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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624584/the-impact-of-passive-case-detection-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-gambiense-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#1
Francesco Checchi, Sebastian Funk, Daniel Chandramohan, François Chappuis, Daniel T Haydon
Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne disease affecting largely rural populations in Western and Central Africa. The main method for detecting and treating cases of gambiense HAT are active screening through mobile teams and passive detection through self-referral of patients to dedicated treatment centres or hospitals. Strategies based on active case finding and treatment have drastically reduced the global incidence of the disease over recent decades. However, little is known about the coverage and transmission impact of passive case detection...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566288/retrograde-placement-of-high-cervical-electrodes-a-technical-refinement-and-case-series
#2
Christophe Oosterbos, Steven Vanvolsem, Wim Duyvendak, Peter Donkersloot, Maarten Wissels, Eric Put, Gert Roosen, Mark Plazier
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cord stimulation is used in the treatment of chronic (neuropathic) pain syndromes refractory to conservative treatments. Several authors describe different techniques for the placement of cervical electrodes. Electrodes can be plased retrogade. In this article, we describe a refinement on how to dissect the dorsal meningo-vertebral ligaments to decrease the risk of complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients received a permanent cervical spinal cord stimulator...
March 22, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561512/human-parechovirus-meningitis-with-adverse-neurodevelopmental-outcome-a-case-report
#3
Mylene C Berk, Andrea Hl Bruning, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Katja C Wolthers, Dasja Pajkrt
Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections usually cause mild symptoms in children. Although their contribution to severe disease in young children - such as neonatal sepsis and meningo-encephalitis - is increasingly recognized, data on long-term consequences are scarce. Here we present the case of a five-year old boy with severe long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae following HPeV-3 meningitis.
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496490/a-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-mmp9-gene-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-associated-with-predisposition-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-induced-severe-central-nervous-system-disease
#4
Andrey V Barkhash, Andrey A Yurchenko, Nikolay S Yudin, Elena V Ignatieva, Irina V Kozlova, Inessa A Borishchuk, Larisa L Pozdnyakova, Mikhail I Voevoda, Aida G Romaschenko
The progression of infectious diseases depends on causative agents, the environment and the host's genetic susceptibility. To date, human genetic susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus-induced disease has not been sufficiently studied. We have combined whole-exome sequencing with a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are involved in the development of predisposition to TBE in a Russian population. Initially, six exomes from TBE patients with severe central nervous system (CNS) disease and seven exomes from control individuals were sequenced...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424819/temporal-bone-meningo-encephalic-herniation-etiological-categorization-and-surgical-strategy
#5
Golda Grinblat, Manjunath Dandinarasaiah, Sampath Chandra Prasad, Gianluca Piras, Enrico Piccirillo, Andrea Fulcheri, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation, intraoperative findings and surgical management in meningo-encephalic-herniation (MEH) based on the etiology. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study and is a follow-up on the previously published report in 2009. SETTING: A quaternary referral otology and skull base center PATIENTS AND METHODS:: The inclusion criteria were intraoperatively verified MEH in patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, which yielded 262 operated ears...
March 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314773/55-year-old-patient-with-intranasal-mass
#6
David W Kennedy, Robert Brody
The patient is a 55 year old female who presented with a right sided intranasal mass in 2014. Surgery was recommended, but the patient cancelled the surgery. She returned three years later with a significant progression of the lesion. What is this lesion and how would you manage it? Five months after resection of the lesion, the patient returns with pulsatile clear mucus visible on nasal endoscopy in the region of the prior mass excision. What does this represent and how should we proceed at this point? Is the patient developing a meningo-encephalocele?...
January 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#7
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
December 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#8
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022659/-listeria-monocytogenes-infections
#9
Léna Pasquier, Christian Chuard
Listeria monocytogenes infections are caused by food ingestion. They are not only transmitted by animal products, but also by secondarily contaminated fruits and vegetables. They preferentially affect pregnant women, patients of extreme ages and the immu-nocompromised, and manifest as a gastroenteritis, bacteremia, meningo-encephalitis or maternal-fetal infection. Diagnosis is achieved by culture of usually sterile sites. The preferred treatment is amoxicillin with or without gentamicin. For patients at risk, prevention is based on avoiding at-risk food or cooking it when possible...
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018774/influenza-a-virus-as-a-predisposing-factor-for-cryptococcosis
#10
Lorena V N Oliveira, Marliete C Costa, Thaís F F Magalhães, Rafael W Bastos, Patrícia C Santos, Hellem C S Carneiro, Noelly Q Ribeiro, Gabriella F Ferreira, Lucas S Ribeiro, Ana P F Gonçalves, Caio T Fagundes, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Julianne T Djordjevic, Tania C Sorrell, Daniele G Souza, Alexandre M V Machado, Daniel A Santos
Influenza A virus (IAV) infects millions of people annually and predisposes to secondary bacterial infections. Inhalation of fungi within the Cryptococcus complex causes pulmonary disease with secondary meningo-encephalitis. Underlying pulmonary disease is a strong risk factor for development of C. gattii cryptococcosis though the effect of concurrent infection with IAV has not been studied. We developed an in vivo model of Influenza A H1N1 and C. gattii co-infection. Co-infection resulted in a major increase in morbidity and mortality, with severe lung damage and a high brain fungal burden when mice were infected in the acute phase of influenza multiplication...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919626/addison-s-disease-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#11
S Afroz, S Bain
Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, but is life threatening when overlooked. Addison's disease may be an acquired form of adrenal insufficiency due to the destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex. It affects both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid function. Main presenting symptoms of Addison's disease such as fatigue, anorexia, vomiting and convulsion often mimics central nervous system (CNS) infections. We describe a case of Addison's disease who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of meningo-encephalitis subsequently renal tubular acidosis and finally Addison's disease...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851278/toscana-virus-meningo-encephalitis-an-important-differential-diagnosis-for-elderly-travellers-returning-from-mediterranean-countries
#12
James Veater, Farhan Mehedi, Chee Kay Cheung, Laura Nabarro, Jane Osborne, Nicholas Wong, Martin Wiselka, Julian W Tang
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation...
