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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110393/nitric-oxide-production-in-the-striatum-and-cerebellum-of-a-rat-model-of-preterm-global-perinatal-asphyxia
#1
M Barkhuizen, W D J Van de Berg, J De Vente, C E Blanco, A W D Gavilanes, H W M Steinbusch
Encephalopathy due to perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the period around birth. Preterm infants are especially at risk for cognitive, attention and motor impairments. Therapy for this subgroup is limited to supportive care, and new targets are thus urgently needed. Post-asphyxic excitotoxicity is partially mediated by excessive nitric oxide (NO) release. The aims of this study were to determine the timing and distribution of nitric oxide (NO) production after global PA in brain areas involved in motor regulation and coordination...
January 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110385/the-prevalence-of-anticitrullinated-protein-antibodies-increases-with-age-in-healthy-individuals-at-risk-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
D Alpizar-Rodriguez, Laure Brulhart, Ruediger B Mueller, Burkhard Möller, Jean Dudler, Adrian Ciurea, Ulrich A Walker, Ines Von Mühlenen, Diego Kyburz, Pascal Zufferey, Michael Mahler, Sylvette Bas, Danielle Gascon, Céline Lamacchia, Pascale Roux-Lombard, Kim Lauper, Michael J Nissen, Delphine S Courvoisier, Cem Gabay, Axel Finckh
Transition from genetic risk to the development of systemic autoimmunity associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a key step for the development of RA and often referred to as the immune onset of the disease. The aim of this study is to identify predictors for the presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) as a marker of systemic autoimmunity associated with RA in a high-risk population, an ongoing cohort of first-degree relatives of patients with RA. We assessed the presence of ACPA in individuals without clinical evidence of RA...
January 21, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#3
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110154/factors-associated-with-electronic-cigarette-use-among-current-cigarette-smoking-adolescents-in-the-republic-of-korea
#4
Sunhee Park, Haein Lee, Soyoon Min
OBJECTIVE: Despite a rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and substantial dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among adolescents, little is currently known about adolescent e-cigarette use. Thus, this study aimed to investigate (a) rates of e-cigarette use and (b) significant factors associated with e-cigarette use among current cigarette users in adolescence. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data collected from a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents...
January 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110113/a-photo-voice-perspective-on-factors-contributing-to-the-resilience-of-hiv-positive-yoruba-adolescent-girls-in-nigeria
#5
Catherine O Adegoke, Miemsie G Steyn
There is a growing discourse worldwide on the impact of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on "at risk youths". In response, five HIV-positive Nigerian adolescent girls were qualitatively investigated in collaboration with a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Ibadan, an urban settlement in Nigeria in 2013. Using a secondary data analysis from a photo voice component of the research, combined with narratives, we show that participants possess the capacity to overcome their adversities from the effects of HIV infection and remain resilient...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110095/prophylaxis-for-stress-ulcers-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#6
Margot E Cohen, Joanne M Hathway, Hojjat Salmasian, Jianfang Liu, Melissa Terry, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with increased risk of infection, likely due to changes in intestinal epithelial permeability and the gastrointestinal microbiome. PPIs are frequently given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent stress ulcers. These patients are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), so we investigated the relationship between PPI use and BSIs among patients in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) admitted to 1 of 14 ICUs within a hospital network of 3 large hospitals from 2008 through 2014...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110067/poly-glycerol-sebacate-elastomer-supports-bone-regeneration-by-its-mechanical-properties-being-closer-to-osteoid-tissue-rather-than-to-mature-bone
#7
S H Zaky, K W Lee, J Gao, A Jensen, K Verdelis, Y Wang, A J Almarza, C Sfeir
