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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429884/in-defence-of-ph
#1
EDITORIAL
Holger Nilsson
The maintenance of the milieu intérieur is at an essential concept in physiology. The first line of defence against perturbations of the internal environment consists of the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain constancy of the extracellular fluid. A second line of defence is the maintenance of a constant intracellular environment, should the extracellular have been compromised. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Bonde and Boedtkjer(1) study the maintenance of intracellular pH under situations of increased acidity and reduced sodium concentration in the extracellular environment...
April 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427941/elongation-affinity-activation-barrier-and-stability-of-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-fibrils-in-physiological-saline
#2
Roberto A Rodriguez, Liao Y Chen, Germán Plascencia-Villa, George Perry
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ40 and the more neurotoxic Aβ42, have been the subject of many research efforts for Alzheimer's disease. In two recent independent investigations, the atomistic structure of Aβ42 fibril has been clearly established in the S-shaped conformation consisting of three β-sheets stabilized by salt bridges formed between the Lys28 sidechain and the C-terminus of Ala42. This structure distinctively differs from the long-known structure of Aβ40 in the β-hairpin shaped conformation consisting of two β-sheets...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427138/-advances-in-the-research-of-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#3
Z Y Jiang, D H Min, G H Guo
With our country going into the aging society, burns in the elderly often occur. Studies have shown that the number of elderly burn patients has reached 13% to 20% of the total number of burn patients. As the sensory and cognitive functions are low, skin is thinning, the functions of heart, lung, and kidney are reduced, the immunity is impaired, and other physiological characteristics exist in the elderly, the wounds of elderly burn patients often heal slowly, and the mortality is high. At present, there is still a lack of enough attention to the elderly burn patients...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426559/ct-evidence-of-fluid-in-the-hernia-sac-predicts-surgical-site-infection-following-mesh-repair-of-acutely-incarcerated-ventral-and-groin-hernias
#4
Tyler J Loftus, Kristina L Go, Janeen R Jordan, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Frederick A Moore, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr, Scott C Brakenridge
BACKGROUND: Mesh placement during repair of acutely incarcerated ventral and groin hernias is associated with high rates of surgical site infection (SSI). The utility of preoperative CT in this setting is unclear. We hypothesized that CT evidence of bowel wall compromise would predict SSI while accounting for physiologic parameters. METHODS: We performed a four-year retrospective cohort analysis of 50 consecutive patients who underwent mesh repair of acutely incarcerated ventral or groin hernias...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426466/physician-variation-in-time-to-antimicrobial-treatment-for-septic-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#5
Ithan D Peltan, Kristina H Mitchell, Kristina E Rudd, Blake A Mann, David J Carlbom, Catherine L Hough, Thomas D Rea, Samuel M Brown
OBJECTIVES: Delayed initiation of appropriate antimicrobials is linked to higher sepsis mortality. We investigated interphysician variation in septic patients' door-to-antimicrobial time. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Emergency department of an academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Adult patients treated with antimicrobials in the emergency department between 2009 and 2015 for fluid-refractory severe sepsis or septic shock...
April 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#6
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422746/integrating-nanohybrid-membranes-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-chitosan-silica-sol-gel-with-fiber-optic-spr-for-caffeine-detection
#7
Ravi Kant, Rana Tabassum, Banshi D Gupta
Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug consumed in the world for improving alertness and enhancing wakefulness. However, caffeine consumption beyond limits can result in lot of physiological complications in human beings. In this work, we report a novel detection scheme for caffeine integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in chitosan modified silica sol gel (rGO: chitosan: silica sol gel) with fiber optic surface plasmon resonance. The chemically synthesized nanohybrid membrane forming the sensing route has been dip coated over silver coated unclad central portion of an optical fiber...
May 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421715/effect-of-water-bath-temperature-on-physiological-parameters-and-subjective-sensation-in-older-people
#8
Junji Ono, Nobuko Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki Sawatari, Tomoko Ohkusa, Mami Miyazono, Su-Young Son, Chie Magota, Yutaka Tochihara, Akiko Chishaki
AIM: In Japan, the incidence of water bathing-related cardiopulmonary accidents among older people is high in winter. The purpose of the present study was to investigate alterations in physiological characteristics and subjective thermal sensations of older people when bathing in a cool environment. METHODS: We assessed the skin temperature, rectal temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, body fluid loss (sweat and urine), and subjective thermal responses of 11 older healthy male and 10 young male volunteers throughout 42°C and 39°C bathing in a room at 20°C with 50% humidity...
