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Infectious disease. Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457151/the-impact-of-igg-transplacental-transfer-on-early-life-immunity
#1
Genevieve G Fouda, David R Martinez, Geeta K Swamy, Sallie R Permar
Pediatric vaccines have significantly reduced infectious disease-related infant mortality, but as protective immunity often require several infant vaccine doses; maternally-acquired antibodies are critical to protect infants during the first months of life. Consequently, immunization of pregnant women is an important strategy not only to protect mothers from infection, but also to provide immunity to young infants. Nevertheless, maternal immunization can also negatively impact early life immunity. In fact, maternal antibodies can interfere with the development of infant immune responses, though it is unclear if such interference is clinically significant...
January 1, 2018: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456197/clinical-usefulness-and-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-detection-of-bacterial-meningitis-agents-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid
#2
M Nour, A Alaidarous
Bacterial meningitis poses enormous healthcare challenges due to a high mortality, morbidity and sequelae. Neisseria (N.) meningitidis, Haemophilus (H.) influenzae, Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae and S. agalactiae remain among the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis in children. The objective of this study was the simultaneous detection of these pathogens in suspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and compare PCR results with standard diagnostics currently used in clinical practice...
February 15, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455330/ocular-manifestations-of-pediatric-systemic-diseases
#3
Gopal S Pillai, Natasha Radhakrishnan
Ocular manifestations that occur directly or indirectly as result of a pathologic process that involves other parts of the body, in a pediatric population, will be discussed here. While a myriad number of systemic conditions have ocular manifestations, its importance cannot be undermined because it has implications for both diagnosis and treatment. Often, the eye findings can give a clue to the systemic diagnosis and at other times, not managing the eye manifestations can lead to irreversible blindness although the systemic condition was treated well...
February 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452731/submersion-injuries-in-the-united-states-patients-characteristics-and-predictors-of-mortality-and-morbidity
#4
Rayan El Sibai, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
INTRODUCTION: Drowning leads to 372,000 deaths annually worldwide and to severe morbidity secondary to asphyxiation or aspiration. Previous studies described submersion injuries mainly in the pediatric population. This study describes characteristics of patients presenting with submersion injuries to United States emergency departments (EDs) and identifies predictors of poor outcomes (death or long term neurologic deficits) after drowning. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included ED visits for submersion injuries from the United States 2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) dataset using discharge data (CCS diagnosis codes)...
February 13, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452618/radionuclide-imaging-of-infection-and-inflammation-in-children-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Jeffrey P Otjen, A Luana Stanescu, Barry L Shulkin
With the exception of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments and radiolabeled peptides which have seen little application in the pediatric population, the nuclear medicine imaging procedures used in the evaluation of infection and inflammation are the same for both adults and children. These procedures include (1) either a two- or a three-phase bone scan using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate; (2) Gallium 67-citrate; (3) in vitro radiolabeled white blood cell imaging (using 111 Indium-oxine or 99m Technetium hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime-labeled white blood cells); and (4) hybrid imaging with 18 F-FDG...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449049/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-national-study-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#6
M Lagree, S Bontemps, R Dessein, F Angoulvant, F Madhi, A Martinot, R Cohen, F Dubos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical practices for ESBL-producing urinary tract infection (UTI) in France. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in 22 pediatric departments of university or secondary care hospitals. We collected data of the last five patients presenting with ESBL-producing UTI in 2012 and the physicians' therapeutic approach to two case vignettes of acute non-septic ESBL-producing pyelonephritis (7-month-old girl) and cystitis (30-month-old girl)...
February 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444247/infectious-diseases-physicians-leading-the-way-in-antimicrobial-stewardship
#7
Belinda Ostrowsky, Ritu Banerjee, Robert A Bonomo, Sara E Cosgrove, Lisa Davidson, Shira Doron, David N Gilbert, Amanda Jezek, John B Lynch, Edward J Septimus, Javeed Siddiqui, Nicole M Iovine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437046/zika-and-public-health-understanding-the-epidemiology-and-information-environment
#8
Pia D M MacDonald, E Wayne Holden
Because Zika is a newly emerging infectious disease with little previous information known about it, there are many epidemiologic and clinical questions. The complexity of providing care to those who are at risk for infection or are already infected with Zika in this evidence-scarce environment cannot be understated. In this article, we provide an overview of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the context of public health and pediatric health care. A broad public health focus is used to provide relevant information for addressing important questions about the epidemic and to facilitate communication with patients, parents, and caregivers within the current information environment...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426305/adherence-to-guidelines-for-testing-and-treatment-of-children-with-pharyngitis-a-retrospective-study
#9
Thea Brennan-Krohn, Al Ozonoff, Thomas J Sandora
BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients ages 3-18 who had a rapid streptococcal test and/or throat culture performed in an outpatient setting...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422058/an-evaluation-of-e-coli-in-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-department-at-kamc-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia-retrospective-study
#10
Menyfah Q Alanazi, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Fadilah S Aleanizy
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417077/ciprofloxacin-use-in-hospitalized-children-approved-or-off-label
#11
Toktam Faghihi, Leila Yavari Tekmehdash, Mania Radfar, Kheirollah Gholami
Objective: Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. Methods: In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406979/pediatric-considerations-for-postexposure-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prophylaxis
#12
REVIEW
William J Muller, Ellen G Chadwick
Exposures that carry risk of transmission of blood-borne disease are rare in pediatrics, but expose patients and families to great anxiety. Specialists in pediatric infectious diseases are often asked about initial antimicrobial prophylaxis in these cases. Guidelines for nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus have evolved as new formulations and medications become available and greater experience obtained in assessing relative risks of different exposures and relative costs and benefits for different interventions...
