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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749625/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Lara Zibners, Pradip Chaudhari
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749592/porphyrin-antennas-on-carbon-nanodots-excited-state-energy-and-electron-transduction
#2
Maurizio Prato, Francesca Arcudi, Volker Strauss, Luka Dordevic, Alejandro Cadranel, Dirk Guldi
We report the synthesis and electron donor-acceptor features of a novel nano-hybrid, in which the light harvesting and electron donating properties of a meso-tetraarylporphyrin (TArP) are combined with the electron accepting features of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots (NCNDs). In particular, in a ultrafast process (> 1012 s-1), visible light excitation transforms the strongly quenched porphyrin singlet excited states into 225 ps lived charge separated states. On the other hand, ultraviolet light excitation triggers a non-resolvable transduction of singlet excited state energy from the NCNDs to the porphyrins, followed by the same charge separation observed upon visible light excitation...
July 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749573/il-6-stat3-signaling-as-a-promising-target-to-improve-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Hidemitsu Kitamura, Yosuke Ohno, Yujiro Toyoshima, Junya Ohtake, Shigenori Homma, Hideki Kawamura, Norihiko Takahashi, Akinobu Taketomi
Overcoming the immunosuppressive state in tumor microenvironments is a critical issue to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, is highly produced in the tumor-bearing host. Previous studies have indicated that IL-6 suppresses the antigen presentation ability of dendritic cells (DCs) through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Thus, we focused on the precise effect of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling cascade on human DCs and the subsequent induction of antitumor T cell immune responses...
July 27, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749571/l-ornithine-l-aspartate-in-bouts-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Navpreet Kaur
High quality data on efficacy of L-Ornithine L-Aspartate (LOLA) in cirrhotics with bouts of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) is missing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous LOLA in reversal of bouts of OHE in cirrhotics. In this prospective double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial conducted at two tertiary care institutes in India, 370 cirrhotics with bouts of OHE were screened. After exclusion, 193 (52.16%) patients were randomized to receive either intravenous infusions of LOLA (n=98), 30 grams daily or Placebo (n=95) for 5 days...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749537/sodium-channels-and-pain-from-toxins-to-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Fernanda C Cardoso, Richard J Lewis
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ) are essential to initiation and propagation of action potentials that critically influence our ability to respond to a diverse range of stimuli. Physiological and pharmacological studies have linked abnormal function of Nav channels to many human disorders, including chronic neuropathic pain. These findings, along with the description of the functional properties and expression pattern of NaV channels subtypes, are helping to uncover subtype specific roles in acute and chronic pain, and revealing potential opportunities to target these with selective inhibitors...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749533/charmm-force-field-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-protonated-polyethylenimine
#6
Titus Adrian Beu, Alexandra Farcaş
As a gene delivery vector, polyethylenimine (PEI) shows one of the highest transfection efficiencies, while effectively protecting DNA from enzyme degradation. The distinctive charge pattern of protonated PEI is widely considered responsible for fundamental process such as DNA condensation into PEI/DNA polyplexes (which are able to enter cells via endocytosis), proton sponge effect (which triggers the release of polyplexes from endosome), and release of DNA from polyplexes (to be further processed inside the nucleus)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749526/adaptation-to-the-spanish-population-of-the-substance-use-risk-profile-scale-surps-and-psychometric-properties
#7
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Antonio J Rojas-Tejada, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Óscar M Lozano-Rojas
The identification of different personality risk profiles for substance misuse is useful in preventing substance-related problems. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of a new version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) for Spanish college students. Cross-sectional study with 455 undergraduate students from four Spanish universities. A new version of the SURPS, adapted to the Spanish population, was administered with the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749522/palladium-catalyzed-decarboxylative-decarbonylative-and-dehydrogenative-c-sp-2-h-acylation-at-room-temperature
#8
Asik Hossian, Manash Kumar Manna, Kartic Manna, Ranjan Jana
Over the past few decades, an impressive array of C-H activation methodology has been developed for organic synthesis. However, due to the inherent inertness of the C-H bonds (e.g. ∼110 kcal mol(-1) for the cleavage of C(aryl)-H bonds) harsh reaction conditions have been realized to overcome high energetic transition states resulting in a limited substrate scope and functional group tolerance. Therefore, the development of mild C-H functionalization protocols is in high demand to exploit the full potential of the C-H activation strategy in the synthesis of a complex molecular framework...
