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Ectopic testis

Yusuf Saifee, Pranjal Modi
A 24-year-old male presented with voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. On evaluation, the patient was found to have midbulbar urethral stricture and right dysplastic pelvic kidney with right vesicoureteral reflux. A micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) shows opacification of the right vas deferens along the entire course till the testis. The patient underwent end-to-end urethroplasty. But soon the patient presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and epididymorchitis in the follow-up period. The patient was explored laparoscopically to remove dysplastic kidney and ectopic vas deferens...
2016: J Endourol Case Rep
Mohan Kumar Kariappa, Vivek Harihar, Ashwini Rajareddy Kothudum, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya Hiremath
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which testes are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which testes are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed indirect component and direct component with cryptorchidism...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Ajay H Bhandarwar, Saurabh S Gandhi, Chintan B Patel, Amol N Wagh, Virendra Gawli, Nimesh A Jain
Triorchidism is the commonest variety of polyorchidism, an entity with more than two testis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the testis. Although excision of the abnormal testis is a safer alternative proposed, recent literature suggests more conservative approach in normal testes with watchful regular follow up to screen for malignancy. This case presented as a left inguinal swelling diagnosed as indirect left inguinal hernia. The left side testis was of smaller size (about half) with normal sperm count, morphology and motility...
April 26, 2016: Clinics and Practice
Salman Atiq Siddiqui, Tamer Ibrahim Marei, Ghada Al-Makhaita
BACKGROUND Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
S Torkashvand, Z Damavandi, B Mirzaei, M Tavallaei, M Vasei, Seyed Javad Mowla
PURPOSE: Human Piwil2, a member of Piwi subfamily of Argonaute proteins, is primarily expressed in testis, where it regulates self-renewal of germ cells. However, its ectopic expression has been reported with several tumors, including breast cancer. The upregulation of piwil2 in various stages of breast cancer suggested its suitability as a novel tumor biomarker. Considering the vital role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the expression of most human genes, we hypothesized a concomitant downregulation of the bioinformatically-predicted piwil2-targetting microRNAs in breast cancer...
June 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Mariailaria Verderame, Ermelinda Limatola, Rosaria Scudiero
In oviparous vertebrates, vitellogenin (VTG) is the major yolk precursor synthesized in the liver of sexually mature females during the reproductive period. In males, the VTG gene is silent, but it may be activated by estradiol-17β (E2) or estrogen-like substances. Until now, extra-hepatic expression and synthesis of VTG after estrogen exposure has been reported only for aquatic vertebrates. This study demonstrates the ability of testis and epididymis of the terrestrial oviparous lacertid Podarcis sicula to synthesize VTG following E2 exposure...
September 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Daniel Nettersheim, Alena Heimsoeth, Sina Jostes, Simon Schneider, Martin Fellermeyer, Andrea Hofmann, Hubert Schorle
Type II germ cell cancers (GCC) are divided into seminomas, which are highly similar to primordial germ cells and embryonal carcinomas (EC), often described as malignant counterparts to embryonic stem cells.Previously, we demonstrated that the development of GCCs is a highly plastic process and strongly influenced by the microenvironment. While orthotopic transplantation into the testis promotes seminomatous growth of the seminoma-like cell line TCam-2, ectopic xenotransplantation into the flank initiates reprogramming into an EC-like fate...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Jun Yu, Yujuan Liu, Xiang Lan, Hao Wu, Yang Wen, Zuomin Zhou, Zhibin Hu, Jiahao Sha, Xuejiang Guo, Chao Tong
Azoospermia is a high risk factor for testicular germ cell tumors, whose underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In a genome-wide association study to identify novel loci associated with human non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), we uncovered a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1887102, P=2.60 ×10-7) in a human gene FOXN3. FOXN3 is an evolutionarily conserved gene. We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to test whether CHES-1-like, the Drosophila FOXN3 ortholog, is required for male fertility...
June 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen, Morten Frier Gjerstorff
Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniela Marino, Mario Perković, Anika Hain, Ananda A Jaguva Vasudevan, Henning Hofmann, Kay-Martin Hanschmann, Michael D Mühlebach, Gerald G Schumann, Renate König, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk
APOBEC4 (A4) is a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases. In this study we found a high mRNA expression of A4 in human testis. In contrast, there were only low levels of A4 mRNA detectable in 293T, HeLa, Jurkat or A3.01 cells. Ectopic expression of A4 in HeLa cells resulted in mostly cytoplasmic localization of the protein. To test whether A4 has antiviral activity similar to that of proteins of the APOBEC3 (A3) subfamily, A4 was co-expressed in 293T cells with wild type HIV-1 and HIV-1 luciferase reporter viruses...
2016: PloS One
Limin Wu, Peng Yang, Feng Luo, Deshou Wang, Linyan Zhou
The furin-domain-containing peptide R-spondin 1 (RSPO1) has recently emerged as an important regulator of ovarian development, upregulating the WNT/β-catenin pathway to oppose testis formation in mammals. However, little information has been reported on the Rspo1 signaling pathway in teleosts. In this study, Rspo1 was isolated from the gonads of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. An in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Rspo1 is expressed in the germ cells of the ovary and the testis. An ontogenic analysis demonstrated that Rspo1 expression is upregulated just before meiotic initiation in both the ovary and testis during the early developmental stages of the tilapia...