March 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406473/characteristics-of-pediatric-patient-transferred-from-hospital-based-general-emergency-departments-to-acute-care-facilities-an-analysis-of-the-healthcare-cost-and-utilization-project-nationwide-emergency-department-sample
#13
Isabel Araujo Barata, Meredith Akerman, Zayan Mahmooth, Kathryn Bradburn, John DʼAngelo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of pediatric patients transferred from a hospital-based general emergency department (ED) to an acute care facility. METHODS: Study data were abstracted from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database. A multivariate logistic regression was constructed for pediatric patients (<18 years old) who require a transfer to an acute care facility from a general ED...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398807/value-of-soluble-transferrin-receptors-and-stfr-log-ferritin-in-the-diagnosis-of-iron-deficiency-accompanied-by-acute-infection
#14
Fady M El-Gendy, Mahmoud A El-Hawy, Mohamed S Rizk, Sally M El-Hefnawy, Mohamed Z Mahmoud
There are many causes of anemia; the most common of these are acute and chronic infections, iron deficiency, or both. Identifying the cause is a very important step in management of anemia. So, we evaluated the usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and of the sTfR/log ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia accompanied by acute infection. This study was conducted on 131 children aged 2-11 years old from those who attended the pediatric outpatient clinics in Menoufia university hospital...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389948/photocleavage-based-affinity-purification-of-biomarkers-from-serum-application-to-multiplex-allergy-testing
#15
Zhi Wan, Heather P Ostendorff, Ziying Liu, Lynda C Schneider, Kenneth J Rothschild, Mark J Lim
Multiplex serological immunoassays, such as implemented on microarray or microsphere-based platforms, provide greater information content and higher throughput, while lowering the cost and blood volume required. These features are particularly attractive in pediatric food allergy testing to facilitate high throughput multi-allergen analysis from finger- or heel-stick collected blood. However, the miniaturization and microfluidics necessary for creating multiplex assays make them highly susceptible to the "matrix effect" caused by interference from non-target agents in serum and other biofluids...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382496/-orbital-cellulitis-complicated-by-subperiosteal-abscess-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-infection
#16
José Daniel Ruíz Carrillo, Edwin Vázquez Guerrero, Mónica Cecilia Mercado Uribe
BACKGROUND: Orbital cellulitis is an infectious disease that is very common in pediatric patients, in which severe complications may develop. Etiological agents related to this disease are Haemophilus influenzae B, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, which correspond to 95% of cases. Moreover, Streptococcus beta hemolytic and anaerobic microorganisms may also be present corresponding to < 5% of the cases. We present an uncommon case of cellulitis complicated by sub-periosteal abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus)...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382476/-factors-associated-with-epilepsy-in-children-in-mexico-a-case-control-study
#17
Ma Del Rosario Cruz-Cruz, Jorge Gallardo-Elías, Sergio Paredes-Solís, José Legorreta-Soberanis, Miguel Flores-Moreno, Neil Andersson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease in the world. In Mexico, epilepsy is among the diseases more related to mortality due to non-infectious diseases in children. The objective of the study was to identify the factors associated with epilepsy in children entitled to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), in Acapulco, Mexico. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study from April 2010 to April 2011. We selected 118 cases from the database of outpatient pediatric neurology with epilepsy diagnostic with two year of evolution according to the International League Against Epilepsy criteria...
September 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373475/lessons-from-an-outbreak-of-varicella-infection-in-pediatric-hemato-oncology-patients
#18
Michal Manistarski, Dror Levin, Rina Dvir, Sivan Berger-Achituv, Hila Rosenfeld Keidar, Galia Grisaru-Soen, Yehuda Carmeli, Ronit Elhasid
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromized patients exposed to varicella may experience significant morbidity and a 7% mortality rate. Management and outcome of an outbreak of varicella infection among hospitalized pediatric hemato-oncology patients using the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases is presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study describes an outbreak of varicella infection between February 2011 and June 2011...
January 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372645/martha-wollstein-a-pioneer-american-female-clinician-scientist
#19
Jeanne Abrams, James R Wright
Martha Wollstein was not only the first fully specialized pediatric perinatal pathologist practicing exclusively in a North America children's hospital, she also blazed another pathway as a very early pioneer female clinician-scientist. Wollstein provided patient care at Babies Hospital of New York City from 1891 until her retirement in 1935, and also simultaneously worked for many years as a basic scientist at the prestigious Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Wollstein published over 65 papers, many frequently cited, during her career on a wide range of topics including pediatric and infectious diseases...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372173/acute-transverse-myelitis-caused-by-echovirus-11-in-a-pediatric-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-current-literature
#20
Heidi L Moline, Peter I Karachunski, Anna Strain, Jayne Griffith, Cynthia Kenyon, Mark R Schleiss
A 12-year-old boy presented with acute flaccid weakness of the right upper extremity and was found to have acute flaccid myelitis with transverse myelitis involving the cervical cord (C1-T1). An interdisciplinary team-based approach was undertaken, including input from a generalist, an infectious diseases physician, and a pediatric neurologist. Consultation was sought from the Minnesota Department of Health to investigate for a potential etiology and source of the responsible infection. Evaluation for an infectious etiology demonstrated infection with human echovirus 11...
2018: Child Neurology Open
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