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Infant development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334343/breast-milk-iodine-concentrations-and-iodine-levels-of-infants-according-to-the-iodine-status-of-the-country-of-residence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Pantea Nazeri, Ali Kabir, Hosein Dalili, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Iodine, an essential micronutrient, plays a critical role in normal growth and development, especially during the first two years of life. This systematic review and meta-analysis is among the first to evaluate breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status in countries characterized by iodine sufficiency or deficiency. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other relevant databases, as well as reference lists of previous reviews, were searched for relevant studies published between 1986 and 2016...
January 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#2
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333831/-mammary-hemangioma-in-an-infant-with-apparent-mastitis-case-report
#3
Cristina Rodríguez Jiménez, Concepción Míguez Navarro, Minia Campos Domínguez, Carmen Garrido Colino
Mammary pathology is infrequent during childhood. It is rare the probability of finding a breast mass in an infant. The most frequent possible diagnoses at this age are breast abscess, mastitis, breast engorgement due to maternal hormonal stimulation and hemangioma. Reaching the proper diagnosis is essential in order to apply a suitable treatment and avoid the potential disease complications. We present the case of a female infant having a mass in the right breast from birth. Initially the entity was treated as mastitis...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333688/infant-brain-responses-to-felt-and-observed-touch-of-hands-and-feet-an-meg-study
#4
Andrew N Meltzoff, Rey R Ramírez, Joni N Saby, Eric Larson, Samu Taulu, Peter J Marshall
There is growing interest concerning the ways in which the human body, both one's own and that of others, is represented in the developing human brain. In two experiments with 7-month-old infants, we employed advances in infant magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to address novel questions concerning body representations in early development. Experiment 1 evaluated the spatiotemporal organization of infants' brain responses to being touched. A punctate touch to infants' hands and feet produced significant activation in the hand and foot areas of contralateral primary somatosensory cortex as well as in other parietal and frontal areas...
January 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333635/the-changing-relationship-between-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-cognition-in-very-preterm-infants
#5
Jane E Brumbaugh, Tarah T Colaizy, Neel M Patel, Jonathan M Klein
AIM: To characterize the relationship between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity and cognition in the post-surfactant era. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective analysis of a cohort of infants born 2009-2012. Inclusion criteria were: admission within 48 hours of birth, gestational age 22-0/7-31-6/7 weeks, birth weight 400-1500 g, and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III testing at 18-26 months corrected age. Infants (n=151) were classified by BPD severity with the NIH Workshop definition...
January 15, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333219/clinical-utility-of-echocardiography-for-early-and-late-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-infants-relation-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#6
Yo Han Seo, Hee Joung Choi
Background: We evaluated early and late pulmonary hypertension (PH) in preterm infants and its relation with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Methods: Sixty-seven preterm infants < 30 weeks' gestation underwent echocardiography within 14 days after birth for early PH and over 28 days after birth for late PH. We measured tricuspid regurgitation (TR) peak velocity, pulse Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) of right ventricle (RV) (RV MPI), eccentricity index (EI), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332140/identification-of-cross-reactive-antigens-of-c-botulinum-types-a-b-e-f-by-immunoproteomic-approach
#7
Arti Sharma, Sarkaraisamy Ponmariappan, Rani Sarita, Syed Imtiaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj, Sangeeta Shukla
Diseases triggered by microorganisms can be controlled by vaccines, which need neutralizing antigens. Hence, it is very crucial to identify extremely efficient immunogens for immune prevention. Botulism, a fatal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism and iatrogenic botulism are caused by botulinum toxin. Wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism are caused by primarily C...
January 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331702/is-very-low-infant-birth-weight-a-predictor-for-a-five-year-course-of-depression-in-parents-a-latent-growth-curve-model
#8
Claus Barkmann, Nadine Helle, Carola Bindt
BACKGROUND: A very low birth weight (VLBW) is considered as a significant risk factor for early-onset developmental problems in infants, but is also discussed as a potential risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms in affected parents. METHODS: In this study, the 5-year courses of maternal and paternal depression with VLBW and term born infants (n = 250 families) are modeled and predicted by factors existing at the time of birth. RESULTS: The dyadic trajectories of depression could be best described by five classes (I no depression, II minor maternal depression, III increasing dyadic depression, IV significant maternal depression, V highly depressed mothers)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331576/normative-distribution-of-substance-p-and-its-tachykinin-neurokinin-1-receptor-in-the-medullary-serotonergic-network-of-the-human-infant-during-postnatal-development
#9
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development...
January 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331554/potential-role-of-transfontanelle-ultrasound-for-infants-undergoing-modified-blalock-taussig-shunt
#10
Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, In-Kyung Song, Hee-Soo Kim, Young-Eun Jang, Woong-Han Kim, Jae-Gun Kwak, Jin-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Transfontanelle ultrasound is a noninvasive method for assessing cerebral blood flow in neonates and infants. The authors applied this technique as a point-of-care tool, before and after modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure, to evaluate cerebral perfusion. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Ten infants undergoing modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330886/surgery-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-increase-the-risk-of-hypothermia-in-infants
#11
Joel M Don Paul, Elizabeth J Perkins, Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Asha Suka, Olivia Farrell, Julia K Gunn, Anushi E Rajapaksa, David G Tingay
AIM: Maintaining normothermia is a tenet of neonatal care. However, neonatal thermal care guidelines applicable to intra-hospital transport beyond the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and during surgery or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion of infants normothermic (36.5-37.5°C) on return to NICU after management during surgery and MRI, and during standard clinical care in both environments. METHODS: Sixty-two newborns requiring either surgery in the operating theatre (OT) (n = 41) or an MRI scan (n = 21) at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) NICU were prospectively studied...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330315/outcome-of-preterm-infants-with-postnatal-cytomegalovirus-infection
#12
Julia Gunkel, Linda S de Vries, Marian Jongmans, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Ingrid C van Haastert, Maria C J Eijsermans, Carolien van Stam, Bert G A van Zanten, Tom F W Wolfs, Joppe Nijman
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether preterm infants with postnatal cytomegalovirus infection develop neurologic sequelae in early childhood. METHODS: Infants <32 weeks' gestation were prospectively screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV) at term-equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was compared between CMV-positive and CMV-negative infants by using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS) at 16 months' corrected age (CA); the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the GMDS at 24 to 30 months' CA; and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition and Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition at 6 years of age...
