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Thyroid hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917612/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-anti-thyroid-antibodies-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#1
Torie C Plowden, Enrique F Schisterman, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Neil J Perkins, Robert Silver, Rose Radin, Keewan Kim, Noya Galai, Alan H DeCherney, Sunni L Mumford
BACKGROUND: Overt thyroid dysfunction has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. However, less is known regarding subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity and their relationship to pregnancy complications. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy anti-thyroid antibodies and subclinical hypothyroidism and preterm delivery (PTD), gestational diabetes (GDM), and preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of 18-40 year old women with 1-2 prior pregnancy losses (n=1193) participating in a multi-center randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917091/recovery-from-diabetes-insipidus-and-preservation-of-thyroid-function-after-craniopharyngioma-removal-and-pituitary-stalk-sectioning
#2
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECTIVES: Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917084/evaluation-of-neurodevelopment-of-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-by-the-denver-developmental-screening-test
#3
Ayşe Derya Buluş, Esra Tiftik
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and brain development in childhood. Although congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common reason for mental retardation, normal neurological development can be achieved through early and effective treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neurological development of CH patients aged 24-56 months. METHODS: The study included a total of 116 healthy control subjects and 112 patients aged 24-56 months who were diagnosed with CH during the neonatal period and were being followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, between 2012 and 2015...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916515/reversing-thyroid-hormone-mediated-repression-of-a-hsv-1-promoter-via-computationally-guided-mutagenesis
#4
Robert W Figliozzi, Feng Chen, Shaochung V Hsia
Thyroid hormones (TH or T3) and their DNA binding nuclear receptors (TRs), direct transcriptional regulation in diverse ways depending on the host cell environment and specific promoter characteristics of TH sensitive genes. This study sought to elucidate the impact on transcriptional repression of nucleotide sequence/orientation within TR binding sites, TR elements, (TREs) of TH sensitive promoters, to better understand ligand dependent transcriptional repression of wild-type promoters. Computational analysis of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene TRE bound by TR and RXR revealed a single TRE point mutation sufficient to reverse the TRE orientation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915538/long-term-t3-and-t4-treatment-as-an-alternative-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-improving-cardiac-function-post-myocardial-infarction
#5
Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Alexsandra Zimmer, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Patrick Türck, Rafaela Siqueira, Adriane Belló-Klein, Pawan K Singal, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Here we aimed to compare the beneficial effects of T3 and T4 hormone treatment to those provided by aerobic exercise training in Wistar rats post-myocardial infarction (MI). Rats in one group were SHAM-operated and in the other group were subjected to MI surgery. One week after surgery, the MI group animals either received T3 and T4 hormones by gavage or underwent a low intensity aerobic exercise training protocol on a treadmill, and both treatments lasted until 10 weeks after MI. Untreated SHAM-operated and MI groups were also followed for the same duration...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915531/subclinical-hyperthyroidism-and-the-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Alessandro P Delitala
Thyroid hormone excess has complex metabolic effects, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Treatment of these conditions is universally suggested by international guidelines. Subclinical hyperthyroidism, defined by reduced or suppressed TSH levels in the presence of normal free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine values, is common in the general population and progressively increases with aging, being as high as 15.4% in subjects more than 75 years old and more frequent in subjects with nodular goiter...
September 15, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913779/effects-of-sublethal-abamectin-exposure-on-some-hormonal-profiles-and-testicular-histopathology-in-male-albino-rats-and-the-possible-ameliorative-role-of-eruca-sativa
#7
Hanaa Fawzy Hassan, Noha M Meligi
The ameliorative role of Eruca sativa on some hormonal profile and testicular histopathology in male albino rats exposed to a sublethal dose of 1 mg/kg body weight (b.wt). Abamectin (Crater 3.37% EC) was evaluated. Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group, Abamectin-treated group, and Abamectin + E. sativa-treated group. Rats of the second group were orally administrated 1 mg/kg b.wt. of Abamectin, the third group received a mixture of sublethal oral dose of Abamectin (1 mg/kg b...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913489/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-in-patients-with-minor-head-trauma-two-case-reports
#8
Gabriela Csipak, Natalia Hagau
We describe two polytrauma patients without severe head trauma who developed Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) during their stay in our ICU with natriuresis, hyponatremia and hypovolemia. Hyponatremia encountered in CSWS and the syndrome of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common electrolyte finding in patients with severe head trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignancy and infections of the central nervous system. CSWS was an unexpected electrolyte finding in our patients with minor head trauma without neurological or neurosurgical problems...
