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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224235/long-term-cardiovascular-re-programming-by-short-term-perinatal-exposure-to-nicotine-s-main-metabolite-cotinine
#1
Stefano Bastianini, Viviana Lo Martire, Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Zoccoli, Chiara Berteotti, Hugo Lagercrantz, Anders Arner, Gary Cohen
AIM: Gather "proof-of-concept" evidence of the adverse developmental potential of cotinine (a seemingly benign biomarker of recent nicotine / tobacco smoke exposure). METHODS: Pregnant C57 mice drank nicotine or cotinine-laced water for 6wks from conception (NPRE = 2% saccharin+100μg nicotine/ml; CPRE = 2% saccharin + 10μg cotinine/ml) or 3wks after birth (CPOST = 2% saccharin + 30μg cotinine/ml). Controls drank 2% saccharin (CTRL). At 17±1weeks (male pups; CTRL n=6; CPOST n=6; CPRE n=8; NPRE n=9) we assessed (i) cardiovascular control during sleep; (ii) arterial reactivity ex vivo; (iii) expression of genes involved in arterial constriction / dilation...
December 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224123/shear-wave-sonoelastography-of-skeletal-muscle-basic-principles-biomechanical-concepts-clinical-applications-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Maud Creze, Antoine Nordez, Marc Soubeyrand, Laurence Rocher, Xavier Maître, Marie-France Bellin
Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and therapeutic response evaluation of muscular diseases. However, one important limitation is its incapacity to assess the in vivo biomechanical properties of the muscles. The emerging shear wave sonoelastography technique offers a quantifiable spatial representation of the viscoelastic characteristics of skeletal muscle. Elastography is a non-invasive tool used to analyze the physiologic and biomechanical properties of muscles in healthy and pathologic conditions...
December 9, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224083/electron-transfer-between-enzymes-and-electrodes
#3
Tanja Vidakovic-Koch
Efficient electron transfer between redox enzymes and electrocatalytic surfaces plays a significant role in development of novel energy conversion devices as well as novel reactors for production of commodities and fine chemicals. Major application examples are related to enzymatic fuel cells and electroenzymatic reactors, as well as enzymatic biosensors. The two former applications are still at the level of proof-of-concept, partly due to the low efficiency and obstacles to electron transfer between enzymes and electrodes...
December 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224078/investigate-global-chromosomal-interaction-by-hi-c-in-human-naive-cd4-t-cells
#4
Xiangzhi Meng, Nicole Riley, Ryan Thompson, Siddhartha Sharma
Hi-C is a methodology developed to reveal chromosomal interactions from a genome-wide perspective. Here, we described a protocol for generating Hi-C sequencing libraries in resting and activated human naive CD4 T cells to investigate activation-induced chromatin structure re-arrangement in T cell activation followed by a section reviewing the general concepts of Hi-C data analysis.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224055/peri-operative-antibiotic-treatment-of-bacteriuria-reduces-early-deep-surgical-site-infections-in-geriatric-patients-with-proximal-femur-fracture
#5
Ronny Langenhan, Stefanie Bushuven, Niklas Reimers, Axel Probst
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a re-evaluation of current strategies for peri-operative prophylaxis of infections in orthopaedic surgery of geriatric patients (≥65 years) with proximal femoral fractures (PFF). METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 08/2014 all post-operative infections after stabilization of PFF of 1,089 geriatric patients were recorded retrospectively. All patients pre-operatively received a single dose of 1.5 g cefuroxime (group 1). These were compared to prospectively determined post-operative rates of surgical site infection (SSI) of 441 geriatric patients, which were operated on between 09/2014 and 03/2017 due to PFF...
December 9, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224030/advances-in-fractional-technology-for-skin-rejuvenation-skin-tightening-drug-delivery-and-treating-scars-and-skin-defects
#6
Deirdre Connolly, Laura Schilling, Nazanin Saedi
The development of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized the treatment of skin scarring, rejuvenation, and tightening. By creating targeted microthermal zones and leaving surrounding tissue intact, this concept has provided the field with efficacious results, with less downtime and a better safety profile. This has started to change the paradigm of what is considered first-line treatment for scarring and rejuvenation. While originally applied to nonablative lasers, fractionation has now been employed in ablative, quality-switched, picosecond, and novel hybrid fractional lasers...