January 12, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330015/mother-to-child-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Dana Danino, Rimma Melamed, Batya Sterer, Nurith Porat, Guy Hazan, Alex Gushanski, Eilon Shany, David Greenberg, Avraham Borer
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at high risk for extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) sepsis and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreaks. Maternal colonization with ESBL-E may be precursory to maternal-neonatal transmission. However, there is no consensus regarding surveillance of pregnant women for ESBL-E colonization. AIM: To identify pairs of mothers and offspring harbouring same-strain ESBL-E colonization and to determine whether maternal transmission may play a role in increasing ESBL-E carriage in preterm infants...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330010/nasopharyngeal-lactobacillus-is-associated-with-childhood-wheezing-illnesses-following-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-infancy
#14
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Meghan H Shilts, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Seth Schobel, James D Chappell, Emma K Larkin, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Rebecca A Halpin, Karen E Nelson, Martin L Moore, Larry J Anderson, R Stokes Peebles, Suman R Das, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: Early-life acute respiratory infection (ARI) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been strongly associated with the development of childhood wheezing illnesses, but the pathways underlying this association are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of the nasopharyngeal microbiome in the development of childhood wheezing illnesses following RSV ARI in infancy. METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study of 118 previously healthy, term infants with confirmed RSV ARI by RT-PCR...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330007/lost-connections-oxytocin-and-the-neural-physiological-and-behavioral-consequences-of-disrupted-relationships
#15
REVIEW
Tobias T Pohl, Larry J Young, Oliver J Bosch
In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329955/longitudinal-predictors-of-early-language-in-infants-with-down-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#16
Emily Mason-Apps, Vesna Stojanovik, Carmel Houston-Price, Sue Buckley
PURPOSE: Children with Down syndrome (DS) typically have marked delays in language development relative to their general cognitive development, with particular difficulties in expressive compared to receptive language. Although early social communication skills, including gestures and joint attention, have been shown to be related to later language outcomes in DS, knowledge is limited as to whether these factors exclusively predict outcomes, or whether other factors (e.g. perceptual and non-verbal skills) are involved...
January 9, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329932/development-of-the-human-fetal-kidney-from-mid-to-late-gestation-in-male-and-female-infants
#17
Danica Ryan, Megan R Sutherland, Tracey J Flores, Alison L Kent, Jane E Dahlstrom, Victor G Puelles, John F Bertram, Andrew P McMahon, Melissa H Little, Lynette Moore, Mary Jane Black
BACKGROUND: During normal human kidney development, nephrogenesis (the formation of nephrons) is complete by term birth, with the majority of nephrons formed late in gestation. The aim of this study was to morphologically examine nephrogenesis in fetal human kidneys from 20 to 41weeks of gestation. METHODS: Kidney samples were obtained at autopsy from 71 infants that died acutely in utero or within 24h after birth. Using image analysis, nephrogenic zone width, the number of glomerular generations, renal corpuscle cross-sectional area and the cellular composition of glomeruli were examined...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329877/-attitudes-towards-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-management-by-spanish-gastroenterologist
#18
Alicia Isabel Pascual Pérez, Alejandra Méndez Sánchez, Óscar Segarra Cantón, Beatriz Espin Jaime, Santiago Jiménez Treviño, Carlos Bousoño García, Juan José Díaz Martín
INTRODUCTION: Food allergy is an increasing health problem in the developed world. Cow's milk protein is the main cause of food allergy in infants. Without an appropriate diagnostic workup, there is a high risk of both over- and underdiagnosis and therefore, over and undertreatment. The objective of our study was to analyze the variability in cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) management by pediatric gastroenterologists in Spain. METHODS: A fifty item questionnaire, including open and closed items in a Likert's scale from 0 to 5, was drafted and distributed through the Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SEGHNP) e-mail list...
January 9, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329768/management-of-pediatric-ovarian-torsion-evidence-of-follicular-development-after-ovarian-preservation
#19
Sarah K Walker, Dave R Lal, Kevin P Boyd, Thomas T Sato
PURPOSE: This study reviews contemporary management and follow-up of pediatric ovarian torsion. METHODS: This is a retrospective series of patients from birth to 19 years undergoing operative management of ovarian torsion from 2012 to 2016. RESULTS: We studied 43 girls who underwent 51 operations for ovarian torsion. The median age was 8.3 years. Ultrasound was utilized for diagnosis in 24/29 patients (83%) evaluated in a children's hospital...
January 9, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329447/congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-hypopituitarism-attributable-to-a-novel-mutation-in-foxa2
#20
Mary Ellen Vajravelu, Jinghua Chai, Bryan Krock, Samuel Baker, David Langdon, Craig Alter, Diva D De León
Context: Persistent hypoglycemia in the newborn period most commonly occurs due to hyperinsulinism. The phenotype of hypoketotic hypoglycemia can also result from pituitary hormone deficiencies, including growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) is a transcription factor shown in mouse models to influence insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, Foxa2 is involved in regulation of pituitary development, and deletions of FOXA2 have been linked to panhypopituitarism...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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