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Neonatal immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158374/maternal-igg-immune-complexes-induce-food-allergen-specific-tolerance-in-offspring
#1
Asa Ohsaki, Nicholas Venturelli, Tess M Buccigrosso, Stavroula K Osganian, John Lee, Richard S Blumberg, Michiko K Oyoshi
The role of maternal immune responses in tolerance induction is poorly understood. To study whether maternal allergen sensitization affects offspring susceptibility to food allergy, we epicutaneously sensitized female mice with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by epicutaneous sensitization and oral challenge of their offspring with OVA. Maternal OVA sensitization prevented food anaphylaxis, OVA-specific IgE production, and intestinal mast cell expansion in offspring. This protection was mediated by neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn)-dependent transfer of maternal IgG and OVA immune complexes (IgG-IC) via breast milk and induction of allergen-specific regulatory T (T reg) cells in offspring...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#2
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#3
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152264/live-attenuated-vaccines-in-a-cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndrome-patient-receiving-canakinumab-treatment-during-infancy
#4
Misa Watanabe, Ryuta Nishikomori, Yuki Fujimaki, Toshio Heike, Akira Ohara, Tsutomu Saji
We successfully immunized the neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) patient with live-attenuated vaccines for measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps and achieved sufficient antibody titer under canakinumab therapy without complications.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150056/respiratory-distress-in-the-neonate-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-maternal-immunization-safety-data
#5
Leigh R Sweet, Cheryl Keech, Nicola P Klein, Helen S Marshall, Beckie N Tagbo, David Quine, Pawandeep Kaur, Ilia Tikhonov, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Sonali Kochhar, Flor M Muñoz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147059/tetanus-in-adult-males-bugando-medical-centre-united-republic-of-tanzania
#6
Riaz Aziz, Robert N Peck, Samuel Kalluvya, Bernard Kenemo, Alphonce Chandika, Jennifer A Downs
Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported. Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016. Local setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134255/identification-of-generic-and-pathogen-specific-cord-blood-monocyte-transcriptomes-reveals-a-largely-conserved-response-in-preterm-and-term-newborn-infants
#7
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Julie Hibbert, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis are predominant causes of neonatal sepsis, particularly affecting preterm infants. Susceptibility to infection has been attributed to "immature" innate monocyte defences, but no studies have assessed global transcriptional responses of neonatal monocytes to these pathogens. Here, we aimed to identify and characterise the neonatal monocyte transcriptional responses to E. coli and S. epidermidis and the role of common modifiers such as gestational age (GA) and exposure to chorioamnionitis (a common complication of preterm birth) to better understand early life innate immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133293/il-33-responsive-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-regulated-by-female-sex-hormones-in-the-uterus
#8
Kathleen Bartemes, Chien-Chang Chen, Koji Iijima, Li Drake, Hirohito Kita
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) reside in multiple organs in the body, where they play roles in immunity, tissue homeostasis, and metabolic regulation. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of ILC2s in different organs. Here, we identified ILC2s in the mouse uterus and found that they express cell surface molecules, including the IL-33 receptor, ST2, that are roughly comparable to those expressed by lung ILC2s. Both in vivo and in vitro treatment with IL-33 induced type 2 cytokine production in uterine ILC2s, suggesting that they respond to IL-33 in a manner similar to ILC2s in other organs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132769/-genital-herpes-and-pregnancy-serological-and-molecular-diagnostic-tools-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#9
C Vauloup-Fellous
OBJECTIVES: To describe serological and molecular tools available for genital and neonatal herpes, and their use in different clinical situations. METHODS: Bibliographic investigations from MedLine database and consultation of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Virological confirmation of genital herpes during pregnancy or neonatal herpes must rely on PCR (Professional consensus). HSV type-specific serology (IgG) will allow determining the immune status of a patient (in the absence of clinical lesions)...