May 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Fu-Fen Yin, Ning Wang, Xiao-Ning Bi, Xiao Yu, Xiao-Hui Xu, You-Lin Wang, Cheng-Quan Zhao, Bing Luo, Yan-Kui Wang
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is a leading cause of mortality in females, especially in developing countries. The two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 mediate the oncogenic activities of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), and hrHPV, especially HPV16 or/and HPV18 (HPV16/18) play critical roles in CC through different pathways. STK31 gene of which the expression has been proven to be regulated by the methylation status of its promoter, is one of the novel cancer/testis (CT) genes and plays important roles in human cancers...
2016: Virology Journal
A Pradhan, O B Panta, D B Karki, G Gurung
Crossed testicular ectopia also known as transverse testicular ectopia is a rare anomaly of the testis which is ectopically located in contralateral hemiscrotum with absent testis in the ipsilateral hemiscrotum. Most case are incidentally discovered intraopeartively during operation of inguinal hernia and few case reports are available which have reported preoperative diagnosis of crossed testicular ectopia. We report a case of crossed testicular ectopia in 12 year old boy who presented with right undescended testis diagnosed preoperative on Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging as crossed testicular ectopia...
July 2014: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Su-Ren Chen, Xiao-Xia Hao, Yan Zhang, Shou-Long Deng, Zhi-Peng Wang, Yu-Qian Wang, Xiu-Xia Wang, Yi-Xun Liu
Spermatogenesis does not progress beyond the pachytene stages of meiosis in Sertoli cell-specific AR knockout (SCARKO) mice. However, further evidence of meiotic arrest and underlying paracrine signals in SCARKO testes is still lacking. We utilized co-immunostaining of meiotic surface spreads to examine the key events during meiotic prophase I. SCARKO spermatocytes exhibited a failure in chromosomal synapsis observed by SCP1/SCP3 double-staining and CREST foci quantification. In addition, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were formed but were not repaired in the mutant spermatocytes, as revealed by γ-H2AX staining and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity examination...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Zifeng Wang, Na Liu, Shuo Shi, Sanhong Liu, Haifan Lin
P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) proteins bind to PIWI-interacting RNAs and play key roles in the biogenesis and functions of PIWI-interacting RNAs. It has been reported that PIWI proteins are essential for stem cell self-renewal and germline development in diverse organisms and that they are ectopically expressed in multiple forms of cancer. However, the role of PIWI in cancer remains elusive. Here we report that one of the four PIWI proteins in humans, PIWIL4, is highly expressed in both breast cancer tissues and the cytoplasm of MDA-MB-231 cells derived from breast cancer...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Arun Kumar Barad, Nr Manju Bharath, V Narayana, V Om Pramod Kumar Raja, Pranav Reddy Jambula
Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, where there is normal development of male secondary sexual characters, along with the presence of bilateral fallopian tubes and uterus. Majority of these cases go undetected and some cases are accidentally diagnosed while investigating for other problems. Cross fused renal ectopia is a condition where one kidney lies in the opposite side, fused to the other kidney. We present an extremely rare case of a phenotypical male presenting with mass per abdomen and bilateral cryptorchidism, turned out to have uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes, ectopic cross fused right kidney and Embryonal cell carcinoma of left undescended testis...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
R Wijayarathna, D M de Kretser
BACKGROUND: Activins are members of the pleiotrophic family of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines, initially isolated for their capacity to induce the release of FSH from pituitary extracts. Subsequent research has demonstrated that activins are involved in multiple biological functions including the control of inflammation, fibrosis, developmental biology and tumourigenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the roles of activin in reproductive and developmental biology...
April 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Miree Park, Youngeun Lee, Hoon Jang, Ok-Hee Lee, Sung-Won Park, Jae-Hwan Kim, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song, Se-Pill Park, Yun-Yong Park, Jung Jae Ko, Youngsok Choi
Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (SOHLH2) is exclusively expressed in germ cells of the gonads. Previous studies show that SOHLH2 is critical for spermatogenesis in mouse. However, the regulatory mechanism of SOHLH2 during early spermatogenesis is poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of the Sohlh2-deficient testis and examined the role of SOHLH2 during spermatogenesis. We found 513 genes increased in abundance, while 492 genes decreased in abundance in 14-day-old Sohlh2-deficient mouse testes compared to wildtype mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qing Ma, Margaret de Cuevas, Erika L Matunis
Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism...
March 1, 2016: Development
Jens U Berli, Jonathan Zelken, Kyle Schuyler, Michael Naslund, Yvonne Rasko
A 55-year-old man was treated for Fournier gangrene in 2004 with radical debridement and bilateral testicular transposition to the medial thighs. Eight years later, bilateral hydroceles formed. After conservative measures failed for treatment of the hydroceles, the condition was treated during desired testicular relocation, and creation of a neoscrotum. In the case presented, bilateral thigh hydroceles may have developed from lymphatic injury during testicular transposition. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral hydrocele testis in the medial thigh pouches following ectopic testicular transposition...
April 2016: Urology
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