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Infectious disease. Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#1
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035316/non-traditional-risk-factors-of-albuminuria-in-the-pediatric-population-a-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
Erick Sierra-Diaz, Alfredo de Jesus Celis-de la Rosa, Felipe Lozano-Kasten, Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar, Mariana Garcia-Gutierrez, Hernandez-Flores Georgina
The presence of albumin in urine has been used for more than four decades as a marker of renal and cardiovascular damage. Most of the information on this marker is related to adults. The prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population has been reported as being 2.2-12.8% in some countries. Most research in this field is related to albuminuria and diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Using the methodology described by Arksey and O'Malley in 2005, a scoping review was carried out to show that the presence of albumin in urine in the pediatric population might be associated with environmental, demographic, congenital, infectious, and non-infectious factors...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023356/point-of-care-testing-in-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#3
Kristina Keitel, Laurence Lacroix, Alain Gervaix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021105/invasive-pneumococcal-pneumonia-caused-by-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-types-in-children-with-different-schedules
#4
Hong-Yi Lee, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Ching-Chuan Liu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kuang-Yi Chang, Hsin Chi, Luan-Yin Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Li-Min Huang
BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the age group with the greatest incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease is 2-5 years of age, which is different from other countries. This study was conducted to identify risk factors and different 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) schedules associated with vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) despite prior vaccination. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted prospectively between August 2012 and December 2015 at five participating medical centers...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020143/anti-infective-acquisition-costs-for-a-stewardship-program-getting-to-the-bottom-line
#5
Sarah K Parker, Amanda L Hurst, Cary Thurm, Matthew Millard, Timothy C Jenkins, Jason Child, Casey Dugan
Background: Though antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are in place for patient safety, financial justification is often required. In 2016, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommended that anti-infective costs be measured by patient-level administration data normalized for patient census. Few publications use this methodology. Here, we aim to compare 3 methods of drug cost analysis during 3 phases of an ASP as an example of this recommendation's implementation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019745/imaging-of-nonmalignant-adrenal-lesions-in-children
#6
Kiran M Sargar, Geetika Khanna, Rebecca Hulett Bowling
The adrenal glands in children can be affected by a variety of benign lesions. The diagnosis of adrenal lesions can be challenging, but assessment of morphologic changes in correlation with the clinical presentation can lead to an accurate diagnosis. These lesions can be classified by their cause: congenital (eg, discoid adrenal gland, horseshoe adrenal gland, and epithelial cysts), vascular and/or traumatic (eg, adrenal hemorrhage), infectious (eg, granulomatous diseases), enzyme deficiency disorders (eg, congenital adrenal hyperplasia [CAH] and Wolman disease), benign neoplasms (eg, pheochromocytomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal adenomas, and myelolipomas), and adrenal mass mimics (eg, extralobar sequestration and extramedullary hematopoiesis)...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018323/cerebrospinal-fluid-amino-acid-profiling-of-pediatric-cases-with-tuberculous-meningitis
#7
Shayne Mason, Carolus J Reinecke, Regan Solomons
Background: In Africa, tuberculosis is generally regarded as persisting as one of the most devastating infectious diseases. The pediatric population is particularly vulnerable, with infection of the brain in the form of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) being the most severe manifestation. TBM is often difficult to diagnose in its early stages because of its non-specific clinical presentation. Of particular concern is that late diagnosis, and subsequent delayed treatment, leads to high risk of long-term neurological sequelae, and even death...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017219/-consensus-based-guidelines-for-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-guideline-on-behalf-of-the-german-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-dgpi
#8
C Feiterna-Sperling, F Brinkmann, C Adamczick, F Ahrens, M Barker, C Berger, L D Berthold, M Bogyi, U von Both, T Frischer, W Haas, P Hartmann, D Hillemann, F W Hirsch, K Kranzer, F Kunitz, E Maritz, A Pizzulli, N Ritz, R Schlags, T Spindler, S Thee, K Weizs├Ącker
Recently, epidemiological data shows an increase of childhood tuberculosis in Germany. In addition to this, drug resistant tuberculosis becomes more frequent. Therefore, diagnosis, prevention and therapy in childhood and adolescence remain a challenge. Adult guidelines do not work for children, as there are age specific differences in manifestation, risk of progression and diagnostic as well as therapeutic pathways.The German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) has initiated a consensus-based (S2k) process and completed a paediatric guideline in order to improve and standardize care for children and adolescents with tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994306/pharmacological-treatments-and-infectious-diseases-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Valeria Dipasquale, Claudio Romano
The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992518/comprehensive-detection-of-viruses-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-using-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Takako Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Yusuke Okuno, Satoshi Hayano, Kazuhiro Horiba, Yuka Torii, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Syuichiro Umetsu, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Ayano Inui, Yoshinori Ito
BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a rare and severe syndrome that frequently requires liver transplantation. Viruses are one of the most frequent causes of this disease, however, pathogenic viruses are not determined in many patients. Recently next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to comprehensively detect pathogens of infectious diseases of unknown etiology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an NGS-based approach for detecting pathogenic viruses in patients with PALF or acute hepatitis of unknown etiology...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992290/invasive-fungal-disease-in-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#11
Shikha Saxena, Jerica Gee, Sarah Klieger, Adriana Kajon, Hans Petersen, Theoklis Zaoutis, Brian Fisher
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD). Data on IFD burden in pediatric patients are limited. We aimed to determine the incidence and outcome of IFD in a large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT. Methods: A single-center cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT between 2000 and 2013 was assembled retrospectively. The patients were followed for 180 days after transplant or until death to determine the presence or absence of IFD...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971655/-reduction-of-antibiotic-consumption-in-rambam-health-care-campus-the-role-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#12
Roni Bitterman, Ayelet Raz-Pasteur, Zaher S Azzam, Amir Karban, Yishai Levy, Tony Hayek, Eyal Braun, Ilana Oren, Yaron Bar-Lavi, Imad Kassis, Khetam Hussein, Mical Paul
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) are designed to optimize antibiotic use in hospitals. Antibiotic consumption is one of the measures assessing the effects of ASPs. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of an ASP on antibiotic consumption in our hospital and compare it to hospitals in Israel and worldwide. METHODS: Between October 2012 and March 2013 an ASP was implemented in Rambam Hospital. The program included educational activities, publication of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment, structured infectious diseases consultations, pre-authorization antibiotic restrictions and stop orders...