: Mechanical load influences bone structure and mass. Arguing the importance of load-transduction, we investigated the mechanisms inducing bone formation using an elastomeric substrate. We characterized Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) in-vitro for its mechanical properties, compatibility with osteoprogenitor cells regarding adhesion, proliferation, differentiation under compression versus static cultures and in-vivo for the regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect. The load-transducing properties of PGS were compared in-vitro to a stiffer poly lactic-co- glycolic-acid (PLA/PGA) scaffold of similar porosity and interconnectivity...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109869/outcomes-infectiousness-and-transmission-dynamics-of-patients-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-home-discharged-patients-with-programmatically-incurable-tuberculosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Keertan Dheda, Jason D Limberis, Elize Pietersen, Jody Phelan, Aliasgar Esmail, Maia Lesosky, Kevin P Fennelly, Julian Te Riele, Barbara Mastrapa, Elizabeth M Streicher, Tania Dolby, Abdallah M Abdallah, Fathia Ben-Rached, John Simpson, Liezel Smith, Tawanda Gumbo, Paul van Helden, Frederick A Sirgel, Ruth McNerney, Grant Theron, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Robin M Warren
BACKGROUND: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179)...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109819/adapting-to-the-global-shortage-of-cholera-vaccines-targeted-single-dose-cholera-vaccine-in-response-to-an-outbreak-in-south-sudan
#9
REVIEW
Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Christine Jamet, Yona Kenyi, Richard Laku Lino, Joseph F Wamala, Allan M Mpairwe, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman, Jean-Clement Cabrol
Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns. Additionally, various epidemiological, political, and logistical challenges, which are poorly documented in the literature, often lead to delays in reactive campaigns, ultimately reducing the effect of vaccination. In June 2015, a cholera outbreak occurred in Juba, South Sudan, and because of the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, authorities were unable to secure sufficient doses to vaccinate the entire at-risk population-approximately 1 million people...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109723/octogenarian-parkinsonism-clinicopathological-observations
#10
Ali H Rajput, Emma F Rajput
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder for which old age is the best known risk. The proportion of elderly in the world is increasing, resulting in larger pool of people at risk for Parkinson's disease. Several other neurodegenerative disorders also produce Parkinson syndrome. Distinguishing between those variants is only possible with pathological examination of brain. No autopsy confirmed study of 80 years and older onset in parkinsonism cases has been reported...
January 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109661/mapping-sites-of-high-tb-transmission-risk-integrating-the-shared-air-and-social-behaviour-of-tb-cases-and-adolescents-in-a-south-african-township
#11
Benjamin Patterson, Carl D Morrow, Daniel Kohls, Caroline Deignan, Samuel Ginsburg, Robin Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in poverty-stricken areas of the world. Communal gathering places account for the majority of TB transmission in high burden settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the social behaviour patterns of individuals who have developed TB disease and adolescents at risk of infection. To develop a cheap and effective method to locate transmission hot spots in high burden communities. DESIGN: Portable, combined CO2/GIS monitors and location diaries were given to individuals from a South African township...
January 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109640/acute-and-chronic-dietary-exposure-to-domoic-acid-in-recreational-harvesters-a-survey-of-shellfish-consumption-behavior
#12
Bridget E Ferriss, David J Marcinek, Daniel Ayres, Jerry Borchert, Kathi A Lefebvre
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that is naturally produced by phytoplankton and accumulates in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As the prevalence of DA increases in the marine environment, there is a critical need to identify seafood consumers at risk of DA poisoning. DA exposure was estimated in recreational razor clam (Siliqua patula) harvesters to determine if exposures above current regulatory guidelines occur and/or if harvesters are chronically exposed to low levels of DA. Human consumption rates of razor clams were determined by distributing 1523 surveys to recreational razor clam harvesters in spring 2015 and winter 2016, in Washington, USA...
January 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109613/the-1951-harvard-student-uprising-against-the-intern-match
#13
Don K Nakayama, W Hardy Hendren
In the fall of 1951, a group of Harvard medical students led by W. Hardy Hendren, III organized a national movement against the newly instituted match that would assign graduating seniors to hospital internship programs. Before then, hospitals with intern positions to fill rushed to secure commitments from students, who in turn accepted the first decent offer that came their way. Knowing that students could not risk waiting for a better offer, hospitals pushed them into making early commitments. When some students began getting offers in their junior and sophomore years, medical schools, professional groups, and hospitals organized the National Inter-association Committee on Internships to deal with the issue...
