisnard, Stéphane Thomas, Eddy Ziani, Andrew W Lee
BACKGROUND: Combination vaccines simplify vaccination visits and improve coverage and timeliness. DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a new investigational, fully-liquid, combination vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component and which is designed to protect against 6 infectious diseases. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, comparator-controlled, Phase III study (NCT01341639) conducted in Finland, Germany, and Belgium, healthy infants were randomized 1:1 to receive one of two immunization regimens...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843905/cat-scratch-disease-expanded-spectrum
#14
Hassan A Aziz, Thomas P Plesec, Camille Sabella, Unni K Udayasankar, Arun D Singh
BACKGROUND: To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#15
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816865/low-dose-thimerosal-in-pediatric-vaccines-adverse-effects-in-perspective
#16
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Vaccines are prophylactics used as the first line of intervention to prevent, control and eradicate infectious diseases. Young children (before the age of six months) are the demographic group most exposed to recommended/mandatory vaccines preserved with Thimerosal and its metabolite ethylmercury (EtHg). Particularly in the less-developed countries, newborns, neonates, and young children are exposed to EtHg because it is still in several of their pediatric vaccines and mothers are often immunized with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) during pregnancy...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798988/global-surgery-for-pediatric-hydrocephalus-in-the-developing-world-a-review-of-the-history-challenges-and-future-directions
#17
Ryan T Muir, Shelly Wang, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is a major contributor to the global burden of surgically treatable diseases. Significant health disparities exist for the treatment of hydrocephalus in developing nations due to a combination of medical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. This review aims to provide the international neurosurgery community with an overview of the current challenges and future directions of neurosurgical care for children with hydrocephalus in low-income countries...
November 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#18
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782894/etiologies-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-pediatric-acute-liver-failure-a-single-center-s-experience-in-turkey
#19
Figen Özçay, Eda Karadağ Öncel, Zeren Barış, Oğuz Canan, Gökhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to determine the etiologies, outcomes, and prognostic indicators in children with acute liver failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients who were followed for pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) over a 15-year period were included. Patients who survived with supportive therapy were designated as Group 1, while those who died or underwent liver transplantation were designated as Group 2. RESULTS: There were 37 (40...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782772/clinical-patterns-and-causes-of-intraocular-inflammation-in-a-uveitis-patient-cohort-from-egypt
#20
Rowayda M Amin, Mohamed Gowieda, Ahmed Bedda, Ahmed Kamel, Alaa Radwan
PURPOSE: To analyze the patterns and causes of intraocular inflammation in patients attending uveitis referral clinics in Egypt. METHODS: The study included 454 patients with uveitis examined both at the Department of Ophthalmology, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, and tertiary uveitis referral clinics in Cairo and the International Eye Clinic in Upper Egypt, between August 2013 and March 2016. All patients had a comprehensive ocular examination and systemic work-up...
October 26, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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