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Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
The revised terminology and concepts for the organization of seizures and epilepsy proposed by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology in 2010 allows for a number of new opportunities in the study of cognition and behavior in adults. This review examines the literature that has looked for behavioral and cognitive correlates of the newly recognized genetic epilepsies in adults. While some studies report clear cognitive phenotypes associated with specific genetic mutations in adults with epilepsy, others report remarkable clinical heterogeneity...
October 21, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zhihong Hu, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Zi Chen, Weina Chen, Shaoying Li, Sergej N Konoplev, Xinyan Lu, Lan V Pham, Ken H Young, Wei Wang, Shimin Hu
MYC rearrangement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is rare, and its clinicopathologic significance is not well defined. We report 17 cases of MCL with 8q24/MYC rearrangement, detected at the time of initial diagnosis of MCL in 10 patients and subsequently during the clinical course in 7 patients. There were 12 men and 5 women with a median age of 61 years (range, 49 to 81 y). Fourteen patients had lymphadenopathy (Ann Arbor stage III/IV), and 3 patients presented with a leukemic pattern without lymphadenopathy...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Saad Mohamad, Abdelhamid Bouchachia, Moamar Sayed-Mouchaweh
Active learning (AL) is a promising way to efficiently build up training sets with minimal supervision. A learner deliberately queries specific instances to tune the classifier's model using as few labels as possible. The challenge for streaming is that the data distribution may evolve over time, and therefore the model must adapt. Another challenge is the sampling bias where the sampled training set does not reflect the underlying data distribution. In the presence of concept drift, sampling bias is more likely to occur as the training set needs to represent the whole evolving data...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Zhuochen Wang, Karl Heath Martin, Wenbin Huang, Paul A Dayton, Xiaoning Jiang
Techniques to image the microvasculature may play an important role in imaging tumor-related angiogenesis and vasa vasorum associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. However, the microvasculature associated with these pathologies is difficult to detect using traditional B-mode ultrasound or even harmonic imaging due to small vessel size and poor differentiation from surrounding tissue. Acoustic angiography, a microvascular imaging technique which utilizes superharmonic imaging (detection of higher order harmonics of microbubble response), can yield a much higher contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) than second harmonic imaging methods...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Peter M Fischer
Kinase inhibitor research is a comparatively recent branch of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology and the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor, imatinib, was approved for clinical use only 15 years ago. Since then, 33 more kinase inhibitor drugs have received regulatory approval for the treatment of a variety of cancers and the volume of reports on the discovery and development of kinase inhibitors has increased to an extent where it is now difficult-even for those working in the field-easily to keep an overview of the compounds that are being developed, as currently there are 231 such compounds, targeting 38 different protein and lipid kinases (not counting isoforms), in clinical use or under clinical investigation...
October 24, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
J S Arora, J C Cremaldi, M K Holleran, T Ponnusamy, B Sunkara, J He, N S Pesika, V T John
The surface chemistry and topography govern the spreading of liquids on a solid. When an oil drop makes a contact angle, θ > 90° on a solid surface, the solid is termed as oleophobic. Adding roughness to an inherently oleophobic surface enhances its oil dewetting and can lead to superoleophobicity when θ > 150°. In this study, we introduce the concept of a two-tier hierarchical roughness on the surface of soft materials such as hydrogels by forming the patterned inverse replica of breath figure polymer films impregnated with nanoparticles...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Michael J Waring, Huawei Chen, Alfred A Rabow, Graeme Walker, Romel Bobby, Scott Boiko, Rob H Bradbury, Rowena Callis, Edwin Clark, Ian Dale, Danette L Daniels, Austin Dulak, Liz Flavell, Geoff Holdgate, Thomas A Jowitt, Alexey Kikhney, Mark McAlister, Jacqui Méndez, Derek Ogg, Joe Patel, Philip Petteruti, Graeme R Robb, Matthew B Robers, Sakina Saif, Natalie Stratton, Dmitri I Svergun, Wenxian Wang, David Whittaker, David M Wilson, Yi Yao
Proteins of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family, in particular bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), are of great interest as biological targets. BET proteins contain two separate bromodomains, and existing inhibitors bind to them monovalently. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of probe compound biBET, capable of engaging both bromodomains simultaneously in a bivalent, in cis binding mode. The evidence provided here was obtained in a variety of biophysical and cellular experiments...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Famke Aeffner, Nathan T Martin, Mirza Peljto, Joshua C Black, Justin K Major, Maryam Jangani, Michael O Ports, Joseph S Krueger, G David Young
Tissue image analysis (tIA) is emerging as a powerful tool for quantifying biomarker expression and distribution in complex diseases and tissues. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) develops in a highly complex and heterogeneous tissue environment and, generally, has a very poor prognosis. Early detection of PDAC is confounded by limited knowledge of the pre-neoplastic disease stages and limited methods to quantitatively assess disease heterogeneity. We sought to develop a tIA approach to assess the most common PDAC precursor lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), in tissues from Kras(LSL-G12D/+); Trp53(LSL-R172H/+); Pdx-Cre (KPC) mice, a validated model of PDAC development...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Keiichiro Yamanaka, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Eiichi Tamiya
