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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917833/values-based-shared-decision-making-in-the-antenatal-period
#1
REVIEW
Stephanie K Kukora, Renee D Boss
Despite advances in life-saving technology for critically ill neonates, challenges continue to arise for infants delivered with extreme prematurity, congenital anomalies, and genetic conditions that exceed the limits of currently available interventions. In these situations, parents are forced to make cognitively and emotionally difficult decisions, in discussion with a neonatologist, regarding how aggressively to provide supportive measures at the time of delivery and at what point burdens of therapy outweigh benefits...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917582/preterm-pre-eclampsia-what-every-neonatologist-should-know
#2
REVIEW
Lisa Story, Lucy C Chappell
Although pre-eclampsia affects 5-10% of pregnancies globally and is responsible for substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, currently there is no cure other than delivery of the baby. Predictive screening tests based on clinical risk factors, with or without the addition of biomarkers and imaging, have been developed, but adoption into clinical practice is limited by suboptimal test performance. Once established pre-eclampsia is diagnosed, a woman is usually managed expectantly prior to 37weeks' gestation to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with iatrogenic prematurity until maternal or fetal triggers for delivery mean that risks of pregnancy prolongation outweigh the benefits...
September 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916786/early-maternal-mirroring-predicts-infant-motor-system-activation-during-facial-expression-observation
#3
Holly Rayson, James John Bonaiuto, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Lynne Murray
Processing facial expressions is an essential component of social interaction, especially for preverbal infants. In human adults and monkeys, this process involves the motor system, with a neural matching mechanism believed to couple self- and other-generated facial gestures. Here, we used electroencephalography to demonstrate recruitment of the human motor system during observation and execution of facial expressions in nine-month-old infants, implicating this system in facial expression processing from a very young age...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916576/withholding-feeds-and-transfusion-associated-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
Limited evidence exists to support the withholding of feeds during packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion to reduce the incidence of transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (TANEC) in preterm infants. The aim of the manuscript was to systematically review studies reporting the effect of implementing a policy of withholding feeds on the incidence of TANEC in preterm infants. The following databases were searched for relevant studies published between the databases' inception and December 2016: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Pediatric Academic Societies Abstract Archive...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916575/effects-of-probiotics-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis-sepsis-intraventricular-hemorrhage-mortality-length-of-hospital-stay-and-weight-gain-in-very-preterm-infants-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Jing Sun, Gayatri Marwah, Matthew Westgarth, Nicholas Buys, David Ellwood, Peter H Gray
Probiotics are increasingly used as a supplement to prevent adverse health outcomes in preterm infants. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and subgroup analysis of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the magnitude of the effect of the probiotics on health outcomes among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Relevant articles from January 2003 to June 2017 were selected from a broad range of databases, including Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase. Studies were included if they used an RCT design, involved a VLBW infant (birthweight <1500 g or gestational age <32 wk) population, included a probiotic intervention group, measured necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as a primary outcome, and measured sepsis, mortality, length of hospital stay, weight gain, and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) as additional outcomes...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916563/incidence-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-rop-and-rop-treatment-in-switzerland-2006-2015-a-population-based-analysis
#6
Roland Gerull, Viviane Brauer, Dirk Bassler, Bernard Laubscher, Riccardo E Pfister, Mathias Nelle, Béatrice Müller, Christina Gerth-Kahlert, Mark Adams
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a severe complication of preterm birth and can lead to severe visual impairment or even blindness if untreated. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment is increasing in some developed countries in conjunction with higher survival rates at the lower end of gestational age (GA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The incidence of ROP and severe ROP (sROP) requiring treatment in Switzerland was analysed using the SwissNeoNet registry...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916469/activity-changes-in-the-left-superior-temporal-sulcus-reflect-the-effects-of-childcare-training-on-young-female-students-perceptions-of-infants-negative-facial-expressions
#7
Ayahito Ito, Katsuko Niwano, Motoko Tanabe, Yosuke Sato, Toshikatsu Fujii
In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916447/perception-of-caucasian-and-african-faces-in-5-to-9-month-old-caucasian-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Susanna Timeo, Sabrina Brigadoi, Teresa Farroni
Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916434/effects-of-icos-t-cell-depletion-via-afucosylated-monoclonal-antibody-medi-570-on-pregnant-cynomolgus-monkeys-and-the-developing-offspring
#9
Simone M Nicholson, Gianluca Carlesso, Lily I Cheng, Halie Cook, Karma DaCosta, Joel Leininger, Kathleen McKeever, Stephen Weasel Scott, Devon Taylor, Katie Streicher, Steve Eck, Molly Reed, Raffaella Faggioni, Ronald Herbst, Rakesh Dixit, Patricia C Ryan
MEDI-570 is a fully human afucosylated monoclonal antibody (MAb) against Inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), highly expressed on CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Effects of MEDI-570 were evaluated in an enhanced pre-postnatal development toxicity (ePPND) study in cynomolgus monkeys. Administration to pregnant monkeys did cause any abortifacient effects. Changes in hematology and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in maternal animals and infants and the attenuated infant IgG immune response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were attributed to MEDI-570 pharmacology...