August 29, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709108/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-v-alginolyticus-associated-meningo-encephalitis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-adriatic-coast-of-italy
#13
Ludovica Di Renzo, Gabriella Di Francesco, Chiara Profico, Cristina E Di Francesco, Nicola Ferri, Daniela Averaimo, Giovanni Di Guardo
A case of Vibrio parahaemolyticus- and V. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. Macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. Histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous meningo-encephalitis involved the brain but not the cerebellum...
July 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702933/characterization-of-simbu-serogroup-virus-infections-in-type-i-interferon-receptor-knock-out-mice
#14
Kerstin Tauscher, Kerstin Wernike, Melina Fischer, Anne Wegelt, Bernd Hoffmann, Jens Peter Teifke, Martin Beer
In late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel, arthropod-borne, teratogenic orthobunyavirus, emerged near the German/Dutch border and thereafter spread rapidly throughout the continent thereby causing great economic losses in European livestock. SBV mainly infects ruminants and closely related viruses such as Sabo virus (SABOV), Simbu virus (SIMBUV) and Sathuperi virus (SATV) have been isolated from their insect-vectors or putative ruminant hosts. However, information about their pathogenesis and in vivo studies with SABOV, SIMBUV, and SATV are scarce...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675347/rare-association-between-spinal-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-and-dysraphisms-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature-with-a-focus-on-pitfalls-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Giacomo Talenti, Giovanni Vitale, Giacomo Cester, Alessandro Della Puppa, Roberto Faggin, Francesco Causin
Spinal vascular malformations are uncommon yet important spinal pathologies commonly classified in congenital and acquired lesions. Spinal lipomas consist of three subtypes: intramedullary lipomas, lipomyelo(meningo)celes and lipomas of the filum. Although the association of spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with other congenital anomalies is well known, the coexistence of dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and tethered spinal cord is exceptionally rare and only eight cases have been reported. We present two cases from our institution and speculate on the possible origin of such a rare but insidious association...
October 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412926/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-a-diagnostic-challenge
#16
Ralf Landwehr, Robert Liszka
Acute symptomatic seizures and epileptic disorders are frequent health problems of elderly patients. An early and reliable distinction of the seizure etiology is important to ensure adequate treatment, and to prevent unwarranted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The most common causes of acute symptomatic seizures - acute cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injury, meningo-encephalitis, cerebral tumors, and withdrawal of alcohol and other central agents - are well-defined and seem to permit straightforward diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401625/fatal-case-of-cutaneous-sparing-orolaryngeal-zoster-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#17
Elie Helou, Matthew Grant, Marie Landry, Xinyu Wu, Jon S Morrow, Maricar F Malinis
Herpesvirus infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a kidney transplant recipient while receiving belatacept, a CTLA-4 inhibitor that prevents acute rejection. The patient presented with oropharyngolaryngeal mucosal lesions that subsequently disseminated resulting in pneumonitis and meningo-encephalitis. Very late-onset HZ can occur and can present atypically in SOT recipients. Delayed recognition and treatment may result in poor outcomes, as illustrated by this case...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330628/analysis-of-the-dura-involvement-in-cholesteatoma-surgery
#18
David Schwarz, Antoniu-Oreste Gostian, Sami Shabli, Philipp Wolber, Karl Bernd Hüttenbrink, Andreas Anagiotos
OBJECTIVE: The involvement of the dura is a rare yet potentially life-threatening complication during cholesteatoma surgery. Thus, the knowledge about treatment and consequences of this issue is of great importance to every ear surgeon. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the dura involvement with regard to the type of defect, reconstruction method used, and the post-operative complications of 1291 pediatric and adult cholesteatoma surgeries performed at an academic tertiary care center over a twelve-year period...
March 19, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#19
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042017/the-extended-lateral-supraorbital-approach-and-extradural-anterior-clinoidectomy-through-a-frontopterio-orbital-window-technical-note-and-pilot-surgical-series
#20
Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Max Jägersberg, Sirajeddin Belkhair, Rachel Tymianski, Mazda K Turel, Karl Schaller, Juha A Hernesniemi, Michael Tymianski, Ivan Radovanovic
BACKGROUND: Lateral approaches to treat anterior cranial fossa lesions have evolved since the first frontotemporal approach described by Dandy in 1918. We describe a less invasive approach to perform extradural anterior clinoidectomy through a lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach for anterior circulation aneurysms and anterolateral skull base lesions. METHODS: The extended LSO approach involves performing a standard lateral supraorbital craniotomy followed by drilling of the sphenoid wing and lateral wall of the orbit through the frontal bony opening of the LSO approach, without any temporal extension of the craniotomy...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
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