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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786466/mineralo-organic-nanoparticles-in-health-and-disease-an-overview-of-recent-findings
#1
Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Hsin-Hsin Peng, John D Young
We observed earlier that mineralo-organic nanoparticles form in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium, carbonate and phosphate exceed saturation. The particles have been shown to represent mineral precursors in developing bones and teeth as well as in ectopic calcification and kidney stones. Recent studies suggest that the mineral particles may also be involved in other physiological processes, including immune tolerance against the gut microbiota and food antigens. We review here the involvement of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in physiological and pathological processes and discuss recent findings that reveal novel and unexpected roles for these particles in the human body...
May 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783713/microfluidic-cultivation-and-laser-tweezers-raman-spectroscopy-of-e-coli-under-antibiotic-stress
#2
Zdeněk Pilát, Silvie Bernatová, Jan Ježek, Johanna Kirchhoff, Astrid Tannert, Ute Neugebauer, Ota Samek, Pavel Zemánek
Analyzing the cells in various body fluids can greatly deepen the understanding of the mechanisms governing the cellular physiology. Due to the variability of physiological and metabolic states, it is important to be able to perform such studies on individual cells. Therefore, we developed an optofluidic system in which we precisely manipulated and monitored individual cells of Escherichia coli . We tested optical micromanipulation in a microfluidic chamber chip by transferring individual bacteria into the chambers...
May 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781875/feasibility-of-microrna-profiling-in-human-inner-ear-perilymph
#3
Matthew Shew, Athanasia Warnecke, Thomas Lenarz, Heike Schmitt, Sumedha Gunewardena, Hinrich Staecker
Hearing loss is common and caused by a wide range of molecular and cellular pathologies. Current diagnosis of hearing loss depends on a combination of physiologic testing, patient history, and in some cases genetic testing. Currently, no biopsy or equivalent procedure exists to diagnose inner ear disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short ribonucleic acids that regulate a variety of cellular processes. They have been found to be reliable markers for a variety of disease processes. In particular, a variety of miRNAs that are markers for neurodegenerative disease have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780613/schwann-cell-durotaxis-can-be-guided-by-physiologically-relevant-stiffness-gradients
#4
Elisabeth B Evans, Samantha W Brady, Anubhav Tripathi, Diane Hoffman-Kim
Background: Successful nerve regeneration depends upon directed migration of morphologically specialized repair state Schwann cells across a nerve defect. Although several groups have studied directed migration of Schwann cells in response to chemical or topographic cues, the current understanding of how the mechanical environment influences migration remains largely understudied and incomplete. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate Schwann cell migration and morphodynamics in the presence of stiffness gradients, which revealed that Schwann cells can follow extracellular gradients of increasing stiffness, in a form of directed migration termed durotaxis...
2018: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779815/use-of-standard-enteral-formula-versus-enteric-formula-with-prebiotic-content-in-nutrition-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-study-among-neuro-critical-care-patients
#5
Piril Tuncay, Fatma Arpaci, Mutlu Doganay, Deniz Erdem, Arzu Sahna, Hulya Ergun, Dilek Atabey
OBJECTIVE: To compare use of standard enteral formula versus enteric formula with prebiotic content in terms of nutrition therapy related outcomes among neurocritical care patients. METHODS: A total of 46 adult neurocritical care patients who received nutrition therapy with standard enteral formula (SEF group; n = 23) or enteral formula with prebiotic content (EFPC group; n = 23) during their hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this prospective randomized controlled study...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779478/exosomes-in-therapy-engineering-pharmacokinetic-and-future-applications
#6
Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Flavia Ferrantelli, Patrizia Leone, Eleonora Olivetta, Maurizio Federico
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells release vesicles of different sizes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the basis of the respective biogenesis, extracellular vesicles are classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Among these, exosomes are considered tools for innovative therapeutic interventions, especially when engineered with effector molecules. The delivery functions of exosomes are favored by a number of typical features. These include their small size (i...