December 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223766/developing-a-value-proposition-for-high-sensitive-troponin-testing
#7
Andrew St John, Louise Cullen, Paul Jülicher, Christopher P Price
Laboratories are looking for ways that they can identify and deliver value through their service rather than just provide high quality test results. One way to demonstrate value has been described in the form of a value proposition where the application of a laboratory test is described explicitly in terms of the process of care and the patient outcomes. We have applied this concept to the use of high sensitive troponin assays for the assessment of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. From a previously described framework we use a checklist to describe the various steps in the complete intervention or clinical pathway, demonstrating how the test should be used, highlighting key evidence in the literature that supports the intervention and list some of the measures which can be used to assess how well the intervention is being adopted and implemented...
December 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223750/choosing-pre-conception-planning-for-women-families-counselling-and-informed-consent-part-2-pre-conception-reproductive-planning-lifestyle-immunization-and-psychosocial-issues
#8
REVIEW
R Douglas Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To inform reproductive and other health care providers about pre-conception evaluation, including considerations for reproductive planning, lifestyle modification, immunization status and attitudes, and psychosocial issues. OPTIONS: This counselling information can be used for patient education and planning and possible pre-conception and/or prenatal testing. OUTCOMES: This information may allow for improved risk assessment when pre-conception counselling for individual patients and their families is used...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223657/the-evolutionary-field-hypothesis-non-mendelian-transgenerational-inheritance-mediates-diversification-and-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Corrado Spadafora
Epigenetics is increasingly regarded as a potential contributing factor to evolution. Building on apparently unrelated results, here I propose that RNA-containing nanovesicles, predominantly small regulatory RNAs, are released from somatic tissues in the bloodstream, cross the Weismann barrier, reach the epididymis, and are eventually taken up by spermatozoa; henceforth the information is delivered to oocytes at fertilization. In the model, a LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase activity, present in spermatozoa and early embryos, plays a key role in amplifying and propagating these RNAs as extrachromosomal structures...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223599/pharmacological-intervention-and-abstinence-in-smokers-undergoing-cessation-treatment-a-psychophysiological-study
#10
Yong Cui, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Jonathan Xian, Jennifer A Minnix, Cho Y Lam, Maher Karam-Hage, Paul M Cinciripini, Jason D Robinson
As a composite concept, negative affect comprises various aversive emotional experiences, such as irritability and nervousness. It is a critical motivational factor that helps maintain smoking behavior, and contributes significantly to smoking cessation failure as a core withdrawal symptom. Prior research has indicated an important role of nicotinic mechanisms in negative affect processing. The most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as a partial agonist, while another first-line cessation medication, bupropion, has shown antagonistic effects on nAChRs...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223593/far-cortical-locking-and-active-plating-concepts-new-revolutions-of-fracture-fixation-in-the-waiting
#11
EDITORIAL
Peter V Giannoudis, Vasileios P Giannoudis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223408/clinical-outcomes-to-exercise-training-in-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
D Jewiss, C Ostman, N King, N A Smart
AIMS: To establish the relationship between exercise training and clinical outcomes in people with type I diabetes. METHODS: Studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Science Citation Index. The search strategy included a mix of key concepts related to exercise training; type 1 diabetes; glycaemic control for trials of exercise training in people with type 1 diabetes. Searches were limited to prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with type 1 diabetes lasting 12 weeks or more...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223325/cochrane-qualitative-and-implementation-methods-group-guidance-paper-3-methods-for-assessing-evidence-on-intervention-implementation
#13
Margaret Cargo, Janet Harris, Tomas Pantoja, Andrew Booth, Angela Harden, Karin Hannes, James Thomas, Kate Flemming, Ruth Garside, Jane Noyes
OBJECTIVE: This article provides reviewers with guidance on methods for identifying and processing evidence to understand intervention implementation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Strategies, tools and methods are applied to the systematic review process to illustrate how process and implementation can be addressed using quantitative, qualitative and other sources of evidence (i.e., descriptive textual, non-empirical). RESULTS: Reviewers can take steps to navigate the heterogeneity and level of uncertainty present in the concepts, measures and methods used to assess implementation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223198/second-order-growth-mixture-modeling-in-organizational-psychology-an-application-in-the-study-of-job-performance-using-the-cusp-catastrophe-model