October 2016: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913145/subclinical-hypothyroidism-is-it-important-in-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-cycles
#9
Eray Çalışkan, Rahime Nida Ergin, Deniz Can Öztekin, Bülent Kars, Seda Çakır, Kenan Sofuoğlu
OBJECTIVE: To compare intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of women with subclinical hypothyroidism with those of euthyroid women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Out of 2529 ICSI cycles evaluated, 41 women with hypothyroidism, 28 women with hyperthyroidism, and 128 women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were excluded, and 2336 cycles were analyzed. Women were identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism (case group, n=105) in the presence of a thyroid-stimulating hormone level >4...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912982/severe-thyrotoxicosis-secondary-to-povidone-iodine-from-peritoneal-dialysis
#10
Kirstie Lithgow, Christopher Symonds
A 73-year-old male on home peritoneal dialysis (PD) with recent diagnosis of atrial fibrillation presented with fatigue and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed with TSH < 0.01 mIU/L and FT4 > 100 pmol/L. He had no personal or family history of thyroid disease. There had been no exposures to CT contrast, amiodarone, or iodine. Technetium thyroid scan showed diffusely decreased uptake. He was discharged with a presumptive diagnosis of thyroiditis. Three weeks later, he had deteriorated clinically...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912377/immune-response-in-the-thyroid-cancer-microenvironment-making-immunotherapy-a-possible-mission
#11
Robert C Mould, Jacob P van Vloten, Amanda W K AuYeung, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
The incidence of thyroid cancers has been steadily increasing worldwide over the past few decades. Although five-year survival rates for differentiated thyroid cancers are upwards of 90%, clinical outcomes for patients with undifferentiated, recurrent and/or metastatic disease are often dismal despite conventional interventions. As such, there is a demand for novel treatment options. Cancer immunotherapy represents the ultimate form of personalized medicine by leveraging the specificity and potency of a patient's immune system to kill their tumour...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912375/organ-culture-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-intestine
#12
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During Xenopus metamorphosis, most tadpole organs remodel from the larval to adult form to prepare for adaptation to terrestrial life. Organ culture serves as an important tool for studying larval-to-adult organ remodeling independent of the effects of other parts of the body. Here, I introduce a protocol for organ culture in vitro using the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine before metamorphic climax. During culture in the absence of exogenous 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the most potent natural thyroid hormone, the intestine remains in its larval state without any metamorphic changes...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911178/naturally-occurring-amino-acids-in-helix-10-of-the-thyroid-hormone-receptor-mediate-isoform-specific-th-gene-regulation
#13
Vitor M S Pinto, Svetlana Minakhina, Shuiqing Qiu, Aniket Sidhaye, Michael P Brotherton, Amy Suhotliv, Fredric E Wondisford
Thyroid hormone (TH) action is mediated by the products of two genes, TH receptor (THR)α (THRA) and THRβ (THRB) that encode several closely related receptor isoforms with differing tissue distributions. The vast majority of THR isoform-specific effects are thought to be due to tissue-specific differences in THR isoform expression levels. We investigated the alternative hypothesis that intrinsic functional differences among THR isoforms mediate these tissue-specific effects. To achieve the same level of expression of each isoform, we created tagged THR isoforms and tested their DNA and functional properties in vitro...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911146/anemia-in-patients-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-%C3%AE-a-role-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-in-human-erythropoiesis
#14
Anja L M van Gucht, Marcel E Meima, Carla Moran, Maura Agostini, Anna Tylki-Szymanska, Malgorzata-Walasek Krajewska, Krystyna Chrzanowska, Alexandra Efthymiadou, Dionisios Chrysis, Korcan Demir, W Edward Visser, Theo J Visser, Krishna Chatterjee, Thamar B van Dijk, Robin P Peeters
Context: Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH) α (RTHα) are characterized by growth retardation, macrocephaly, constipation, and abnormal thyroid function tests. In addition, almost all RTHα patients have mild anemia, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Animal studies suggest an important role for TH and TH receptor (TR)α in erythropoiesis. Objective: To investigate whether a defect in TRα affects the maturation of red blood cells in RTHα patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911144/randomized-trial-comparing-two-algorithms-for-levothyroxine-dose-adjustment-in-pregnant-women-with-primary-hypothyroidism
#15
Shannon D Sullivan, Erin Downs, Geanina Popoveniuc, Alexander Zeymo, Jacqueline Jonklaas, Kenneth D Burman