September 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969451/brain-abscess-in-children-a-rare-but-serious-infection
#13
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Cenk Eraslan, Elif Bolat, Gulhadiye Avcu, Nilgun Kultursay, Ferda Ozkinay, Zafer Kurugol, Fadil Vardar
Brain abscess is a rare disease in childhood requiring prompt medical and/or surgical treatment. The objective was to review presentation, management, and outcome of brain abscess in children. We reviewed the clinical and radiological features and outcomes of 18 children (10 females, 8 males), with a median age of 48 months (range 1-182), that presented with brain abscesses and admitted to a tertiary pediatric infectious department between December 2010 and January 2017. One (5.5%) patient underwent craniotomy and 14 (77...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964480/pediatric-intestinal-transplantation
#14
Kyle A Soltys, Geoff Bond, Rakesh Sindhi, Sara K Rassmussen, Armando Ganoza, Ajai Khanna, George Mazariegos
The field of intestinal transplantation has experienced dramatic growth since the first reported cases 3 decades ago. Improvements in operative technique, donor assessment and immunosuppressive protocols have afforded children who suffer from life-threatening complications of intestinal failure a chance at long-term survival. As experience has grown, newer diseases, with more systemic manifestations have arisen as potential indications for transplant. After discussing the historical developments of intestinal transplant as a backdrop, this review focuses on the specific pre-operative indications for transplant as well as the great success that intestinal rehabilitation has witnessed over the past decade...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950278/yakult-intestinal-flora-scan-a-novel-culture-independent-analytical-method-for-detection-of-bacteria-in-the-bloodstream
#15
Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto
We have developed a highly sensitive microbial analytical system, the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN (YIF-SCAN), based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to quantify the intestinal microbiota. Targeting ribosomal RNA "molecules," which are present in abundant copies in the microorganisms, YIF-SCAN is at least hundreds of times more sensitive (detection limits: 102-3 cells/g feces, 1 cell/mL blood) than conventional DNA-based methods, and hence enables highly sensitive and precise detection of viable microorganisms in various types of samples, such as stools, blood etc...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944162/an-update-on-treatment-of-pediatric-chronic-non-infectious-uveitis
#16
Arjun B Sood, Sheila T Angeles-Han
There are no standardized treatment protocols for pediatric non-infectious uveitis. Topical corticosteroids are the typical first-line agent, although systemic corticosteroids are used in intermediate, posterior and panuveitic uveitis. Corticosteroids are not considered to be long-term therapy due to potential ocular and systemic side effects. In children with severe and/or refractory uveitis, timely management with higher dose disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologic agents is important...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941633/sustained-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-with-consultation-to-infectious-diseases-reduced-carbapenem-resistance-and-infection-related-mortality
#17
Yuho Horikoshi, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Tetsuji Kaneko, Mihoko Furuichi, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka, Kaoru Okazaki, Kenta Ito, Takayo Shoji
OBJECTIVE: The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the AMR for carbapenem of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after the implementation of an ASP. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935172/a-pediatric-case-with-peripheral-facial-nerve-palsy-caused-by-a-granulomatous-lesion-associated-with-cat-scratch-disease
#18
Chizuko Nakamura, Yuji Inaba, Keiko Tsukahara, Mie Mochizuki, Emi Sawanobori, Yozo Nakazawa, Kouki Aoyama
BACKGROUND: Cat scratch disease is a common infectious disorder caused by Bartonella henselae that is transmitted primarily by kittens. It typically exhibits a benign and self-limiting course of subacute regional lymphadenopathy and fever lasting two to eight weeks. The most severe complication of cat scratch disease is involvement of the nervous system, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and polyneuritis. Peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with Bartonella infection is rare; few reported pediatric and adult cases exist and the precise pathogenesis is unknown...
September 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933371/the-evolution-of-pediatric-disease-a-moving-target-in-public-health
#19
Mark A Brown
There is a growing threat in the re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics. While major strides have been made in the field of childhood cancers, there are still more questions than answers. In addition, public resistance to recommended practices related to childhood vaccinations fueled by misinformation has allowed infectious diseases to resurface in developed nations. Meanwhile, climate change and other destabilizing factors are shifting vector populations and driving the emergence of new diseases...
August 31, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932575/pediatric-lung-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Christian Benden
Pediatric lung transplantation has been undertaken since the 1980s, and it is today considered an accepted therapy option in carefully selected children with end-stage pulmonary diseases, providing carefully selected children a net survival benefit and improved health-related quality of life. Nowadays, >100 pediatric lung transplants are done worldwide every year. Here, specific pediatric aspects of lung transplantation are reviewed such as the surgical challenge, effects of immunosuppression on the developing pediatric immune system, and typical infections of childhood, as it is vital to comprehend that children undergoing lung transplants present a real challenge as children are not 'just small adults'...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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