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Jérémy Danna, Delphine Massendari, Benjamin Furnari, Stéphanie Ducrot
Two eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine the effects of font type on the recognition of words presented in central vision, using a variable-viewing-position technique. Two main questions were addressed: (1) Is the optimal viewing position (OVP) for word recognition modulated by font type? (2) Is the cursive font more appropriate than the printed font in word recognition in children who exclusively write using a cursive script? In order to disentangle the role of perceptual difficulty associated with the cursive font and the impact of writing habits, we tested French adults (Experiment 1) and second-grade French children, the latter having exclusively learned to write in cursive (Experiment 2)...
June 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Jan-Eric Olsson, Solvig Ekblad, Bo Christer Bertilson, Eva Toth-Pal
Objectives: to explore potential users' opinions of a translated and culturally adapted Swedish version of the General Medical Council's MultiSource Feedback Questionnaires. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used content analysis on semi-structured interviews from 44 resident doctors, 29 medical colleagues and 28 patients to analyse their opinions of the Swedish adapted version, created through translation and expert review. Transcribed interview data concerning the informants' general thoughts about the tool were coded manually by three independent coders into categories, compiled as themes, and exemplified by citations...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
Lila R Gleitman, John C Trueswell
This article describes early stages in the acquisition of a first vocabulary by infants and young children. It distinguishes two major stages, the first of which operates by a stand-alone word-to-world pairing procedure and the second of which, using the evidence so acquired, builds a domain-specific syntax-sensitive structure-to-world pairing procedure. As we show, the first stage of learning is slow, restricted in character, and to some extent errorful, whereas the second procedure is determinative, rapid, and essentially errorless...
June 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Anna K Laurinavichyute, Irina A Sekerina, Svetlana Alexeeva, Kristine Bagdasaryan, Reinhold Kliegl
This article introduces a new corpus of eye movements in silent reading-the Russian Sentence Corpus (RSC). Russian uses the Cyrillic script, which has not yet been investigated in cross-linguistic eye movement research. As in every language studied so far, we confirmed the expected effects of low-level parameters, such as word length, frequency, and predictability, on the eye movements of skilled Russian readers. These findings allow us to add Slavic languages using Cyrillic script (exemplified by Russian) to the growing number of languages with different orthographies, ranging from the Roman-based European languages to logographic Asian ones, whose basic eye movement benchmarks conform to the universal comparative science of reading (Share, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Eethakota, Vinod Vaishnav, Linda Johnston, Rami Abboud, Weijie Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently it is not clear whether age is a factor affecting revisions in total hip replacement (THR) and hip resurfacing (HR). This study aimed to investigate which of THR or HR has a higher risk in terms of revision and complication within similar age groups. METHODS: A systemic review was performed for published literature research databases and local data and compared the two procedures under the condition that both groups of patients were age matched...
June 12, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Verónica González-Calle, María Victoria Mateos
Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) is the most frequent plasma cell disorder that commonly affects elderly patients. Although it is an asymptomatic condition, as well as smoldering myeloma (SMM), the risk of progression to multiple myeloma requiring therapy or other B-cell disorders varies greatly for individual patients, remaining low for MGUS (1% per year), while higher and not uniform for SMM patients (10% per year). This scenario implies some special considerations regarding assessment and follow-up, especially in the elderly...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Simon Le Nabat, Jean-Guy Martinez, Stéphanie Chevallier, Thibault Le Corfec, Nathalie Tomasso
The speciality of the hyperbaric nurse, whether practised in the civil or military setting, has a wide-reaching scope. Two teams of professionals from Lyon and Toulon share their motivations and demonstrate, through the words of two nurses, a real collective passion for this original and highly technical practice.
June 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
Xiaojing Teng, Qi Huang, Chamila Chathuranga Dharmawardhana, Toshiko Ichiye
The properties of aqueous solutions of ionic, zwitterionic, and polar solutes are of interest to many fields. For instance, one of the many anomalous properties of aqueous solutions is the behavior of water diffusion in different monovalent salt solutions. In addition, solutes can affect the stabilities of macromolecules such as proteins in aqueous solution. Here, the diffusivities of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, tri-methylamine oxide (TMAO), urea, and TMAO-urea are examined in molecular dynamics simulations...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alan Taitz, Diego E Shalom, Marcos A Trevisan
Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Justine W Welsh, Valeria Tretyak, R Kathryn McHugh, Roger D Weiss, Olivera Bogunovic
BACKGROUND: Many patients require discontinuation of benzodiazepines due to a reduction in drug efficacy over time, the development of a sedative use disorder, or unwanted side effects. Benzodiazepine discontinuation can pose a significant challenge for prescribing clinicians due to potential withdrawal symptoms and a recurrence of psychiatric complaints. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using the medical subject heading of benzodiazepines in combination with the following key words: discontinuation, withdrawal, detoxification, cessation, dependence, addiction, substance use disorders, or long term...
