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Clélia Vanhaecke, Philippe Grange, Nadjet Benhaddou, Philippe Blanche, Dominique Salmon, Perrine Parize, Olivier Lortholary, Eric Caumes, Isabelle Pelloux, Olivier Epaulard, Jérôme Guinard, Nicolas Dupin
BACKGROUND:  Syphilis remains a significant public health problem. We conducted a prospective study to define more precisely the clinical and biological characteristics of patients with neurosyphilis (NS), and we assessed the diagnostic value of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Treponema pallidum in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. METHODS:  From 2001 to 2013, we included 40 patients (90% men; 45% infected with human immunodeficiency virus) with NS, defined as syphilis with neurological and/or ophthalmological symptoms and CSF abnormalities...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Olivier Manigart, Jacinta Okeakpu, Aderonke Odutola, Sheikh Jarju, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Kanny Diallo, Anna Roca, Beate Kampmann, Umberto D'Alessandro, Samba Sow, Martin Antonio, Martin J Maiden, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Caroline L Trotter, Brian M Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Conventional methods for detecting pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) are complex. There is a need for simpler methods with improved performance. We have investigated two alternative approaches. METHODS: Three pharyngeal swabs were collected from 999 pupils aged 10 to 18 years in The Gambia. Carriage of Nm was investigated using three different methods: (i) plating on Thayer-Martin selective medium and testing by conventional microbiological methods followed by PCR testing, (ii) seeding in Todd Hewitt broth (THB) and, after overnight culture, testing by PCR, (iii) compression of the swab on filter paper and, after DNA concentration, testing by PCR...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Alexandru Rocşoreanu, Daniela Cernea, Cristiana Eugenia Simionescu, Eugen MoŢa
Bleeding disorders, associated with macroscopic and microscopic lesions in different organs are frequently found in acute kidney injury (AKI), in the third stage of the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) classification, treated by hemodialysis. The study included 81 cases of AKI of various causes (septic, posttraumatic, postoperative, toxic, medical nephropathies). 59.25% of the patients presented various forms of bleeding disorders (gastrointestinal bleeding, meningo-cerebral hemorrhage, epistaxis, hemodialysis vascular access bleeding, etc...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Rhoda Leask, David J C Blignaut, Maria J Grobler
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or caseous lymphadenitis is a common condition in sheep and goats. Two cases are described involving otitis media-interna and, in one case, cerebellar abscessation. The first case began with otitis externa and progressed to cerebellar abscessation, presumably as a result of C. pseudotuberculosis infection based on the macroscopic appearance of the abscess. The second case of otitis media-interna involved C. pseudotuberculosis with parasitic encephalitis or secondary meningo-encephalitis...
2013: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Michael C Pearce, Marietjie Venter, Tjitske Schouwstra, Charmaine Van Eeden, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz Paweska, Bo Liu, Arrie Du Plessis
Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains are endemic in South Africa and cause severe neurological disease in horses. An inactivated lineage 1 vaccine, Duvaxyn WNV, protects mice against challenge with a neuroinvasive South African lineage 2 strain of WNV. To evaluate the potential of Duvaxyn WNV to protect horses against lineage 2 strains of WNV, serum neutralising antibody responses of horses against lineage 1 WNV strain NY385/99 and lineage 2 WNV strain SPU93/01, isolated from a human with meningo-encephalitis in South Africa, were compared following vaccination with two doses of Duvaxyn WNV, 28 days apart, and a third dose one year later...