January 18, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109524/torsades-de-pointes-with-high-dose-loperamide
#14
Patrick M Kozak, Amanda K Harris, John A McPherson, Dan M Roden
CASE: A 41year-old male presented with torsades de pointes. The patient was taking over 100mg of loperamide per day to self-medicate for chronic pain. Coronary angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic testing were negative for pre-disposing ischemia, cardiomyopathy, or genetic variant respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients without predisposing genetic or cardiac abnormalities are at risk of life-threatening QTc prolongation and torsades with use of high-dose loperamide...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109494/the-impact-of-ethnicity-on-cochlear-implantation-in-norwegian-children
#15
Viktoria Vedeler Amundsen, Ona Bø Wie, Marte Myhrum, Marie Bunne
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of parental ethnicity on cochlear implantation in children in Norway with regard to incidence rates of cochlear implants (CIs), comorbidies, age at onset of profound deafness (AOD), age at first implantation, uni- or bilateral CI, and speech recognition. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included all children (N = 278) aged <18 years in Norway who received their first CI during the years 2004-2010. RESULTS: 86 children (30...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108834/unmet-health-care-needs-among-children-exposed-to-parental-incarceration
#16
Kristin Turney
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs...
January 20, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108774/-hip-dislocation-after-revision-arthroplasty-risk-assessment-and-treatment-strategies
#17
P M Prodinger, J Schauwecker, H Mühlhofer, N Harrasser, F Pohlig, C Suren, R von Eisenhart-Rothe
With a dislocation rate of up to 35% after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), instability is one of the major causes why this procedure fails. Independent factors for patients at risk are age, sex, and the type of revision needed. The surgical approach, implant choice, and positioning of the components are factors that the surgeon can influence to keep the dislocation rate low. Large femoral heads or double mobility (DM) cups can increase the stability of the joint. After detailed failure analysis, targeted use of different technical innovations enhances stability in revision THA and prevents further revisions...
January 20, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108610/circulating-cxcr5-pd-1-icos-follicular-t-helper-cells-are-increased-close-to-the-diagnosis-of-type-1-diabetes-in-children-with-multiple-autoantibodies
#18
Tyyne Viisanen, Emmi-Leena Ihantola, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Heikki Hyöty, Noora Nurminen, Jenni Selvenius, Auni Juutilainen, Leena Moilanen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Riitta Veijola, Jorma Toppari, Mikael Knip, Jorma Ilonen, Tuure Kinnunen
Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is primarily perceived as a T cell-driven autoimmune disease, islet autoantibodies are the best currently available biomarker for autoimmunity and disease risk. These antibodies are produced by autoreactive B cells, the activation of which is largely dependent on the function of CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular T helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we have comprehensively characterized the Tfh- as well as B-cell compartments in a large cohort of children with newly diagnosed T1D or at different stages of preclinical T1D...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108493/fine-motor-skill-mediates-visual-memory-ability-with-microstructural-neuro-correlates-in-cerebellar-peduncles-in-prematurely-born-adolescents
#19
Alyssa R Thomas, Cheryl Lacadie, Betty Vohr, Laura R Ment, Dustin Scheinost
Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108194/psychiatric-risk-in-unstably-housed-sexual-minority-women-relationship-between-sexual-and-racial-minority-status-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-psychiatric-diagnoses
#20
Annesa Flentje, Martha Shumway, Lauren H Wong, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Stress associated with minority statuses has been linked to mental health disorders. However, research conducted exclusively among impoverished women, a population known to be at risk for poor health owing to overlapping risks, is sparse. We sought to determine if homeless and unstably housed sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) women were at greater psychiatric risk than their heterosexual counterparts. We also sought to determine if racial/ethnic minority and human immunodeficiency virus status contributed to psychiatric risks...
January 17, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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