In this review we present electrochemical biosensor developments, focusing on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and their applications. In particular, we discuss how SPEs enable simple integration, and the portability needed for on-field applications. First, we briefly discuss the general concept of biosensors and quickly move on to electrochemical biosensors. Drawing from research undertaken in this area, we cover the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors in great detail. Through specific examples, we describe the fabrication and surface modification of printed electrodes for sensitive and selective detection of targeted DNA sequences, as well as integration with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Ye Chang, Yuan Li, Xiaofan Guo, Dongxue Dai, Yingxian Sun
In 2010, the American Heart Association has proposed a new concept "ideal cardiovascular health" (CVH) based on seven CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. We aimed to determine the association of CVH with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a strong marker for atherosclerosis (AS). This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China and 11,113 middle-aged subjects were enrolled. Seven CVH metrics were classified into ideal, intermediate, and poor groups...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Claudia Kohl
Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reddi Kamesh, Kalipatnapu Yamuna Rani
In this paper, a novel formulation for nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) has been proposed incorporating the extended Kalman filter (EKF) control concept using a purely data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) model based on measurements for supervisory control. The proposed scheme consists of two modules focusing on online parameter estimation based on past measurements and control estimation over control horizon based on minimizing the deviation of model output predictions from set points along the prediction horizon...
October 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Yongwei Nie, Zhensong Zhang, Hanqiu Sun, Tan Su, Guiqing Li
Wide-baseline street image interpolation is useful but very challenging. Existing approaches either rely on heavyweight 3D reconstruction or computationally intensive deep networks. We present a lightweight and efficient method which uses simple homography computing and refining operators to estimate piecewise smooth homographies between input views. To achieve the goal, we show how to combine homography fitting and homography propagation together based on reliable and unreliable superpixel discrimination. Such a combination, other than using homography fitting only, dramatically increases the accuracy and robustness of the estimated homographies...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Matthew Brehmer, Bongshin Lee, Benjamin Bach, Nathalie Henry Riche, Tamara Munzner
There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout...
October 3, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yuan Zhou, Anand Rangarajan, Paul D Gader
The normal compositional model (NCM) has been extensively used in hyperspectral unmixing. However, previous research has mostly focused on estimation of endmembers and/or their variability, based on the assumption that the pixels are independent random variables. In this paper, we show that this assumption does not hold if all the pixels are generated by a fixed endmember set. This introduces another concept, endmember uncertainty, which is related to whether the pixels fit into the endmember simplex. To further develop this idea, we derive the NCM from the ground up without the pixel independence assumption, along with (i) using different noise levels at different wavelengths and (ii) using a spatial and sparsity promoting prior for the abundances...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Antonis Sakellarios, Lorenz Raeber, Christos Bourantas, Themis Exarchos, Lambros Athanasiou, Gualtiero Pelosi, Oberdan Parodi, Konstantinos Koskinas, Katerina Naka, Lampros Michalis, Patrick Wjc Serruys, Hector Garcia-Garcia, Stephan Windecker, Dimitrios Fotiadis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore major mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque growth, presenting a proof-of-concept numerical model. METHODS: To this aim, a human reconstructed left circumflex coronary artery is utilized for a multi-level modeling approach. More specifically, the first level consists of the modeling of blood flow and endothelial shear stress (ESS) computation. The second level includes the modeling of low and high density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL) and monocytes transport through the endothelial membrane to vessel wall...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Stephanie Truelove, Leigh M Vanderloo, Patricia Tucker
BACKGROUND: Many young children are not meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines. In an effort to change this, the term "active play" has been used to promote increased physical activity levels. Within this young cohort, physical activity is typically achieved in the form of active play behaviour. The current study aimed to review and synthesize the literature to identify key concepts used to define and describe active play among young children. A secondary objective was to explore the various methods adopted for measuring active play...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Nahla Abdellatif, Radhouane Fekih-Salem, Tewfik Sari
We study a model of the chemostat with several species in competition for a single resource. We take into account the intra-specific interactions between individuals of the same population of micro-organisms and we assume that the growth rates are increasing and the dilution rates are distinct. Using the concept of steady-state characteristics, we present a geometric characterization of the existence and stability of all equilibria. Moreover, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the control parameters of the system to have a positive equilibrium...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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