May 20, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776542/aggregation-of-cysteamine-capped-gold-nanoparticles-in-presence-of-atp-as-an-analytical-tool-for-rapid-detection-of-creatine-kinase-ck-mm
#7
Amit Kumar Sharma, Sunil Pandey, Yowan Nerthigan, Nandini Swaminathan, Hui-Fen Wu
Creatine kinase, a key biomarker associated with many debilitating physiological conditions has seldom been detected in biological fluids using functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). We have developed a method based on the aggregation of cysteamine (Cys) functionalized GNPs in presence of ATP for effective detection of creatine kinase (CK-MM). Positively charged Cys-GNPs (brick red color) aggregate in presence of negatively charged ATP (blue color) but the process is prevented when CK-MM is added to the solution...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#8
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769553/solid-dissolution-in-a-fluid-solvent-is-characterized-by-the-interplay-of-surface-area-dependent-diffusion-and-physical-fragmentation
#9
R J Seager, Andrew J Acevedo, Fabian Spill, Muhammad H Zaman
The processes of dissolution and fragmentation have high relevance in pharmaceutical research, medicine, digestive physiology, and engineering design. Experimentally, dissolution and fragmentation are observed to occur simultaneously, yet little is known about the relative importance of each of these processes and their impact on the dissolution process as a whole. Thus, in order to better explain these phenomena and the manner in which they interact, we have developed a novel mathematical model of dissolution, based on partial differential equations, taking into consideration the two constituent processes of surface area-dependent diffusive mass removal and physical fragmentation of the solid particles, and the basic physical laws governing these processes...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766501/impact-of-gastrointestinal-disease-states-on-oral-drug-absorption-implications-for-formulation-design-a-pearrl-review
#10
REVIEW
Angela Effinger, Caitriona M O'Driscoll, Mark McAllister, Nikoletta Fotaki
OBJECTIVES: Drug product performance in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) diseases can be altered compared to healthy subjects due to pathophysiological changes. In this review, relevant differences in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and short bowel syndrome are discussed and possible in vitro and in silico tools to predict drug product performance in this patient population are assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Drug product performance was altered in patients with GI diseases compared to healthy subjects, as assessed in a limited number of studies for some drugs...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765411/skin-derived-stem-cells-for-wound-treatment-using-cultured-epidermal-autografts-clinical-applications-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Inga Brockmann, Juliet Ehrenpfordt, Tabea Sturmheit, Matthias Brandenburger, Charli Kruse, Marietta Zille, Dorothee Rose, Johannes Boltze
The human skin fulfills important barrier, sensory, and immune functions-all of which contribute significantly to health and organism integrity. Widespread skin damage requires immediate treatment and coverage because massive skin loss fosters the invasion of pathogens, causes critical fluid loss, and may ultimately lead to death. Since the skin is a highly immunocompetent organ, autologous transplants are the only viable approach to permanently close a widespread skin wound. Despite the development of tissue-saving autologous transplantation techniques such as mesh and Meek grafts, treatment options for extensive skin damage remain severely limited...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765006/exosomes-and-extracellular-vesicles-the-path-forward
#12
REVIEW
Philip D Stahl, Graça Raposo
Over the course of the past several decades, the concept that extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles, operate as cellular "housekeepers" and as agents for communication between and among cells and tissues, has emerged into one of the most promising yet vexing problems facing the biomedical community. Already, extracellular vesicles from biological fluids are being used for diagnostic purposes and hopes abound for their use as therapeutic agents. However, the most basic mechanistic questions surrounding their biogenesis and function in cellular and tissue homeostasis remain largely unexplored...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764550/-predictive-value-of-central-venous-to-arterial-carbon-dioxide-partial-pressure-difference-for-fluid-responsiveness-in-septic-shock-patients-a-prospective-clinical-study
#13
Guangyun Liu, Huibin Huang, Hanyu Qin, Bin Du
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (Pcv-aCO2 ) before and after rapid rehydration test (fluid challenge) in predicting the fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective observation was conducted. Forty septic shock patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled. All of the patients received fluid challenge in the presence of invasive hemodynamic monitoring...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761422/computational-pre-surgical-planning-of-arterial-patch-reconstruction-parametric-limits-and-in-vitro-validation