2013: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Takamitsu Tamura, David E Rex, Miklos G Marosfoi, Ajit S Puri, Matthew J Gounis, Ajay K Wakhloo
We describe an interesting case of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) caused by selective angiography of the middle meningeal artery (MMA). A 28-year-old woman presented with a symptomatic meningioma. Preoperative tumour embolisation was performed. In the procedure, when selective MMA angiography was done with Omnipaque 300 mg I/mL for 3 mL by manual injection, the patient complained of flashing lights in her eye followed by vomiting and bradycardia down to 40 bpm without increased intracranial pressure signs...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Takamitsu Tamura, David E Rex, Miklos G Marosfoi, Ajit S Puri, Matthew J Gounis, Ajay K Wakhloo
We describe an interesting case of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) caused by selective angiography of the middle meningeal artery (MMA). A 28-year-old woman presented with a symptomatic meningioma. Preoperative tumour embolisation was performed. In the procedure, when selective MMA angiography was done with Omnipaque 300 mg I/mL for 3 mL by manual injection, the patient complained of flashing lights in her eye followed by vomiting and bradycardia down to 40 bpm without increased intracranial pressure signs...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Mustapha Dahmani, Sulaf Alwassouf, Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Jean-Lou Marié, Bernard Davoust, Rémi N Charrel
BACKGROUND: Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Bunyaviridae, a family of negative-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. The virus can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female sand fly of the genus Phlebotomus. Infections are usually asymptomatic but the virus is known to cause aseptic meningitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in the Mediterranean countries. Dogs are good sentinels for detection of viral circulation and are more easily accessible than wild animals...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Fereydoun Davatchi, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahreh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Farimah Ashofteh, Negin Mohtasham, Hoda Kavosi, Mariam Masoumi
INTRODUCTION: Behcet's Disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. The aim of this review was to put together different known reports in order to help the reader to better understand the disease, to avoid the frequent misdiagnosis, and to decide the best treatment. AREAS COVERED: a) Epidemiology: BD is rare, and is seen along the Silk Road, from 20 to 420/100,000 in Turkey and 80/100,000 in Iran, to 0.64/100,000 in the UK. b) Clinical manifestations: oral aphthosis is seen in more than 95% of patients, genital aphthosis (60-90%), skin (pseudofolliculitis/erythema nodosum, 40-90%), eyes (uveitis/retinal vasculitis, 45-90%), gastrointestinal (diarrhea/hemorrhage/perforation/pain, 4-38%), vascular (venous/arterial thrombosis, aneurysm, 2...
July 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Yun Zhai, Toru Yamashita, Yumiko Nakano, Zhuoran Sun, Jingwei Shang, Tian Feng, Ryuta Morihara, Yusuke Fukui, Yasuyuki Ohta, Nozomi Hishikawa, Koji Abe
Recently, aging societies have been showing an increasingly strong relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (HP). In the present study, we created a new mouse model for AD with HP, and investigated its clinical and pathological characteristics. Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice (APP23) were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries stenosis with ameroid constrictors for slowly progressive cerebral HP. In contrast to simple APP23 mice, cerebral HP exacerbated motor and cognitive dysfunctions with white matter lesions and meningo-parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) burdens...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
Elena Gianchecchi, Alessandro Torelli, Giulia Piccini, Simona Piccirella, Emanuele Montomoli
N. meningitidis infections represent a global health problem that can lead to the development of serious permanent sequelae. Although the use of antibiotics and prevention via vaccination have reduced the incidence of meningococcal disease, our understanding regarding N. meningitidis pathogenesis is still limited, especially of those mechanisms responsible for IMD and fulminant or deadly septic shock. These severe clinical presentations occur in a limited number of subjects, whereas about 10% of healthy individuals are estimated to carry the bacteria as a commensal...
2016: Vaccines
David A Jaques, Spyridoula Bagetakou, Arnaud G L'Huillier, Andrea Bartoli, Maria-Isabel Vargas, Joel Fluss, Laurent Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common identified cause of focal encephalitis worldwide. However, postoperative HSV encephalitis (HSVE) is a rare complication of neurosurgical procedures and a significant clinical challenge METHOD: We describe 3 cases of postoperative HSVE and review all published reports. A total of 23 cases were identified. DISCUSSION: Clinical heterogeneity represents a diagnostic challenge in the postoperative setting...
