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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245011/oncogenic-role-of-thor-a-conserved-cancer-testis-long-non-coding-rna
#1
Yasuyuki Hosono, Yashar S Niknafs, John R Prensner, Matthew K Iyer, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Rohit Mehra, Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya, Jean Tien, June Escara-Wilke, Anton Poliakov, Shih-Chun Chu, Sahal Saleh, Keerthana Sankar, Fengyun Su, Shuling Guo, Yuanyuan Qiao, Susan M Freier, Huynh-Hoa Bui, Xuhong Cao, Rohit Malik, Timothy M Johnson, David G Beer, Felix Y Feng, Weibin Zhou, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Large-scale transcriptome sequencing efforts have vastly expanded the catalog of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with varying evolutionary conservation, lineage expression, and cancer specificity. Here, we functionally characterize a novel ultraconserved lncRNA, THOR (ENSG00000226856), which exhibits expression exclusively in testis and a broad range of human cancers. THOR knockdown and overexpression in multiple cell lines and animal models alters cell or tumor growth supporting an oncogenic role. We discovered a conserved interaction of THOR with IGF2BP1 and show that THOR contributes to the mRNA stabilization activities of IGF2BP1...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232857/mir-34a-regulates-sperm-motility-in-zebrafish
#2
Wenjie Guo, Binyue Xie, Shuting Xiong, Xufang Liang, Jian-Fang Gui, Jie Mei
Increasing attention has been focused on the role of microRNAs in post-transcription regulation during spermatogenesis. Recently, the miR-34 family has been shown to be involved in the spermatogenesis, but the clear function of the miR-34 family in spermatogenesis is still obscure. Here we analyzed the function of miR-34a, a member of the miR-34 family, during spermatogenesis using miR-34a knockout zebrafish generated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069438/loss-of-heparan-sulfate-in-the-niche-leads-to-tumor-like-germ-cell-growth-in-the-drosophila-testis
#3
Daniel C Levings, Hiroshi Nakato
The stem cell niche normally prevents aberrant stem cell behaviors that lead to cancer formation. Recent studies suggest that some cancers are derived from endogenous populations of adult stem cells that have somehow escaped from normal control by the niche. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the niche retains stem cells locally and tightly controls their divisions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a class glygosaminoglycan chains, in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche prevents tumor formation in the testis...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031171/transverse-testicular-ectopia-with-inguinal-hernia-a-rare-case-report
#4
Shubhi Bhatnagar, Shahaji Chavan, Mahendra Bendre
INTRODUCTION: Transverse aberrant testicular maldescent is an extremely rare congenital anomaly characterized by the migration of one testicle towards the opposite inguinal canal. Mostly such cases are reported in children and they are very rarely seen in adults. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 24year old male patient with left reducible indirect inguinal hernia with absence of testis in the right hemiscrotum.On surgical exploration, the patient had both the testicles on the left side...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938467/testis-determination-requires-a-specific-fgfr2-isoform-to-repress-foxl2
#5
Stefan Bagheri-Fam, Anthony D Bird, Liang Zhao, Janelle M Ryan, Meiyun Yong, Dagmar Wilhelm, Peter Koopman, Veraragavan P Eswarakumar, Vincent R Harley
Male sex determination in mammals relies on sex determining region Y-mediated upregulation of sex determining region-box 9 (SOX9) expression in XY gonads, whereas Wnt family member (WNT)/R-spondin 1 signaling and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) drive female sex determination in XX gonads. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 signaling ensures sustained SOX9 expression through repression of one of the ovarian pathways (WNT signaling), whereas the significance of FGF-mediated repression of the FOXL2 pathway has not been studied...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900034/%C3%AE-catenin-directs-the-transformation-of-testis-sertoli-cells-to-ovarian-granulosa-like-cells-by-inducing-foxl2-expression
#6
Yaqiong Li, Lianjun Zhang, Yuqiong Hu, Min Chen, Feng Han, Yan Qin, Min Chen, Xiuhong Cui, Shuguang Duo, Fuchou Tang, Fei Gao
Sertoli and granulosa cells are two major types of somatic cells in male and female gonads, respectively. Previous studies have shown that Sertoli and granulosa cells are derived from common progenitor cells and that differentiation of these two cell types is regulated by sex differentiation genes. The signaling pathway including the adhesion and transcription factor Ctnnb1 (cadherin-associated protein, β1, also known as β-catenin) regulates differentiation of granulosa cells in the absence of the transcription factor Sry, and overactivation of β-catenin in the presence of Sry leads to granulosa prior to sex determination...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716051/mir-380-5p-mediated-repression-of-tep1-and-tspyl5-interferes-with-telomerase-activity-and-favours-the-emergence-of-an-alt-like-phenotype-in-diffuse-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma-cells
#7
Graziella Cimino-Reale, Paolo Gandellini, Francesca Santambrogio, Marta Recagni, Nadia Zaffaroni, Marco Folini
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA), which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618924/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-placenta-specific-1-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
Yin Yin, Xu Zhu, Shanshan Huang, Jiawei Zheng, Mengyun Zhang, Wencui Kong, Qun Chen, Yan Zhang, Xiong Chen, Kerong Lin, Xuenong Ouyang
The limited efficacy of conventional therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has led to the growing interest for identifying potential antigenic targets for immunotherapy. Placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) is a new member of cancer-testis antigens with restricted expression in normal tissues. Ectopic activation of PLAC1 has been found in different types of cancers, but its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains unknown. This study evaluated the protein expression of PLAC1 and its clinical significance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615391/practical-approach-to-evaluating-testicular-status-in-infants-and-children
#9
REVIEW
Elke E Mau, Michael P Leonard
OBJECTIVE: To review the differences between normal, retractile, ectopic, ascended, and undescended testes and to describe the optimal way to perform a testicular examination to distinguish one from the other, as well as to demonstrate that ultrasound imaging is not necessary and to clarify when to consider specialist referral. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search on undescended testes and orchiopexy referrals, and on our experience at the Urology Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa, including review of referrals to our clinic for undescended testes and the resultant findings of normal variants versus surgical cases...
