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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352493/effect-of-dietary-manipulation-and-vaccination-of-turkey-breeder-hens-on-immunoglobulin-levels-of-yolk-yolk-sac-and-neonate-poults
#1
A Bhattacharyya, S Majumdar, S K Bhanja, A B Mandal, B B Dash
Two hundred turkey breeder hens and 24 viable toms of 30-35 weeks age of small white variety were distributed into two treatment groups having four replicates of 25 hens and three toms in each treatment. First four replicates were offered a turkey breeder diet (Diet A) (Nutrient requirements of poultry, 1994, National Academic Press, Washington, DC) and the rest four replicates were maintained on a higher plane of nutrition (Diet B) for 8-week duration. After 6 weeks of experimental feeding, two replicates from each treatment groups were vaccinated with ND (R2 B) vaccine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352082/clostridial-strain-specific-characteristics-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#2
Sophia Schönherr-Hellec, Geraldine L Klein, Johanne Delannoy, Laurent Ferraris, Jean Christophe Rozé, Marie José Butel, Julio Aires
We aimed at identifying potential clostridial factors linking these bacteria with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC and control preterm neonates (PN). When strains characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351055/are-pre-terms-born-timely-and-right-immunized-results-of-an-italian-cohort-study
#3
Nicola Laforgia, Antonio Di Mauro, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federica Di Mauro, Andrea Zizzi, Manuela Capozza, Silvia Intini, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri
The aim of this study is to evaluate the vaccination coverage at 24 months of chronological age in a sample of preterm infants discharged by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Bari Policlinico University General Hospital in Italy. The list of infants preterm born discharged during 2013 by the NICU was obtained by hospital database. Vaccination status of each subject at 24 months of chronological age was acquired by the Apulian Regional Vaccination Register (GIAVA). 159 preterm borns were enrolled in this study...
January 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348261/complement-receptor-c5ar1-plays-an-evolutionarily-conserved-role-in-successful-cardiac-regeneration
#4
Niranjana Natarajan, Yamen Abbas, Donald M Bryant, Juan Manuel Gonzalez-Rosa, Michka Sharpe, Aysu Uygur, Lucas H Cocco-Delgado, Nhi Ngoc Ho, Norma P Gerard, Craig J Gerard, Calum A Macrae, Caroline E Burns, C Geoffrey Burns, Jessica L Whited, Richard T Lee
Background -Defining conserved molecular pathways in animal models of successful cardiac regeneration could yield insight into why adult mammals have inadequate cardiac regeneration after injury. Insight into the transcriptomic landscape of early cardiac regeneration from model organisms will shed light on evolutionarily conserved pathways in successful cardiac regeneration. Methods -Here we describe a cross-species transcriptomic screen in three model organisms for cardiac regeneration -axolotl, neonatal mice and zebrafish...
January 18, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346344/development-of-immune-and-microbial-environments-is-independently-regulated-in-the-mammary-gland
#5
K Niimi, K Usami, Y Fujita, M Abe, M Furukawa, Y Suyama, Y Sakai, M Kamioka, N Shibata, E J Park, S Sato, H Kiyono, H Yoneyama, H Kitazawa, K Watanabe, T Nochi, H Aso
Breastfeeding is important for mammals, providing immunological and microbiological advantages to neonates, together with the nutritional supply from the mother. However, the mechanisms of this functional diversity in the mammary gland remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that, similar to the gastrointestinal tract, the mammary gland develops immune and microbial environments consisting of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the microflora, respectively, both of which are important for protecting neonates and the mother from infectious diseases...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345344/differential-outcomes-of-tlr2-engagement-in-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#6
Monica Cappelletti, Matthew J Lawson, Calvin C Chan, Adrienne N Wilburn, Senad Divanovic
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Infection and inflammation are considered main causes of PTB. Among multiple pathogens, Gram-positive bacteria are commonly linked with induction of PTB. Although activation of innate immune responses, via TLR2 engagement, by Gram-positive bacteria is a likely cause, whether induction of PTB depends on the potency of specific microbial components to induce Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-driven inflammation has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TLR2 activation by synthetic lipopeptides, Pam2Cys, and Pam3Cys specifically, variably influenced inflammation and subsequent induction of PTB...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339967/preventing-neonatal-herpes-infections-through-maternal-immunization
#7
EDITORIAL
Yike Jiang, David Leib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Future Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339155/truncated-cd200-stimulates-tumor-immunity-leading-to-fewer-lung-metastases-in-a-novel-wistar-rat-metastasis-model
#8
Jun Kuwabara, Akihiro Umakoshi, Naoki Abe, Yutaro Sumida, Shota Ohsumi, Eika Usa, Kana Taguchi, Mohammed E Choudhury, Hajime Yano, Shirabe Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Hisaaki Takahashi, Toshihiro Yorozuya, Yuji Watanabe, Junya Tanaka
CD200 mediates immunosuppression in immune cells that express its receptor, CD200R. There are two CD200 variants; truncated CD200 that lacks the N-terminal sequence necessary for CD200R binding (CD200S) and full-length CD200 (CD200L). We established a novel lung metastasis model by subcutaneously transplanting C6 glioma cells into the backs of neonatal Wistar rats. All transplanted rats developed large back tumors, nearly 90% of which bore lung metastases. To compare the effects of CD200S and CD200L on tumor immunity, CD200L (C6-L)- or CD200S (C6-S)-expressing C6 cells were similarly transplanted...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337617/intrapulmonary-delivery-of-cpg-odn-microdroplets-provides-protection-against-escherichia-coli-septicemia-in-neonatal-broiler-chickens
#9
Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Shelly Popowich, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Ruwani Karunarathna, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Suresh K Tikoo, Marianna Foldvari, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#10
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#11
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331320/zika-dengue-and-yellow-fever-viruses-induce-differential-anti-viral-immune-responses-in-human-monocytic-and-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#12
Huanle Luo, Evandro R Winkelmann, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Li Li, Sandra V Mayer, Rogelio Daniz-Lozano, Rosa Ma Sanchez-Casas, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Tian Wang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8)...
