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BACKGROUND: Poland, Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic are countries with high alcohol consumption, and alcohol-induced disorders are in the ten leading causes of Years Lost due to Disability. Therefore it is necessary to study factors as insight, motivation, and readiness to change for the better understanding the variables which are in probably connected with therapeutic effectiveness. AIM: The purpose of the study was to examine the state of readiness to change at the beginning and the end of inpatient short (six weeks) and long (12 weeks) therapeutic program in the Slovak Republic, Poland, and the Czech Republic, and look for the relationship between readiness to change, insight, and motivation in alcohol-dependent persons...
May 19, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Marie Todd
A venous leg ulcer (VLU) is defined as the loss of skin below the knee on the leg or foot in the presence of venous disease, which takes more than two weeks to heal. The prevalence of VLUs is increasing, especially in older people, which will increase the demand for nursing care. Development of a lower leg ulcer should trigger immediate assessment of risk factors for chronic venous disease followed by action to identify the cause and initiate treatment, which should prevent progression to more complex and chronic problems...
June 19, 2018: Nursing Older People
Go Shinke, Daisaku Yamada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Tadafumi Asaoka, Takehiro Noda, Hiroshi Wada, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Shogo Kobayashi, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
Current therapies for pancreatic ductal cancer (PDAC) do not sufficiently control distant metastasis. Thus, new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Numerous studies have suggested that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pivotal for metastasis of carcinomas. The fact that the EMT is reversible suggests the possibility that it is induced by an epigenetic mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which is an epigenetic mechanism on distant metastasis of PDAC...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Science
Christina Petersson, Ramona Fust, Carina Hagstedt, Per Vågström, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patient-reported experiences of facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment in adults with primary or secondary immunodeficiency. BACKGROUND: Decreased levels of circulating antibodies (humoral immunodeficiency) are often associated with higher infection rates which cause problems in daily living, for example symptoms of severe and recurrent bacterial infections that may cause chronic lung diseases. For some diagnoses, treatment with immunoglobulin becomes critical and life-long...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
S Acharya, C Hägglin, M Jontell, B Wenneberg, J Ekström, A Carlén
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine mucosal saliva and unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole saliva secretion rates and associated factors, in 56 female patients diagnosed with BMS and age-matched control women. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mucosal saliva was assessed using the Periotron® method and blood flow using Laser Doppler Flowmetry. Diseases, drug usage, and xerostomia were registered using questionnaires. RESULTS: The BMS patients displayed less lingual and whole saliva, and more hyposalivation, xerostomia, diseases/disorders and drug usage, compared to the controls...
June 19, 2018: Oral Diseases
Kwok-Chiu Chang, Eric Nuermberger, Giovanni Sotgiu, Chi-Chiu Leung
Since standardized rifampin-based first-line regimens and fluoroquinolone-based second-line regimens were used to treat tuberculosis (TB), unfortunately without timely modification according to the drug resistance profile, TB and drug-resistant disease are still important public health threats worldwide. Although the last decade has witnessed advances in rapid diagnostic tools and use of repurposed and novel drugs for better managing drug-resistant TB, we need an appropriate TB control strategy and a well-functioning health infrastructure to ensure optimal operational use of rapid tests, judicious use of effective treatment regimens that can be rapidly tailored according to the drug resistance profile and timely management of risk factors and co-morbidities that promote infection and its progression to disease...
June 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Joaquín García-Álvarez, Eva Hevia, Vito Capriati
There is a strong imperative to reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the environment, and many efforts are currently being made to replace conventional hazardous VOCs in favour of safe, green and bio-renewable reaction media that are not based on crude petroleum. Recent ground-breaking studies from a few laboratories worldwide have shown that both Grignard and (functionalised) organolithium reagents, traditionally handled under strict exclusion of air and humidity and in anhydrous VOCs, can smoothly promote both nucleophilic additions to unsaturated substrates and nucleophilic substitutions in water and other bio-based solvents (glycerol, deep eutectic solvents), competitively with protonolysis, at room temperature and under air...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jie Gao, Zhao Wang, Gao-Ju Wang, Na Gao, Jing Li, Yun-Fei Zhang, Jun Zhou, Hong-Xin Zhang, Qiang Wen, Han Jin, Hai-Ling Qiao
Hepatofibrosis is an important susceptibility factor for hepatocarcinogenesis. However, only a handful of cases of hepatofibrosis will develop into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in the metabolism and activation of many known environmental toxicants and procarcinogens, this enzyme may play a role in the development of hepatocarcinogenesis subsequent to hepatofibrosis. Herein, we evaluated whether higher CYP2E1 activity is a risk factor for the development of hepatocarcinogenesis from hepatofibrosis...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Yong-Gon Koh, Juhyun Son, Ho-Joong Kim, Sae Kwang Kwon, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Hyo Jeong Kim, Kyoung-Tak Kang
Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) makes the proximal tibia a highly unstable structure and causes plates and screws to be the potential sources for mechanical failure. However, asymmetrical callus and incomplete bone formations underneath the plates (TomoFix) have been recent concerns in clinical and experimental studies related to HTO due to the high stiffness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effect of the TomoFix plate system with respect to changes in design using a computational simulation...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Carla Isabelly Rodrigues-Fernandes, Lucas Lacerda de Souza, Sara Ferreira Dos Santos Costa, André Myller Barbosa Silva, Hélder Antônio Rebelo Pontes, Márcio Ajudarte Lopes, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Peter A Brennan, Felipe Paiva Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a high grade lymphoma that often affects the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients; however, its prognostic determinants remain unknown. PURPOSE: To integrate the available data on oral PBL to determine its clinico-pathological features and to identify potential prognostic factors. METHODS: An electronic systematic review was performed using multiple databases with a specific search strategy in February 2018...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Yun Peng Shao, Qiao Zhou, Yun Peng Li, Si Cong Zhang, He Wei Xu, Shuo Wu, Bai Xin Shen, Liu Cheng Ding, Jun Xue, Zheng Sen Chen, Zhong Qing Wei
OBJECTIVES: The present work evaluated preventive effect of curcumin on cisplatin-induced bladder cystopathy. METHODS: Fifteen female rats were divided into (i) Control group administered with physiological saline solution for 5 days; (ii) Cis-P group injected with cisplatin (6 mg/kg); and (iii) Cis-Cur group given cisplatin (6 mg/kg) with curcumin for 5 consecutive days. The function of bladder was measured by means of urodynamic analysis. Furthermore, hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson trichrome staining were performed for morphological analysis...