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580303/the-role-of-bromodomain-testis-specific-factor-brdt-in-cancer-a-biomarker-and-a-possible-therapeutic-target
#10
REVIEW
Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Florent Chuffart, Sophie Rousseaux, Saadi Khochbin
Cancer cells have recently been shown to activate hundreds of normally silent tissue-restricted genes, including a specific subset associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Within these genes, a class of testis-specific genes designed as cancer/testis, attracted special attention because of their oncogenic roles as well as their potential use in immunotherapy. Here we focus on one of these genes encoding the testis-specific member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family, known as BRDT...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572601/dysregulation-of-angiogenesis-specific-signalling-in-adult-testis-results-in-xenograft-degeneration
#11
Lalitha Devi, Lavanya Pothana, Sandeep Goel
Ectopic xenografting of testis is a feasible option for preservation of male fertility and angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in xenograft survival and functionality. When compared to immature testis, the adult testis is unable to establish functional xenografts due to potentially lower efficiency to induce angiogenesis. The precise molecular mechanism, however, remains elusive. In the present study, we compared adult and immature testis xenografts for survival, maturation and germ cell differentiation. Further, we evaluated differential expression of angiogenesis signalling-specific proteins in adult and immature testis and their xenografts...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566680/dibutyl-phthalate-induced-testicular-dysgenesis-originates-after-seminiferous-cord-formation-in-rats
#12
Nathália L M Lara, Sander van den Driesche, Sheila Macpherson, Luiz R França, Richard M Sharpe
Administration of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to pregnant rats causes reproductive disorders in male offspring, resulting from suppression of intratesticular testosterone, and is used as a model for human testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). DBP exposure in pregnancy induces focal dysgenetic areas in fetal testes that appear between e19.5-e21.5, manifesting as focal aggregation of Leydig cells and ectopic Sertoli cells (SC). Our aim was to identify the origins of the ectopic SC. Time-mated female rats were administered 750 mg/kg/day DBP in three different time windows: full window (FW; e13...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539487/characterization-of-the-mammalian-rna-exonuclease-5-nef-sp-as-a-testis-specific-nuclear-3-%C3%A2-5-exoribonuclease
#13
Sara Silva, David Homolka, Ramesh S Pillai
Ribonucleases catalyze maturation of functional RNAs or mediate degradation of cellular transcripts, activities that are critical for gene expression control. Here we identify a previously uncharacterized mammalian nuclease family member NEF-sp (RNA exonuclease 5 [REXO5] or LOC81691) as a testis-specific factor. Recombinant human NEF-sp demonstrates a divalent metal ion-dependent 3' → 5' exoribonuclease activity. This activity is specific to single-stranded RNA substrates and is independent of their length...