Context: Regulation of maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy is crucial for optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. There are no specific guidelines addressing maternal levothyroxine (LT4) dose adjustments throughout pregnancy. Objective: To compare two LT4 dose-adjustment algorithms in hypothyroid pregnant women. Design: Thirty-three women on stable LT4 doses were recruited at <10 weeks gestation during 38 pregnancies and randomized to one of two dose-adjustment groups...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910808/detecting-congenital-central-hypothyroidism-by-newborn-screening-difficulty-in-distinguishing-from-congenital-thyroxine-binding-globulin-deficiency
#16
Kara J Connelly, Melinda J Pierce, Cheryl Hanna, Stephen H LaFranchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital central hypothyroidism (CH-C) can be detected on newborn screening (NBS) by programs using thyroxine (T4)-reflex thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test approach. CH-C must be distinguished from T4-binding globulin (TBG) deficiency. We sought to determine whether thyroid function tests reliably separate CH-C from TBG deficiency. METHODS: We analyzed NBS and serum free and total T4, T3 resin uptake (T3RU) or TBG, and TSH for infants in the Northwest Regional NBS Program (NWRSP) between the years 2008 and 2015 with either CH-C or TBG deficiency...
September 14, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910278/defective-erythropoiesis-caused-by-mutations-of-the-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-gene
#17
Sunmi Park, Cho Rong Han, Jeong Won Park, Li Zhao, Xuguang Zhu, Mark Willingham, David M Bodine, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Patients with mutations of the THRA gene exhibit classical features of hypothyroidism, including erythroid disorders. We previously created a mutant mouse expressing a mutated TRα1 (denoted as PV; Thra1PV/+ mouse) that faithfully reproduces the classical hypothyroidism seen in patients. Using Thra1PV/+ mice, we explored how the TRα1PV mutant acted to cause abnormalities in erythropoiesis. Thra1PV/+ mice exhibited abnormal red blood cell indices similarly as reported for patients. The total bone marrow cells and erythrocytic progenitors were markedly reduced in the bone marrow of Thra1PV/+ mice...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905302/non-health-care-facility-medication-errors-associated-with-hormones-and-hormone-antagonists-in-the-united-states
#18
Pranav Magal, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Nichole L Hodges, Gary A Smith
INTRODUCTION: Hormones and hormone antagonists are frequently associated with medication errors and may result in important adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate non-health care facility (non-HCF) medication errors associated with hormones and hormone antagonists in the United States (US). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of National Poison Data System data was conducted to identify characteristics and trends of unintentional non-HCF therapeutic errors involving hormones and hormone antagonists among individuals of all ages from 2000 to 2012...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905202/drug-interactions-in-users-of-tablet-vs-oral-liquid-levothyroxine-formulations-a-real-world-evidence-study-in-primary-care
#19
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Elisa Bianchini, Gerardo Medea, Iacopo Cricelli, Paolo Sbraccia, Davide Lauro, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
PURPOSE: Several medications may interact with levothyroxine (LT4) intestinal absorption or metabolism, thus reducing its bioavailability. We investigated the variability of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and prescribed daily dosages (PDDs) of LT4 before and during potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in users of tablets vs. oral liquid LT4 formulations. METHODS: By using the Italian general practice Health Search Database (HSD), we retrospectively selected adult patients with at least one LT4 prescription from 2012 to 2015 and at least 1 year of clinical history recorded...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905131/exploring-evidence-of-positive-selection-signatures-in-cattle-breeds-selected-for-different-traits
#20
Mengistie Taye, Wonseok Lee, Soomin Jeon, Joon Yoon, Tadelle Dessie, Olivier Hanotte, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Stephen Kemp, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
Since domestication, the genome landscape of cattle has been changing due to natural and artificial selection forces resulting in several general and specialized cattle breeds of the world. Identifying genomic regions affected due to these forces in livestock gives an insight into the history of selection for economically important traits and genetic adaptation to specific environments of the populations under consideration. This study explores the genes/genomic regions under selection in relation to the phenotypes of Holstein, Hanwoo, and N'Dama cattle breeds using Tajima's D, XP-CLR, and XP-EHH population statistical methods...
September 13, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
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