November 10, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129453/hepatitis-b-virus-core-particles-containing-multiple-epitopes-confer-protection-against-enterovirus-71-and-coxsackievirus-a16-infection-in-mice
#10
Chunling Huo, Jie Yang, Lei Lei, Lei Qiao, Jiantao Xin, Zishu Pan
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). To investigate novel combined vaccines to prevent EV71 and CA16 infection, we constructed chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/SPA or tHBc/SP VLPs) displaying conserved epitopes of EV71 (aa 208-222 of VP1 and aa 248-263 of VP2) and CA16 (aa271-285 of VP1) using a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced epitope- or virus-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies against EV71 and CA16 in the mice...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129451/cost-effectiveness-of-maternal-gbs-immunization-in-low-income-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Louise B Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Jennifer R Verani, Anushua Sinha
BACKGROUND: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. METHODS: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128674/staged-development-of-long-lived-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-th17-resident-memory-t-cell-population-to-candida-albicans-after-skin-infection
#12
Chang Ook Park, Xiujun Fu, Xiaodong Jiang, Youdong Pan, Jessica E Teague, Nicholas Collins, Tian Tian, John T O'Malley, Ryan O Emerson, Ji Hye Kim, Yookyung Jung, Rei Watanabe, Robert C Fuhlbrigge, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt, Rachael A Clark, Charles P Lin, Thomas S Kupper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus to which humans are exposed early in life and by adulthood it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C. albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under SPF conditions are naive to C. albicans, and have recently been shown to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal humans. OBJECTIVE: We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128634/vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-polymorphisms-are-associated-to-spontaneous-preterm-birth-and-maternal-aspects
#13
N R Javorski, C A D Lima, L V C Silva, S Crovella, J de Azêvedo Silva
Preterm birth (PTB) is featured by less than 37weeks of gestational age or fewer than 259days since the first day from the last menstrual period. Complications of PTB are the major cause of neonatal deaths, several factors are linked to PTB increased risk including immunological and genetics. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune response modulation and its action occurs through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recently has been described as overexpressed in human placenta during the pregnancy. Herein we assessed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570 A>G) and Cdx-2 (rs11568820 T>C), within VDR, using TaqMan fluorogenic probes, and differential susceptibility to SPTB...
November 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128214/application-of-whey-protein-isolate-in-bone-regeneration-effects-on-growth-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-forming-cells
#14
Timothy E L Douglas, Marta Vandrovcová, Nikola Kročilová, Julia K Keppler, Jana Zárubová, Andre G Skirtach, Lucie Bačáková
Recently, milk-derived proteins have attracted attention for applications in the biomedical field such as tissue regeneration. Whey protein isolate (WPI), especially its main component β-lactoglobulin, can modulate immunity and acts as an antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial agent. There are very few reports of the application of WPI in tissue engineering, especially in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we tested the influence of different concentrations of WPI on behavior of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (FIB)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127071/sickness-induced-changes-in-physiology-do-not-affect-fecundity-or-same-sex-behavior
#15
Kristyn E Sylvia, Patricia Báez Ramos, Gregory E Demas
Previous work in our lab has shown that early-life infection affects female reproductive physiology and function (i.e., smaller ovaries, abnormal estrous cycles) and alters investigation and aggression towards male conspecifics in a reproductive context. Although many studies have investigated the effects of postnatal immune challenge on physiological and behavioral development, fewer studies have examined whether these changes have ultimate effects on reproduction. In the current study, we paired Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and simulated a bacterial infection in early life by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to male and female pups on pnd3 and pnd5...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126435/human-amnion-cells-reverse-acute-and-chronic-pulmonary-damage-in-experimental-neonatal-lung-injury
#16
Dandan Zhu, Jean Tan, Amina S Maleken, Ruth Muljadi, Siow T Chan, Sin N Lau, Kirstin Elgass, Bryan Leaw, Joanne Mockler, Daniel Chambers, Kristen T Leeman, Carla F Kim, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a significant contributor to infant mortality and morbidity. While human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have shown promise in small and large animal models of BPD, there is scarce information on long-term benefit and clinically relevant questions surrounding administration strategy remain unanswered. In assessing the therapeutic potential of hAECs, we investigated the impact of cell dosage, administration routes and timing of treatment in a pre-clinical model of BPD...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#17
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#18
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120017/review-of-maternal-immunisation-during-pregnancy-focus-on-pertussis-and-influenza
#19
Géraldine Blanchard-Rohner, Christiane Eberhardt
Seasonal influenza and pertussis infections are known to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants worldwide. Influenza has also been associated with severe complications in pregnant women and after delivery. The most efficient and safe strategy to protect mothers and their offspring is maternal immunisation during pregnancy. The maternal antibodies thus acquired are transferred to the fetus as of the second trimester and confer passive immunity until the first infant immunisations...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#20
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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