July 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749518/the-mechanism-and-regioselectivities-of-nhc-nickel-ii-hydride-catalyzed-cycloisomerization-of-dienes-a-computational-study
#9
Yuan Gao, K N Houk, Chun-Yu Ho, Xin Hong
Transition metal-catalyzed hydroalkenylation is widely applied in organic synthesis to construct carbon-carbon bonds and synthesize substituted alkenes. In this work, the mechanism and regioselectivities of [(NHC)NiH](+)-catalyzed intramolecular cycloisomerization of dienes are studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Through an initial hydride insertion, [(NHC)NiH](+) reacts with the diene substrate to generate the alkyl nickel species. This alkyl nickel species is the resting state of the catalytic cycle, and the hydroalkenylation reaction involves sequential olefin insertion and β-hydride transfer...
July 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749512/excited-state-intermolecular-proton-transfer-dependent-on-the-substitution-pattern-of-anthracene-diurea-compounds-involved-in-fluorescent-on-1-off-on-2-response-by-the-addition-of-acetate-ions
#10
Hisato Matsumoto, Yoshinobu Nishimura, Tatsuo Arai
We report anthracene-diurea compounds which behave as anion sensors based on the fluorescence emission regulated by the substitution position on the anthracene ring. Anthracene-diurea compounds exhibit different excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reactions depending on the pattern of the substituents. Three new anthracene-diurea compounds that have two phenylurea groups substituted at different positions on anthracene were synthesized. These compounds formed complexes with acetate ions through intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-H and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O moieties in the ground state...
July 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749505/the-influence-of-surface-area-porous-structure-and-surface-state-on-the-supercapacitor-performance-of-titanium-oxynitride-implications-for-a-nanostructuring-strategy
#11
Eun Joo Lee, Lanlee Lee, Muhammad Awais Abbas, Jin Ho Bang
A recent surge of interest in metal (oxy)nitride materials for energy storage devices has given rise to the rapid development of various nanostructuring strategies for these materials. In supercapacitor applications, early transition metal (oxy)nitrides have been extensively explored, among which titanium oxynitride stands out due to its great potential for charge storage. Despite recent advances in supercapacitors based on titanium oxynitride, many underlying factors governing their capacitive performance remain elusive...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749495/characterization-of-a-highly-efficient-antibiotic-degrading-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-obtained-from-an-uncultured-member-of-a-permafrost-community
#12
Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Christopher Selleck, Charmaine Enculescu, Jeffrey R Harmer, Nataša Mitić, Whitney R Craig, Waleed Helweh, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, David L Tierney, James A Larrabee, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival...
July 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749492/a-cobalt-nitrosyl-complex-with-a-hindered-hydrotris-pyrazolyl-borate-coligand-detailed-electronic-structure-and-reactivity-towards-dioxygen
#13
Kiyoshi Fujisawa, Shoko Soma, Haruka Kurihara, Hai T Dong, Max Bilodeau, Nicolai Lehnert
The cobalt-nitrosyl complex [Co(NO)(L3)] is supported by a highly hindered tridentate nitrogen ligand, hydrotris(3-tertiary butyl-5-isopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate (denoted as L3(-)), and shows a linear Co-N-O unit. This complex was prepared by the reaction of the potassium salt of L3(-) with the cobalt-nitrosyl precursor [Co(NO)2(tmeda)](BPh4) (tmeda = N,N,N,'N'-tetramethylethylenediamine). The obtained cobalt-nitrosyl complex as well as the corresponding products from the reaction with dioxygen, [Co(η(2)-O2N)(L3)] and [Co(η(2)-O2NO)(L3)], were characterised by X-ray crystallography and a number of spectroscopic methods including IR/far-IR, UV-Vis, and NMR spectroscopy...