June 19, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
S du Preez, S L Raidal, G S Doran, M Prescott, K J Hughes
BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a non-invasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In humans, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation whilst controlling for sampling and environmental variables...
June 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Abul-Fotouh Ahmed, Mahmoud Shaban, Abdullah Daoud, Nagah Mohamed, Ahmed Solyman, Ahmed Fahim
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between haemodialysis (HD) duration and erectile function status and gonadal hormones serum levels in adult men with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A total of 118 men with ESRD on chronic HD were eligible for analysis. The erectile dysfunction (ED) was defined and graded according to the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone (TST), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were measured using the standard laboratory technique...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Massimiliano di Pietro, Maria Secrier, Markus Moehler, Katrin Goepfert, Sheila Soares Coelho Lima, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto, Denver Hendricks, Mohamed Iqbal Parker, Zdenko Herceg
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most lethal cancers and a public health concern worldwide, owing to late diagnosis and lack of efficient treatment. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are main histopathological subtypes of EC that show striking differences in geographical distribution, possibly due to differences in exposure to risk factors and lifestyles. ESCC and EAC are distinct diseases in terms of cell of origin, epidemiology, and molecular architecture of tumor cells...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Karina P Abrahao, David M Lovinger
KEY POINTS: Classifying different subtypes of neurons in deep brain structures is a challenge and is crucial to better understanding brain function. Understanding the diversity of neurons in the Globus Pallidus, a brain region positioned to influence afferent and efferent information processing within basal ganglia, could help to explain a variety of brain functions. We present a classification of neurons from the GP using electrophysiological data from wild type mice and confirmation using transgenic mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
L R Rivkin, Spencer C H Barrett, Marc T J Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies in space and time, but the factors that explain this variation are poorly understood. Several lines of research suggest that variation in plant reproductive systems and latitude may explain resistance against herbivores, but how these factors jointly affect plant-herbivore interactions has not been investigated in detail. We examined the effects of latitude, sexual system, and plant gender on herbivory in Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic plant in which populations are typically monoecious (separate female and male flowers) or dioecious (separate female and male plants)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Mohammad Jafferany, Maryam E Davari
Itch, also referred to as pruritus, is an unpleasant cutaneous sensation provoking the desire to scratch. It is often an uncomfortable, subjective sensation responsible for decreased quality of life in a variety of psychodermatological conditions. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, including depression and anxiety, are frequently associated with itch and scratch cycle. The reciprocal and intricate relationship between the psyche and itch has been widely studied. The neurobiology of itch involves the complexity of specific mediators, itch-related neuronal pathways, and central processing of itch...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Laura H Goldstein, Markus Reuber, William Curt LaFrance, Tobias Lundgren, Avani C Modi, Janelle L Wagner
Given the significant impact that psychosocial factors and epilepsy treatments can have on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with epilepsy and their families, there is great clinical interest in the role of psychological evaluation and treatments to improve HRQOL and comorbidities. Therefore, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) charged the Psychology Task Force with the development of recommendations for clinical care based on evaluation of the evidence from their recent Cochrane review of psychological treatments in individuals with epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
L-C Pan, H-Y Xiao, W-J Yin, Z Lin
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenesis and progression of liver cancer are correlated with inflammatory response and estrogen level. 17β-estradiol dehydrogenase IV (HSD17B4) is highly expressed in human liver cancer tissues. HSD17B4 participates in liver cancer cell proliferation via suppressing estradiol (E2) activity. This study generated a rat liver cancer model, on which the correlations between HSD17B4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), proliferating cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) expression were analyzed...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
E V Mignini, E Scarpellini, E Rinninella, E Lattanzi, M V Valeri, N Clementi, L Abenavoli, A Gasbarrini, C Rasetti, P Santori
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is a major stress factor that activates several inflammatory and catabolic pathways in man. An appropriate nutritional status allows the body to react properly to this stressor and recover in a faster and more efficient manner. On the other hand, malnutrition is related to a worse surgery outcome and to a higher prevalence of comorbidities and mortality. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing major surgery and investigate the potential correlation between malnutrition and surgical outcomes...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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