September 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502657/rpl10l-is-required-for-male-meiotic-division-by-compensating-for-rpl10-during-meiotic-sex-chromosome-inactivation-in-mice
#14
Long Jiang, Tao Li, Xingxia Zhang, Beibei Zhang, Changping Yu, Yang Li, Suixing Fan, Xiaohua Jiang, Teka Khan, Qiaomei Hao, Peng Xu, Daita Nadano, Mahmoud Huleihel, Eitan Lunenfeld, P Jeremy Wang, Yuanwei Zhang, Qinghua Shi
The mammalian sex chromosomes have undergone profound changes during their evolution from an ancestral pair of autosomes [1-4]. Specifically, the X chromosome has acquired a paradoxical sex-biased function by redistributing gene contents [5, 6] and has generated a disproportionately high number of retrogenes that are located on autosomes and exhibit male-biased expression patterns [6]. Several selection-based models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including a model of sexual antagonism driving X inactivation (SAXI) [6-8] and a compensatory mechanism based on meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) [6, 8-11]...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498828/kdm1a-lsd1-regulates-the-differentiation-and-maintenance-of-spermatogonia-in-mice
#15
Dexter A Myrick, Michael A Christopher, Alyssa M Scott, Ashley K Simon, Paul G Donlin-Asp, William G Kelly, David J Katz
The proper regulation of spermatogenesis is crucial to ensure the continued production of sperm and fertility. Here, we investigated the function of the H3K4me2 demethylase KDM1A/LSD1 during spermatogenesis in developing and adult mice. Conditional deletion of Kdm1a in the testis just prior to birth leads to fewer spermatogonia and germ cell loss before 3 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is required for spermatogonial differentiation, as well as germ cell survival, in the developing testis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275524/high-single-scrotal-incision-orchidopexy-as-the-standard-technique-in-infants-aged-6-24%C3%A2-months
#16
Ahmed Mohey, Tarek M Gharib, Rabea G Omar, Ahmed Sebaey, Basheer N Elmohamady, Wael Kandeel
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness of high single scrotal-incision orchidopexy (HSSIO) for palpable undescended testis (PUDT) in infants aged 6-24 months. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2012 to July 2014, 46 age range-restricted (6-24 months) infants with 57 PUDT underwent HSSIO after obtaining written consent from their parents. The exclusion criteria were ectopic, retractile testes and recurrent cases. All infants were examined before surgery in the outpatient department and after anaesthesia induction immediately before surgery...
March 2017: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171846/an-inguinal-hernia-with-cryptorchidism-with-a-leydig-cell-tumor-in-an-elderly-man-a-case-report
#17
Toru Zuiki, Jun Ohki, Toshihide Komatsubara, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Yuzo Miyahara, Masanori Ochi, Norio Hirota
INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is common in children but is rare in the elderly. It often presents with a constellation of signs and symptoms similar to routine inguinal hernias. We present the case of an elderly man with cryptorchidism containing a Leydig cell tumor and provide clinical insights. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An-84-year old man was admitted with an incarcerated right lower quadrant hernia. Both testes were absent on palpation of the scrotum. After reduction of the hernia, computed tomography scan revealed a round lesion in the hernia sac, which was suspected to be the ectopic testis...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160442/xenografting-of-isolated-equine-equus-caballus-testis-cells-results-in-de-novo-morphogenesis-of-seminiferous-tubules-but-not-spermatogenesis
#18
W Zeng, W Alpaugh, D Stefanovski, K Schlingmann, I Dobrinski, R M Turner
The study of spermatogenesis in the horse is challenging because of the absence of an in vitro system that is capable of reproducing efficient spermatogenesis and because of the difficulties and costs associated with performing well-controlled studies in vivo. In an attempt to develop novel methods for the study of equine spermatogenesis, we tested whether cells from enzymatically digested pre-pubertal equine testicular tissue were capable of de novo tissue formation and spermatogenesis following xenografting under the back skin of immunocompromised mice...
March 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152494/transverse-testicular-ectopia-with-scrotal-hypospadias-but-without-inguinal-hernia-case-report-of-a-rare-association
#19
Pradeep Kajal, Kamal Nain Rattan, Namita Bhutani, Vijender Sangwan
Transverse testicular ectopia is an extremely rare anomaly, in which both the testis migrate towards the same hemiscrotum through the same inguinal canal. It is usually associated with other abnormalities such as persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, true hermaphroditism, inguinal hernia, pseudohermaphroditism, and scrotal anomalies; the association with inguinal hernia being the commonest. We, here, report a case of transverse testicular ectopia in a 12 years old boy having the ectopic testis in contralateral hemiscrotum without any inguinal hernia but having scrotal hypospadias with severe chordee...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094762/persistent-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-syndrome-with-transverse-testicular-ectopia-a-novel-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-receptor-mutation
#20
Özlem Korkmaz, Samim Özen, Nurhan Özcan, Petek Bayındır, Sait Şen, Hüseyin Onay, Damla Gökşen, Ali Avanoğlu, Ferda Özkınay, Şükran Darcan
Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is the result of either anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) deficiency or AMH receptor resistance. A long tubular structure was palpated during the physical examination of a 13-month-old male patient who had presented with bilateral undescended testes. At physical examination, the testes were not palpable. The patient's karyotype was XY, SRY (+), and his AMH level was 22 ng/mol. Structures suggestive of ovaries, a uterus, and fallopian tubes were observed during the laparoscopic examination of the ectopic testis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
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