#14
Guido Alessandri, Enrico Perinelli, Evelina De Longis, Annalisa Theodorou
In recent years, research in organizational psychology has witnessed a shift in attention from a mostly variable-focused approach, to a mostly person-focused approach. Indeed, it has been widely recognized that the study of worker's heterogeneity is a meaningful and necessary task of researchers dealing with human behavior in organizational contexts. As a consequence, there has been growing interest in the application of statistical analyses able to uncover latent sub-groups of workers. The present contribution was conceived as a tutorial for the application of one of these statistical analyses, namely second-order growth mixture modeling, and to illustrate its inner links with concepts from non-linear dynamic models...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223070/trusting-others-shared-reality-in-testimonial-learning
#15
REVIEW
Annelise Pesch, Sarah Suárez, Melissa A Koenig
Much of early learning depends on others, and the transmission of testimony presents children with a range of opportunities to learn about and from other people. Much work has focused on children's ability to select or prefer particular sources of information based on various epistemic (e.g. accuracy, reliability, perceptual access, expertise) and moral (e.g. benevolence, group membership, honesty) characteristics. Understanding the mechanisms by which such selective preferences emerge has been couched primarily in frameworks that treat testimony as a source of inductive evidence, and that treat children's trust as an evidence-based inference...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223069/neuropsychological-and-clinical-heterogeneity-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Lorena Broseghini Barcelos, Flávia Saad, Carla Giacominelli, Roberta Arb Saba, Patrícia Maria de Carvalho Aguiar, Sonia Maria Azevedo Silva, Vanderci Borges, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated neuropsychological tests to compare cognitive impairment between two types of multiple system atrophy: predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 14 patients diagnosed with MSA: four with MSA-C and ten with MSA-P. Presence of motor symptoms was determined by using the Unified Rating MSA Scale (URMSAS). Non-motor symptoms were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223006/the-temple-star-transitional-model-of-care-for-epilepsy-the-outcome-of-a-quality-improvement-project
#17
Suzanne L Crowley, Susan Byrne, Sandra McNulty, Kim Keating, Therese Nestor, Yvonne Owen, Declan O'Rourke, Bryan Lynch, Amre Shahwan, Mary D King
OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and views of parents on transitional and adolescent care in young adults with epilepsy, and to develop a transitional and adolescent program for epilepsy. METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires completed by parents during focus groups exploring transitional care and inherent issues for young adults, aged 12-18years, with epilepsy. The questionnaire assessed the current knowledge and views of parents of children with epilepsy on transitional care, and following a presentation on "Transition in Epilepsy" (including themes such as self-advocacy, independent healthcare behavior, sexual health, psychosocial support, educational and vocational planning, health and lifestyle issues) assessed feedback on the proposed model of care in transitional and adolescent care...
December 6, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222972/factors-associated-with-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-systematic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Masashi Deguchi, Yoko Maesawa, Shino Kubota, Mayumi Morizane, Kenji Tanimura, Yasuhiko Ebina, Hideto Yamada
The aim of this prospective study was to determine clinical factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-six pregnancies from 46 women with SLE were enrolled. Risk factors for pregnancy loss, premature delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), and light-for-date neonate (LFD), were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed a history of two or more pregnancy losses before 10 gestational weeks (GW) (OR 11...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222962/east-meets-west-historical-investigation-of-non-operative-biliary-interventions
#19
EDITORIAL
Takao Itoi, Todd H Baron
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become an established procedure not only for diagnosis using direct opacification, but also for various therapeutic interventions within the pancreaticobiliary system. This concept, "non-operative and intraluminal retrograde approach to the ampulla of Vater", which is the outlet for both the pancreatic duct and bile duct, was first described by radiologists Rabinov and Simon in 1965 [1]. They performed cannulation and injection of the ampulla of Vater by intubation using a new instrument through the mouth under television fluoroscopic control...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222933/benefits-of-emotional-integration-and-costs-of-emotional-distancing
#20
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shachar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory (SDT) conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (n = 90) IER, ED, and a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
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