2016: Virology Journal
Amit Kumar Keshri, Saurin R Shah, Simple D Patadia, Rabi N Sahu, Sanjay Behari
INTRODUCTION: Encephaloceles in relation to the nose are rare lesions affecting the skull base. In the pediatric population, majority are congenital lesions manifesting as nasal masses requiring surgical intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 6 consecutive patients below 12 years of age with intranasal meningoencephalocele treated by endonasal endoscopic approach at our tertiary centre was done. The follow up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Lisa Zimmer, Simone M Goldinger, Lars Hofmann, Carmen Loquai, Selma Ugurel, Ioannis Thomas, Maria I Schmidgen, Ralf Gutzmer, Jochen S Utikal, Daniela Göppner, Jessica C Hassel, Friedegund Meier, Julia K Tietze, Andrea Forschner, Carsten Weishaupt, Martin Leverkus, Renate Wahl, Ursula Dietrich, Claus Garbe, Michael C Kirchberger, Thomas Eigentler, Carola Berking, Anja Gesierich, Angela M Krackhardt, Dirk Schadendorf, Gerold Schuler, Reinhard Dummer, Lucie M Heinzerling
BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies represent an effective treatment option for metastatic melanoma and other cancer entities. They act via blockade of the PD-1 receptor, an inhibitor of the T-cell effector mechanisms that limit immune responses against tumours. As reported for ipilimumab, the anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These side-effects can involve skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, the endocrine system and other organ systems...
June 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcus is an important cause of central nervous system infections in both immunocompromised patients such as those with HIV/AIDS as well as previously healthy individuals. Deficiencies in T-cell activation are well-known to be highly associated with host susceptibility in HIV/AIDS as well in animal modeling studies, resulting in poor microbiological control and little host inflammation. However, recent studies conducted in human patients have demonstrated roles for macrophage signaling defects as an important association with disease susceptibility...
2015: Macrophage
Francesco Belotti, Marco Ferrari, Francesco Doglietto, Marco Angelo Cocchi, Davide Lancini, Barbara Buffoli, Piero Nicolai, Marco Maria Fontanella, Roberto Maroldi, Manfred Tschabitscher, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella
The ophthalmic artery has an anomalous origin in 2-3 % of cases and rarely arises from the anterior cerebral artery. Herein, we provide the first anatomical, radiological, and histological description of such an anomalous origin, together with a literature review. During the anatomical dissection of an 81-year-old Caucasian male, the absence of the right ophthalmic artery in its usual location was evident from an endonasal transsphenoidal perspective. The specimen was then studied in detail, through multiple dissections, corrosion casting, high-resolution CT, and histological analysis...
July 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Roger E Kelley, Joseph R Berger, Brian P Kelley
PURPOSE: We report a previously healthy middle aged woman who developed West Nile virus meningo-encephalitis within two weeks of unprotected vaginal intercourse with her husband. SUBJECT: This patient's husband had serologically confirmed West Nile virus infection manifested by a flu-like illness and rash with the sexual contact one day before the onset of his symptoms. RESULT: This well documented neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in our patient was within the incubation period of transmission and there was no reported mosquito bite exposure...
January 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
I Samina, Y Khinich, B A Peleg
Vaccination of turkeys via the wattle has been introduced as a novel route of vaccination using attenuated live viral turkey meningo-encephalitis (TME) and killed-in-oil bacterial (Pasteurella multocida) vaccines. The efficacy of the immunization was evaluated by the haemagglutination-inhibition test for TME and by challenge for TME and P. multocida. Immunization via the wattle route was comparable or better as compared with the conventional routes, intramuscular and subcutaneous, for P. multocida and TME, respectively...
October 1999: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
I Oueslati, A Berriche, L Ammari, R Abdelmalek, F Kanoun, B Kilani, H Tiouiri Benaissa
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, diagnostic, and outcome characteristics of neurobrucellosis case patients in Tunisia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study over a 17-year period (January 1997-December 2013). We included all neurobrucellosis patients hospitalized in the infectious disease department of La Rabta Hospital of Tunis during the study period. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included in the study: 9 men and 4 women...
May 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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