#14
S Samaneh Lashkarinia, Senol Piskin, Tijen A Bozkaya, Ece Salihoglu, Can Yerebakan, Kerem Pekkan
Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) involves complex vascular reconstructions utilizing artificial and native surgical materials. A successful surgical reconstruction achieves an optimal hemodynamic profile through the graft in spite of the complex post-operative vessel growth pattern and the altered pressure loading. This paper proposes a new in silico patient-specific pre-surgical planning framework for patch reconstruction and investigates its computational feasibility. The proposed protocol is applied to the patch repair of main pulmonary artery (MPA) stenosis in the Tetralogy of Fallot CHD template...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760665/left-ventricular-trabeculations-decrease-the-wall-shear-stress-and-increase-the-intra-ventricular-pressure-drop-in-cfd-simulations
#15
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759185/a-fast-sample-processing-strategy-for-large-scale-profiling-of-human-urine-phosphoproteome-by-mass-spectrometry
#16
Xinyuan Zhao, Wanjun Zhang, Tong Liu, Hangyan Dong, Junjie Huang, Changqing Sun, Guangshun Wang, Xiaohong Qian, Weijie Qin
Liquid biopsies using body fluids have gained much attention in recent years due to their multiple advantages in clinical diagnosis, such as less/non-invasive collection, suitability for longitudinal disease monitoring, and better representation of tumor heterogeneity. As an attractive choice for liquid biopsy, urine proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) have the potential to offer significant insights into physiological variations and pathological changes in the human body. However, due to the intrinsically large variability of urine proteins and their PTMs among different individuals, there is a high demand for strategies for high-throughput analysis of a large number of samples to obtain a comprehensive view and a reliable reference interval of the urine proteome...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759137/low-amounts-of-bisecting-glycans-characterize-cerebrospinal-fluid-borne-igg
#17
Jasmin Knopf, Iryna Magorivska, Juan M Maler, Philipp Spitzer, Rostyslav Bilyy, Mona H C Biermann, Kateryna Hychka, Albert Bondt, Manfred Wuhrer, Rene E M Toes, Georg Schett, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) harbors a conserved N-glycosylation site which is important for its effector functions. Changes in glycosylation of IgG occur in many autoimmune diseases but also in physiological conditions. Therefore, the glycosylation pattern of serum IgG is well characterized. However, limited data is available on the glycosylation pattern of IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to serum. Here, we report significantly reduced levels of bisected glycans in CSF IgG. Galactosylation and sialylation of IgG4 also differed significantly...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759067/small-rna-profiling-of-low-biomass-samples-identification-and-removal-of-contaminants
#18
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Dilmurat Yusuf, Anne Kaysen, Alton Etheridge, Joëlle V Fritz, Patrick May, Carine de Beaufort, Bimal B Upadhyaya, Anubrata Ghosal, David J Galas, Paul Wilmes
BACKGROUND: Sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA contamination has been previously reported, yet contamination with RNA is usually considered to be very unlikely due to its inherent instability. Small RNAs (sRNAs) identified in tissues and bodily fluids, such as blood plasma, have implications for physiology and pathology, and therefore the potential to act as disease biomarkers...
May 14, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758129/twenty-four-hour-normothermic-perfusion-of-discarded-human-kidneys-with-urine-recirculation
#19
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Letizia Lo Faro, Olga Boubriak, Maria F Soares, Ian S Roberts, James P Hunter, Daniel Voyce, Nikolay Mikov, Andrew Cook, Rutger J Ploeg, Constantin C Coussios, Peter J Friend
Transportable normothermic kidney perfusion for 24 hours or longer could enable viability assessment of marginal grafts, increased organ utilization and improved transplantation logistics. Eleven clinically-declined kidneys were perfused normothermically, six from donors after brain stem death (DBD, median cold ischemia time 33±36.9 hours) and five from donors after circulatory death (DCD, 36.2±38.3 hours): n=3 kidneys were perfused using Ringer's lactate to replace excreted urine volume, and n=8 using urine recirculation to maintain perfusate volume without fluid replenishment...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757442/effect-of-intravenous-fluid-volumes-on-the-adrenal-glucocorticoid-response-after-burn-injury-in-swine
#20
Belinda I Gómez, Celestine He, Tony Chao, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Objective: Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Methods: Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100ºC. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 mL/kg/day (Limited Volume; LV, n=6) or 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/day (Modified Brooke; MB, n=6)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
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