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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527401/prognostic-factors-on-graft-versus-host-disease-free-and-relapse-free-survival-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-adults-with-acute-leukemia
#1
Jie Tan, Ya Wang, Si-Jian Yu, Yong-Yong Ma, Hu-Yi Lei, Qi-Fa Liu
The cure of acute leukemia by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is closely linked to major complications leading to adverse outcomes, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease relapse and death. This study retrospectively investigated a consecutive series of 312 adult patients with acute leukemia receiving allo-HSCT by using a novel concept of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS), and further evaluated the impact of clinical factors on GRFS. Results indicated that the 1- and 2-year GRFS were 54...
May 12, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527379/diagnosing-water-security-in-the-rural-north-with-an-environmental-security-framework
#2
Henry J F Penn, Philip A Loring, William E Schnabel
This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527294/activation-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-stromal-progenitors-impairs-kidney-development
#3
Katharina Gerl, Dominik Steppan, Michaela Fuchs, Charlotte Wagner, Carsten Willam, Armin Kurtz, Birgül Kurt
Intrauterine hypoxia is a reason for impaired kidney development. The cellular and molecular pathways along which hypoxia exerts effects on nephrogenesis are not well understood. They are likely triggered by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and their effects appear to be dependent on the cell compartment contributing to kidney formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIF activation in the developing renal stroma, which also essentially modulates nephron development from the metanephric mesenchyme...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527017/juxtaglomerular-cell-phenotypic-plasticity
#4
REVIEW
Alexandre Góes Martini, A H Jan Danser
Renin is the first and rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system. The exclusive source of renin in the circulation are the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, which line the afferent arterioles at the entrance of the glomeruli. Normally, renin production by these cells suffices to maintain homeostasis. However, under chronic stimulation of renin release, for instance during a low-salt diet or antihypertensive therapy, cells that previously expressed renin during congenital life re-convert to a renin-producing cell phenotype, a phenomenon which is known as "recruitment"...
May 19, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526986/implementation-of-quality-by-design-for-formulation-of-rebamipide-gastro-retentive-tablet
#5
Jung-Myung Ha, Jeong-Woong Seo, Su-Hyeon Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Chun-Woong Park, Yun-Seok Rhee, Eun-Seok Park
The purpose of the present study was to develop a rebamipide (RBM) gastro-retentive (GR) tablet by implementing quality by design (QbD). RBM GR tablets were prepared using a sublimation method. Quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the RBM GR tablets were defined according to the preliminary studies. Factors affecting the CQAs were prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Design space and optimum formulation were established through a mixture design...
May 19, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526912/moral-injury-and-definitional-clarity-betrayal-spirituality-and-the-role-of-chaplains
#6
Timothy J Hodgson, Lindsay B Carey
This article explores the developing definition of moral injury within the current key literature. Building on the previous literature regarding 'Moral Injury, Spiritual Care and the role of Chaplains' (Carey et al. in JORH 55(4):1218-1245, 2016b. doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0231-x ), this article notes the complexity that has developed due to definitional variations regarding moral injury-particularly with respect to the concepts of 'betrayal' and 'spirituality'. Given the increasing recognition of moral injury and noting the relevance and importance of utilizing a bio-psycho-social-spiritual model, this article argues that betrayal and spirituality should be core components for understanding, defining and addressing moral injury...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526822/shortest-paths-in-multiplex-networks
#7
Saeed Ghariblou, Mostafa Salehi, Matteo Magnani, Mahdi Jalili
The shortest path problem is one of the most fundamental networks optimization problems. Nowadays, individuals interact in extraordinarily numerous ways through their offline and online life (e.g., co-authorship, co-workership, or retweet relation in Twitter). These interactions have two key features. First, they have a heterogeneous nature, and second, they have different strengths that are weighted based on their degree of intimacy, trustworthiness, service exchange or influence among individuals. These networks are known as multiplex networks...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526770/therapeutic-ige-antibodies-harnessing-a-macrophage-mediated-immune-surveillance-mechanism-against-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sophia N Karagiannis, Debra H Josephs, Heather J Bax, James F Spicer
IgG monoclonal antibodies have made significant contributions to cancer therapy, but suffer from several limitations that restrict their effectiveness in unleashing host immune system components against tumors. The development of monoclonal antibodies of an alternative class, namely IgE, may offer enhanced immune surveillance and superior effector cell potency against cancer cells. In our recent article, we elaborate our proof-of-concept studies of a mouse/human chimeric IgE antibody (MOv18 IgE), which is specific for the cancer-associated antigen folate receptor alpha...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526695/-thinking-ethics-a-novel-pilot-proof-of-concept-program-of-integrating-ethics-into-the-physiology-curriculum-in-south-india
#9
Savitha D, Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz
Integrating medical ethics into the physiology teaching-learning program has been largely unexplored in India. The objective of this exercise was to introduce an interactive and integrated ethics program into the Physiology course of first-year medical students and to evaluate their perceptions. Sixty medical students (30 men, 30 women) underwent 11 sessions over a 7-mo period. Two of the Physiology faculty conducted these sessions (20-30 min each) during the routine physiology (theory/practicals) classes that were of shorter duration and could, therefore, accommodate the discussion of related ethical issues...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#10
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526693/a-simple-laboratory-exercise-with-rat-isolated-esophagus-and-stomach-fundus-to-reveal-functional-differences-between-striated-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Francisco José Batista-Lima, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Oliveira, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos, Teresinha Silva Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526690/emerging-concepts-in-biliary-repair-and-fibrosis
#12
Luca Fabris, Carlo Spirli, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Romina Fiorotto, Mario Strazzabosco
Chronic diseases of the biliary tree (cholangiopathies) represent one of the major unmet needs in clinical hepatology and a significant knowledge gap in liver pathophysiology. The common theme in cholangiopathies is that the target of the disease is the biliary tree. After damage to the biliary epithelium, inflammatory changes stimulate a reparative response with proliferation of cholangiocytes and restoration of the biliary architecture, owing to the re-activation of a variety of morphogenetic signals. Chronic damage and inflammation, will ultimately result in pathologic repair, with generation of biliary fibrosis and clinical progression of the disease...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526668/north-american-public-opinion-survey-on-the-acceptability-of-crowdsourcing-basic-life-support-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-with-the-pulsepoint-mobile-phone-app
#14
Katie N Dainty, Haris Vaid, Steven C Brooks
BACKGROUND: The PulsePoint Respond app is a novel system that can be implemented in emergency dispatch centers to crowdsource basic life support (BLS) for patients with cardiac arrest and facilitate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator use while first responders are en route. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a North American survey to evaluate the public perception of the above-mentioned strategy, including acceptability and willingness to respond to alerts...
May 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526627/dynamic-fatigue-measurement-of-human-erythrocytes-using-dielectrophoresis
#15
Yuhao Qiang, Jia Liu, E Du
Erythrocytes must undergo severe deformation to pass through narrow capillaries and submicronic splenic slits for several hundred thousand times in their normal lifespan. Studies of erythrocyte biomechanics have been mainly focused on cell deformability and rheology measured from a single application of stress and mostly under a static or quasi-static state using classical biomechanical techniques, such as optical tweezers and micropipette aspiration. Dynamic behavior of erythrocytes in response to cyclic stresses that contributes to the membrane failure in blood circulation is not fully understood...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526580/biomarkers-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-molecular-processes-to-diagnostic-applications-current-concepts-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Britt Nakken, Gábor Papp, Vidar Bosnes, Margit Zeher, György Nagy, Peter Szodoray
Early diagnosis and immediately started appropriate treatment are mandatory for the prevention of radiographic progression, functional disability and unfavourable disease outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The current classification criteria for RA include two different types of biomarkers representing inflammatory processes, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or immune processes including autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA)...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#17
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526488/-targeting-the-gut-liver-axis-in-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jashmohan Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526318/is-there-really-an-evolved-capacity-for-number
#19
REVIEW
Rafael E Núñez
Humans and other species have biologically endowed abilities for discriminating quantities. A widely accepted view sees such abilities as an evolved capacity specific for number and arithmetic. This view, however, is based on an implicit teleological rationale, builds on inaccurate conceptions of biological evolution, downplays human data from non-industrialized cultures, overinterprets results from trained animals, and is enabled by loose terminology that facilitates teleological argumentation. A distinction between quantical (e...
April 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526278/biotherapeutics-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#20
Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert, Peter Hellings
In western countries, 85% of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp disease reveals a type 2 inflammatory pattern with expression of IL-4, -5, and -13 as well as increased concentrations of IgE, whereas chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps merely expresses these biomarkers. The degree of type 2 inflammation furthermore is associated with disease severity, asthma comorbidity, and recurrence of disease after surgery. Therefore, these biomarkers also form the targets for innovative therapeutic approaches such as monoclonal antibodies directed against IgE, IL-5, and IL-4 receptor alpha, blocking the activity of IL-4 and -13...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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