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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915365/now-you-make-false-memories-now-you-do-not-the-order-of-presentation-of-words-in-drm-lists-influences-the-production-of-the-critical-lure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Christelle Evrard, Anne-Laure Gilet, Fabienne Colombel, Elodie Dufermont, Yves Corson
Why do some Alzheimer's patients produce fewer false memories than healthy older participants in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which was especially designed for the study of false memories in a laboratory setting? Using a very simple methodology, this study examines a new explanatory factor inherent in the paradigm itself: the order of presentation of the words in the lists. A sample comprising 149 participants (36 younger, 40 middle-aged, 37 healthy older adults, and 36 Alzheimer's patients) performed a DRM task with either a classic descending forward associative strength (FAS) presentation order of the words or an ascending FAS presentation order...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915364/focusing-on-task-conflict-in-the-stroop-effect
#2
Olga Entel, Joseph Tzelgov
Two types of conflict underlie performance in the Stroop task-informational (between the incongruent word and its ink color) and task (between the relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant word-reading task). We manipulated congruent-to-neutral trial ratio in an attempt to reveal whether task conflict can be monitored and controlled in the absence of an informational conflict. In our first experiment, no incongruent trials were included, thus allowing examination of a pure task conflict situation. The results revealed an impressively large facilitation when most of the stimuli were congruent and a smaller yet significant facilitation when most of the stimuli were neutrals...
December 3, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915338/verbal-fluency-tasks-effects-of-age-gender-and-education
#3
Dalia Santos Nogueira, Elizabeth Azevedo Reis, Ana Vieira
OBJECTIVES: This study presents data for semantic fluency, phonemic fluency, action fluency, and alternate fluency. The aim is to provide normative data by age, gender, and education for European Portuguese in each fluency category. METHODS: Norms for the verbal fluency task were collected from a volunteer population of 444 healthy Portuguese participants. Multiple regression analysis with age, gender, and education as independent variables was performed for the semantic fluency global score, and these variables were considered separately for each phonemic category...
December 3, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915131/the-efficacy-and-safety-comparison-between-tenofovir-and-entecavir-in-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-hbv-related-cirrhosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ying Han, Ajuan Zeng, Huiyu Liao, Yanmin Liu, Yuhan Chen, Huiguo Ding
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety between tenofovir and entecavir in the treatment of CHB and HBV related cirrhosis through Meta-analysis. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Nature, CNKI and WanFang data were searched. The key words were: ("tenofovir", "entecavir") and ("Chronic Hepatitis B" or "CHB") and "Liver cirrhosis". Heterogeneity and report bias were analyzed. RESULTS: There was significant difference of ALT norm level in the short-term period of 3months (RR=1...
December 1, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915080/a-nudge-in-a-healthier-direction-how-environmental-cues-help-restrained-eaters-pursue-their-weight-control-goal
#5
Aline E Stämpfli, Sabrina Stöckli, Thomas A Brunner
Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use...
November 30, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914914/association-between-dietary-isoflavones-in-soy-and-legumes-and-endometrial-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Xue-Shan Zhong, Jing Ge, Shao-Wei Chen, Yi-Quan Xiong, Shu-Juan Ma, Qing Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting findings between soy- and legume-derived dietary isoflavones and risk of endometrial cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively investigate the association between daily intake of soy- and legume-derived isoflavones and risk of endometrial cancer. DESIGN: A broad search was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and the Chinese Biomedical Database based on combinations of the key words endometrial cancer, isoflavone, soy, and legume for epidemiologic studies that focused on relationships between dietary isoflavones and endometrial cancer risk...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914446/speech-recognition-for-multiple-bands-implications-for-the-speech-intelligibility-index
#7
Larry E Humes, Gary R Kidd
The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) assumes additivity of the importance of acoustically independent bands of speech. To further evaluate this assumption, open-set speech recognition was measured for words and sentences, in quiet and in noise, when the speech stimuli were presented to the listener in selected frequency bands. The filter passbands were constructed from various combinations of 20 bands having equivalent (0.05) importance in the SII framework. This permitted the construction of a variety of equal-SII band patterns that were then evaluated by nine different groups of young adults with normal hearing...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914420/does-orthographic-training-on-a-phonemic-contrast-absent-in-the-listener-s-dialect-influence-word-recognition
#8
Sophie Dufour, Noël Nguyen, Chotiga Pattamadilok, Ulrich Hans Frauenfelder
This study examined whether the ability of southern French speakers to discriminate between standard French word forms such as /pike/ and /pikε/ can be improved by a training procedure in which participants were exposed to the orthographic representations of words forming /e/-/ε/ minimal pairs. The results of the training procedure showed that southern French speakers were able to perceive the /e/-/ε/ contrast in word final position when they associated words containing these vowels with their correct spelled form...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914402/stimulus-directed-attention-attenuates-lexically-guided-perceptual-learning
#9
Michael McAuliffe, Molly Babel
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated during a lexical decision exposure task such that their attention is directed at the word-level for comprehension-oriented listening or toward the signal for perception-oriented listening...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#10
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913587/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-naa-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#11
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and L-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases. Prior studies have shown that mice homozygous for the Aspa nonsense mutation Nur7 also develop brain vacuolation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913387/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#12
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913371/multiview-convolutional-neural-networks-for-multidocument-extractive-summarization
#13
Yong Zhang, Meng Joo Er, Rui Zhao, Mahardhika Pratama
Multidocument summarization has gained popularity in many real world applications because vital information can be extracted within a short time. Extractive summarization aims to generate a summary of a document or a set of documents by ranking sentences and the ranking results rely heavily on the quality of sentence features. However, almost all previous algorithms require hand-crafted features for sentence representation. In this paper, we leverage on word embedding to represent sentences so as to avoid the intensive labor in feature engineering...