January 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324782/mafb-is-dispensable-for-the-fetal-testis-morphogenesis-and-the-maintenance-of-spermatogenesis-in-adult-mice
#13
Hossam H Shawki, Hisashi Oishi, Toshiaki Usui, Yu Kitadate, Walaa A Basha, Ahmed M Abdellatif, Kazunori Hasegawa, Risa Okada, Keiji Mochida, Hany A El-Shemy, Masafumi Muratani, Atsuo Ogura, Shosei Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi
The transcription factor MAFB is an important regulator of the development and differentiation of various organs and tissues. Previous studies have shown that MAFB is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse testes and is expected to act as the downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) to initiate spermatogenesis. However, its exact localization and function remain unclear. Here, we localized MAFB expression in embryonic and adult testes and analyzed its gene function using Mafb-deficient mice. We found that MAFB and c-MAF are the only large MAF transcription factors expressed in testes, while MAFA and NRL are not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324461/efficacy-of-treatment-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-pregnancy-with-corticosteroids-and-intravenous-immunoglobulin-a-prospective-follow-up-of-suggested-practice
#14
Gisela Wegnelius, Katarina Bremme, Pelle G Lindqvist
: The current study is performed to assess a routine for treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnancy. A prospective programme for monitoring and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or cortisone in pregnancies with immune thrombocytopenic purpura was suggested to all delivery units in Sweden. Treatment should be avoided if platelet counts were more than 20 × 10/l during pregnancy with no bleeding complications and with a target of 100 × 10/l at delivery. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used...
January 10, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323105/enterovirus-d68-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-potently-induce-neutralizing-antibody-responses-and-confer-protection-against-lethal-viral-infection-in-mice
#15
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316814/biology-of-the-adrenal-gland-cortex-obviates-effective-use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vectors-to-treat-hereditary-adrenal-disorders
#16
Sandra Markmann, Bishnu P De, Jasmine Reid, Clarisse Jose, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Philip Leopold, Stephen M Kaminsky, Dolan Sondhi, Odelya E Pagovich, Ronald G Crystal
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 1:10,000-1:20,000 live births. In >95% of the cases, CAH results from mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, encoding the adrenal steroid enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Cardinal phenotypic features of CAH include genital ambiguity and sexual precocity, and in severe cases, neonatal salt loss and death. Current standard of care consists of life-long oral steroid replacement to reverse the cortisol deficiency. Although significant advances in the treatment of CAH have been made, the burden of a life-long therapeutic intervention is not ideal for quality of life...
January 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315356/il22-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-preterm-labor-in-mice
#17
Svetlana Dambaeva, Sylvia Schneiderman, Mukesh K Jaiswal, Varkha Agrawal, Gajendra Katara, Alice Gilman-Sachs, Emmet Hirsch, Kenneth D Beaman
Preterm birth is widespread and causes 35% of all neonatal deaths. Infants who survive face potential long-term complications. A major contributing factor of preterm birth is infection. We investigated the role of Interleukin 22 (IL22) as a potential clinically relevant cytokine during gestational infection. IL22 is an effector molecule secreted by immune cells. While the expression of IL22 was reported in normal non-pregnant endometrium and early pregnancy decidua, little is known about uterine IL22 expression during mid- or late gestational stages of pregnancy...
January 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311619/in-situ-immune-response-and-mechanisms-of-cell-damage-in-central-nervous-system-of-fatal-cases-microcephaly-by-zika-virus
#18
Raimunda S S Azevedo, Jorge R de Sousa, Marialva T F Araujo, Arnaldo J Martins Filho, Bianca N de Alcantara, Fernanda M C Araujo, Maria G L Queiroz, Ana C R Cruz, Beatriz H Baldez Vasconcelos, Jannifer O Chiang, Lívia C Martins, Livia M N Casseb, Eliana V da Silva, Valéria L Carvalho, Barbara C Baldez Vasconcelos, Sueli G Rodrigues, Consuelo S Oliveira, Juarez A S Quaresma, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306729/adding-to-the-complexity-of-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-reduced-fibrinogen-binding-in-the-presence-of-anti-hpa-1a-antibody-and-hypo-responsive-neonatal-platelets
#19
E Refsum, S Meinke, G Gryfelt, A Wikman, P Höglund
BACKGROUND: In fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), maternal alloantibodies directed against paternally-derived platelet antigens are transported across the placenta to the fetus, where they may cause thrombocytopenia. The most serious complication of FNAIT is an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which may cause death or life-long disability of the child. Apart from alloantibody-mediated platelet destruction, the clinical outcome in FNAIT may be affected by properties of neonatal platelets and possible functional effects on platelets caused by maternal alloantibodies...
December 29, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306331/fc-gamma-receptors-are-expressed-in-the-developing-rat-brain-and-activate-downstream-signaling-molecules-upon-cross-linking-with-immune-complex
#20
Marianna Stamou, Ana Cristina Grodzki, Marc van Oostrum, Bernd Wollscheid, Pamela J Lein
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the developing brain to immune mediators, including antibodies, is postulated to increase risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that immunoglobulin G-immune complexes (IgG-IC) activate Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) expressed on neurons to modify signaling events in these cells. However, testing this hypothesis is hindered by a paucity of data regarding neuronal FcγR expression and function. METHODS: FcγR transcript expression in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum of neonatal male and female rats was investigated ex vivo and in mixed cultures of primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and astrocytes using quantitative PCR analyses...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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