July 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749484/communication-related-allegations-against-physicians-caring-for-premature-infants
#14
J Nguyen, H Muniraman, M Cascione, R Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: Maternal-fetal medicine physicians (MFMp) and neonatal-perinatal medicine physicians (NPMp) caring for premature infants and their families are exposed to significant risk for malpractice actions. Effective communication practices have been implicated to decrease litigious intentions but the extent of miscommunication as a cause of legal action is essentially unknown in this population. Analysis of communication-related allegations (CRAs) may help toward improving patient care and physician-patient relationships as well as decrease litigation risks...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749481/evaluation-of-critical-congenital-heart-defects-screening-using-pulse-oximetry-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#15
K Van Naarden Braun, R Grazel, R Koppel, S Lakshminrusimha, J Lohr, P Kumar, B Govindaswami, M Giuliano, M Cohen, N Spillane, P Jegatheesan, D McClure, D Hassinger, O Fofah, S Chandra, D Allen, R Axelrod, J Blau, S Hudome, E Assing, L F Garg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of early screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and potential exclusion of sub-populations from universal screening. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective evaluation of CCHD screening at multiple time intervals was conducted in 21 NICUs across five states (n=4556 infants). RESULTS: Of the 4120 infants with complete screens, 92% did not have prenatal CHD diagnosis or echocardiography before screening, 72% were not receiving oxygen at 24 to 48 h and 56% were born ⩾2500 g...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#16
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749447/enhanced-uptake-of-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nanoparticles-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-a-state-of-inflammation
#17
Gang Zhou, Jin Zhang, Chun Pan, Naicheng Liu, Zhenheng Wang, Junfeng Zhang
Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ NPs) have been used for medical and drug applications, although the mechanisms of cellular uptake and transport need to be further evaluated under inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of Fe₃O₄ NPs (20, 50, 100, and 200 nm) by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions via the light scattering of flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The results of the correlation analysis indicated that the uptake ratios of Fe₃O₄ NPs by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions were higher than those under the control conditions...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749409/host-response-comparison-of-h1n1-and-h5n1-infected-mice-identifies-two-potential-death-mechanisms
#18
Olivier Leymarie, Léa Meyer, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) infections represent a serious threat to humans due to their considerable morbidity and mortality capacities. A good understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the acute lung injury observed during this kind of infection is essential to design adapted therapies. In the current study, using an unbiased transcriptomic approach, we compared the host-responses of mice infected with two different subtypes of IAV: H1N1 vs. H5N1. The host-response comparison demonstrated a clear difference between the transcriptomic profiles of H1N1- and H5N1-infected mice despite identical survival kinetics and similar viral replications...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749403/hiv-malaria-interactions-in-north-east-india-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Pradhyumn K Mohapatra, Elsa Pachuau, Chandra Kumar, Biswajit Borkakoty, Eric Zomawia, Achouba Singh, Kamini Walia, Rashmi Arora, Jagdish Mahanta, Sarala K Subbarao
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The interactions between HIV and malaria co-infection have been shown to influence each other in their clinical outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out in the two States of north east India endemic for both HIV and malaria infections, to study the interactions between the two diseases in the HIV-infected population. METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of 333 HIV-infected individuals were followed up for a period of 6-18 months in Mizoram and Manipur during 2010-2011...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749402/coverage-of-childhood-vaccination-among-children-aged-12-23-months-tamil-nadu-2015-india
#20
Manoj V Murhekar, P Kamaraj, K Kanagasabai, G Elavarasu, T Daniel Rajasekar, K Boopathi, Sanjay Mehendale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4) indicated that during 2012-2013, only 56 per cent of children aged 12-23 months in Tamil Nadu were fully vaccinated, which were lesser than those reported in earlier national surveys. We, therefore, conducted cluster surveys to estimate coverage of childhood vaccination in the State, and also to identify the factors associated with low coverage. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 15 strata [municipal corporation non-slum (n=1), municipal corporation slum (n=1), hilly (n=1), rural (n=6) and urban (n=6)]...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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