September 12, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916211/diaphragmatic-fenestration-for-refractory-chylothorax-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery-in-infants
#10
T K Susheel Kumar, Kaitlin Balduf, Umar Boston, Christopher Knott-Craig
OBJECTIVE: Medically refractory chylous pleural effusion after congenital heart surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in infants. We reviewed our experience with diaphragmatic fenestration procedure in this group of patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients who had diaphragmatic fenestrations for chylous effusion at our institution over a 2-year period was performed. RESULTS: A total of 9 diaphragmatic fenestration procedures were performed in 8 patients who had failed medical management of chylous pleural effusions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915773/does-motor-development-in-infancy-predict-spinal-pain-in-later-childhood-a-cohort-study
#11
Steven J Kamper, Christopher M Williams, Lise Hestbaek
Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Background Spinal pain is responsible for a huge personal and societal burden but the aetiology remains unclear. Deficits in motor control have been implicated with spinal pain in adults, and delayed motor development is associated with a range of health problems and risks in children. Objectives To assess whether there is an independent relationship between the age at which infants first sit and walk without support, and spinal pain at age 11 years. Methods Data from the Danish National Birth Cohort were analysed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915451/rotavirus-genotype-shifts-among-swedish-children-and-adults-application-of-a-real-time-pcr-genotyping
#12
Maria Andersson, Magnus Lindh
BACKGROUND: It is well known that human rotavirus group A is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. Less is known about rotavirus infections in other age groups, and about how rotavirus genotypes change over time in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: Develop a real-time PCR to easily genotype rotavirus strains in order to monitor the pattern of circulating genotypes. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, rotavirus strains in clinical samples from children and adults in Western Sweden during 2010-2014 were retrospectively genotyped by using specific amplification of VP 4 and VP 7 genes with a new developed real-rime PCR...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915376/psychometric-properties-of-the-postpartum-bonding-questionnaire-and-correlates-of-mother-infant-bonding-impairment-in-italian-new-mothers
#13
Alessandra Busonera, Stefania Cataudella, Jessica Lampis, Marco Tommasi, Giulio Cesare Zavattini
OBJECTIVE: impaired maternal bonding is a risk factor for problems with infant well-being and development. The investigation of perinatal variables related to disorders of the mother-infant relationship as well as the administration of reliable and valid screening tools to new mothers in the postpartum can help identify early signs of a disturbed mother-child relationship. The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) has been shown to be a valid screening instrument, but its dimensional structure is still controversial...
September 1, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#14
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915132/clinical-update-regarding-general-anesthesia-associated-neurotoxicity-in-infants-and-children
#15
M Ruth Graham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) recently released a warning stating that 'repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children's brains' (www.fda.gov/ucm582356.htm). The goal of this article is to review the most recent clinical studies which provide evidence that these concerns may be overstated for the majority of healthy young children who require surgery and anesthesia...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914706/long-term-sexual-function-after-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries
#16
Michele S OʼShea, Christina Lewicky-Gaupp, Dana R Gossett
OBJECTIVES: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are associated with severe short and long-term morbidities, although little is known about the long-term sexual function or satisfaction of women and partners of women with history of OASIS. The objective of this study was to describe the long-term sexual function and satisfaction of women who previously sustained OASIS and to assess sexual satisfaction among their male partners. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of participants enrolled in the For Optimal Recovery: Care After Severe Tears (FORCAST) prospective cohort study of women with a history of OASIS after delivery of a full-term singleton infant between 2011 and 2013...
September 13, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914636/dietary-intervention-for-preventing-food-allergy-in-children
#17
Yichao Wang, Katrina J Allen, Jennifer J Koplin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past decade, food allergy has been increasingly recognized as an important public health issue. The role of maternal and infant diet in the development of food allergy has been a major focus of research throughout this period. Recently, research in this area has moved from observational studies to intervention trials, and the findings from these trials have started to influence infant feeding guidelines. In this article, we review recent studies of dietary interventions for preventing food allergy, summarize current knowledge and discuss future research directions...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913374/comparison-of-the-nutritional-values-of-infant-formulas-available-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Abdulhadi Hesn Almazrooy, Abdulrahman Mohammad Alturki, Afaf Mubarak Aljohani, Abeer Alraddadi, Abdulrahman Muslim Allogmani
Introduction. Optimum growth and development are best achieved by breastfeeding, which is the safest source for infant feeding. Mothers in Saudi Arabia start to breastfeed their infants but soon introduce formula brands. Objective. To assess the safety and nutritional adequacy of the oldest formula brands available in the Saudi market. Methods. An observational study has compared between 5 types of infant formula brands; they were chosen based on their international popularity. Also, they are considered as the oldest formula brands available in the Saudi market...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#19
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912835/a-unique-set-of-complex-chromosomal-abnormalities-in-an-infant-with-myeloid-leukemia-associated-with-down-syndrome
#20
Daiane Correa de Souza, Amanda Faria de Figueiredo, Daniela R Ney Garcia, Elaine Sobral da Costa, Moneeb A K Othman, Thomas Liehr, Eliana Abdelhay, Maria Luiza Macedo Silva, Teresa de Souza Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an enhanced risk of developing acute leukemia, with the most common subtype being acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome (ML-DS) is considered a disease with distinct clinical and biological features. There are few studies focusing on the clonal cytogenetic changes during evolution of ML-DS. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe a complex karyotype involving a previously unreported set of chromosomal abnormalities acquired during progression of ML-DS in an infant boy: derivative der(1)t(1;15)(q24;q23), translocation t(4;5)(q26;q33) and derivative der(15)t(7;15)(p21;q23)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
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