November 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913294/sleep-mediated-memory-consolidation-depends-on-the-level-of-integration-at-encoding
#14
Lea Himmer, Elias Müller, Steffen Gais, Monika Schönauer
There is robust evidence that sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation. Integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks has been proposed to underlie this effect. Here, we test whether sleep affects memory retention for word-picture associations differently when it was learned explicitly or using a fast mapping strategy. Fast mapping is an incidental form of learning that references new information to existing knowledge and possibly allows neocortical integration already during encoding...
November 29, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913152/development-and-validation-of-an-objective-scoring-tool-for-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-prostatectomy-assessment-and-competency-evaluation-pace
#15
Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid R Ghani, James Peabody, Richard Sarle, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Jim Hu, Michael Fumo, Brian Lane, Jeffrey Montgomery, Nobuyuki Hinata, Deborah Rooney, Bryan Comstock, Hei Kit Chan, Sridhar S Mane, James L Mohler, Gregory Wilding, David Miller, Khurshid A Guru
INTRODUCTION: and Background: Comprehensive training and skill acquisition by urologic surgeons are vital to optimize surgical outcomes and patient safety. We sought to develop and validate an objective and procedure specific tool to assess the quality of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)-Prostatectomy Assessment and Competence Evaluation (PACE) METHODS: Development and content validation of PACE was performed by deconstruction of RARP into seven key domains utilizing the Delphi methodology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913062/physiotherapists-and-general-practitioners-attitudes-towards-physio-direct-phone-based-musculoskeletal-physiotherapy-services-a-national-survey
#16
Nicholas Harland, Brian Blacklidge
OBJECTIVES: Physiotherapy phone based, "Physio Direct" (PD) musculoskeletal triage and treat services are a relatively new phenomena. This study explored Physiotherapist and GP attitudes towards PD services. DESIGN: Online national survey via cascade e-mail initiated by study leads. PARTICIPANTS: 488 Physiotherapists and 68 GPs completed the survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: The survey asked three negatively worded and three positively worded Likert scale questions regarding PD services...
September 17, 2016: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913033/nurse-practitioner-prescribing-in-australia-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Jacqueline Fong, Thomas Buckley, Andrew Cashin, Lisa Pont
BACKGROUND: In Australia, the nurse practitioner (NP) obtained prescriptive authority in some jurisdictions in 2001. One of the key aspects in which the scope of NPs differs from Registered Nurses (RNs) relates to the legal privilege to prescribe medications. Although NPs have had prescriptive authority in Australia since 2001, with access to the Commonwealth subsidy scheme (PBS) since 2010, little is known about NPs prescriptive patterns or outcomes of prescriptive practice. AIM: The aim of this scoping review was to examine the extent, range and nature of research conducted in relation to NP prescribing in the Australian health context as well as identify gaps in the existing literature...
November 29, 2016: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913029/pharmacovigilance-and-biomedical-informatics-a-model-for-future-development
#18
Paul Beninger, Michael A Ibara
PURPOSE: The discipline of pharmacovigilance is rooted in the aftermath of the thalidomide tragedy of 1961. It has evolved as a result of collaborative efforts by many individuals and organizations, including physicians, patients, Health Authorities, universities, industry, the World Health Organization, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and the International Conference on Harmonisation. Biomedical informatics is rooted in technologically based methodologies and has evolved at the speed of computer technology...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#19
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#20
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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