May 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Teresa Limpo, Rui A Alves
Expert writing involves the interaction among three cognitively demanding processes: planning, translating, and revising. To manage the cognitive load brought on by these processes, writers frequently use strategies. Here, we examined the effects of planning strategies on writing dynamics and final texts. Before writing an argumentative text with the triple-task technique, 63 undergraduates were asked either to elaborate an outline with the argumentative structure embedded (structure-based planning condition), to provide a written list of ideas for the text (list-based planning condition), or to do a non-writing-related filler task (no planning condition)...
June 12, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Elena Tutubalina, Zulfat Miftahutdinov, Sergey Nikolenko, Valentin Malykh
Text mining of scientific libraries and social media has already proven itself as a reliable tool for drug repurposing and hypothesis generation. The task of mapping a disease mention to a concept in a controlled vocabulary, typically to the standard thesaurus in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), is known as medical concept normalization. This task is challenging due to the differences in the use of medical terminology between health care professionals and social media texts coming from the lay public...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Mitsuo Ishida, Munehisa Kaneda, Aki Akamine, Masahito Sakakibara
Attentional bias (sensitization) for negative information was estimated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We used a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm that comprised a small diamond standard stimulus (66.7%), a large diamond target stimulus (16.7%), and deviant word stimuli (16.7%) written in Kanji. Furthermore, half the deviant words were negative emotional words (e.g., destruction or scream) and the others half were neutral words (e.g., structure or range). Healthy participants (N = 26) were instructed to press a button after the target appeared while ignoring the other stimuli...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Alexis C Crawford, Colin C Young, Marc D Porter
This paper examines how the difference in the spatial orientation of the capture substrate influences the analytical sensitivity and limits of detection for immunoassays that use gold nanoparticle labels (AuNPs) and rely on diffusion in quiet solution in the antigen capture and labeling steps. Ideally, the accumulation of both reactants should follow a dependence governed by the rate in which diffusion delivers reactants to the capture surface. In other words, the accumulation of reactants should increase with the square root of the incubation time, i...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jung-Wei Chang, Yusuke Sato, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Takatoshi Arakawa, Shuya Fukai, Shinya Fushinobu, Haruhiko Masaki
Colicins are protein toxins produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli strains. Colicin D consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), central domain (CD), and C-terminal RNase domain (CRD). The cognate immunity protein, ImmD, is co-synthesized in producer cells to block the toxic tRNase activity of the CRD. Previous studies have reported the crystal structure of CRD/ImmD complex. Colicin D hijacks the surface receptor FepA and the energy transducer TonB system using the NTD for translocation across the outer membrane of the target cells...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Ronan McGarrigle, Samantha J Gustafson, Benjamin W Y Hornsby, Fred H Bess
OBJECTIVES: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on 2 commonly used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs)...
June 13, 2018: Ear and Hearing
B Kanashvili, Kh Saganelidze, L Ratiani
20% of trauma deaths occur late after the injury. It is usually the result of sepsis, multi-system organ failure, or other complications. In Polytrauma induced sepsis and septic shock patients, antibacterial management is crucial. The knowledge of recent aspects of treatment is decreasing the costs and the resistance of pathogens, morbidity and mortality. Different models of treatment are suggested by authors, basically they are depended on: the patients age, there health condition, the factors of immunodeficiency, at the location of infection and others...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Domenico Chirchiglia, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Domenico Murrone, Francesco Signorelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Debra Ann Reilly, Steve Langan
Channeling feelings into the written word rather than the scalpel was at the heart of the creative writing challenge that the first author (DR) accepted when she joined the Seven Doctors Project at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in 2008. Burnout has become recognized as a factor undermining physicians' quality of life, and the practice of creative writing helps mitigate stress and sustain a successful practice. When physicians partner with and are mentored by a seasoned creative writer, creative writing can serve as an exercise in ethical reflection, which is particularly valuable at mid-career; this is the subject of the following dialogue between one physician writer and the facilitator of the Seven Doctors Project creative writing class...
June 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Kit W Cho
Words rated for their survival relevance are remembered better than when rated using other well-known memory mnemonics. This finding, which is known as the survival advantage effect and has been replicated in many studies, suggests that our memory systems are molded by natural selection pressures. In two experiments, the present study used a visual search task to examine whether there is likewise a survival advantage for our visual systems. Participants rated words for their survival relevance or for their pleasantness before locating that object's picture in a search array with 8 or 16 objects...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
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