April 19, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417584/ir-spectroscopy-of-skin-in%C3%A2-vivo-optimal-skin-sites-and-properties-for-non-invasive-glucose-measurement-by-photoacoustic-and-photothermal-spectroscopy
#9
Alexander Bauer, Otto Hertzberg, Arne Küderle, Dominik Strobel, Miguel A Pleitez, Werner Mäntele
We have reported two methods to analyze glucose in the interstitial fluid of skin based on mid-infrared excitation with a tunable quantum cascade laser and photoacoustic or photothermal detection. These methods were evaluated for optimum skin locations to obtain reproducible glucose information. The lower part of the arm, the hypothenar, the tips of the index finger and the thumb were tested. The thumb appears to be the optimal skin location, followed by the index finger. Basic requirements for an optimum site are good capillary blood perfusion, low Stratum corneum thickness and the absence of fat layers...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415504/in-vitro-evaluation-of-hydroxyapatite-coatings-with-002-crystallographic-texture-deposited-by-micro-plasma-spraying
#10
Yiming Wang, Xiaomei Liu, Tingting Fan, Zhen Tan, Zheng Zhou, Dingyong He
Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are usually deposited on the metallic implant to increase the biocompatibility and protect the bloodstream from harmful metal ions. Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is known as a cost effective deposition method. However, the low crystallinity of APS deposited coating accelerates its dissolution in body fluid. We used micro-plasma spray (MPS) to develop chemically stable HA coatings, and performed APS as reference. Results showed that MPS deposited coatings exhibited (002) crystallographic texture while the reference sample did not...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414592/understanding-the-presence-and-roles-of-ap4a-diadenosine-tetraphosphate-in-the-eye
#11
Almudena Crooke, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Gonzalo Carracedo, Maria J Perez de Lara, Jesus Pintor
Diadenosine tetraphosphate abbreviated Ap4A is a naturally occurring dinucleotide, which is present in most of the ocular fluids. Due to its intrinsic resistance to enzyme degradation compared to mononucleotides, this molecule can exhibit profound actions on ocular tissues, including the ocular surface, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork, and probably the retina. The actions of Ap4A are mostly carried out by P2Y2 receptors, but the participation of P2X2 and P2Y6 in processes such as the regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP), together with the P2Y2, is pivotal...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414516/effects-of-having-preterm-infants-smell-amniotic-fluid-mother-s-milk-and-mother-s-odor-during-heel-stick-procedure-on-pain-physiological-parameters-and-crying-duration
#12
Dilek Küçük Alemdar, Funda Kardaş Özdemir
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to assess effects of having preterm infants smell amniotic fluid, mother's milk, and mother's odor during heel stick procedure on pain, physiological parameters, and crying duration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled experimental research. The population of the study was made up of preterm infants receiving treatment and care at a neonatal intensive care unit, where the study was conducted between January 2015 and March 2016...
April 17, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414175/success-in-the-acquisition-of-bombyx-mori-sperm-motility-is-influenced-by-the-extracellular-production-of-nitric-oxide-no-in-the-presence-of-seminal-fluid-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos
#13
Sumiharu Nagaoka, Maiko Asagoshi, Keita Kato, Yuki Takata
A trypsin-like protease called initiatorin is known to initiate sperm motility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, but little is known about the signaling events leading to sperm flagellar beating. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this mechanism of sperm motility activation involves the signaling transmitter nitric oxide (NO). NO is produced from the amino acid L-arginine by the enzyme action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). Simple treatment of quiescent sperm with an NO donor (SNAP or NOC7) in vitro did not lead to activation of motility...
April 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410850/simultaneous-analysis-of-nucleobases-nucleosides-and-ginsenosides-in-ginseng-extracts-using-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-coupled-with-single-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#14
Yang Huang, Tingting Zhang, Yumei Zhao, Haibo Zhou, Guangyun Tang, Marianne Fillet, Jacques Crommen, Zhengjin Jiang
Nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides, which have a significant impact on the physiological activity of organisms, are reported to be the active components of ginseng, while they are less present in ginseng extracts. Few analytical methods have been developed so far to simultaneously analyze these three classes of compounds with different polarities present in ginseng extracts. In the present study, a simple and efficient analytical method was successfully developed for the simultaneous separation of 17 nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides in ginseng extracts using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410495/local-induction-of-lymphangiogenesis-with-engineered-fibrin-binding-vegf-c-promotes-wound-healing-by-increasing-immune-cell-trafficking-and-matrix-remodeling
#15
Esra Güç, Priscilla S Briquez, Didier Foretay, Manuel A Fankhauser, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Witold W Kilarski, Melody A Swartz
Lymphangiogenesis occurs in inflammation and wound healing, yet its functional roles in these processes are not fully understood. Consequently, clinically relevant strategies for therapeutic lymphangiogenesis remain underdeveloped, particularly using growth factors. To achieve controlled, local capillary lymphangiogenesis with protein engineering and determine its effects on fluid clearance, leukocyte trafficking, and wound healing, we developed a fibrin-binding variant of vascular endothelial growth factor C (FB-VEGF-C) that is slowly released upon demand from infiltrating cells...
March 25, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410367/nitric-oxide-charged-catheters-as-a-potential-strategy-for-prevention-of-hospital-acquired-infections
#16
David Margel, Mark Mizrahi, Gili Regev-Shoshani, Mary Ko, Maya Moshe, Rachel Ozalvo, Liat Shavit-Grievink, Jack Baniel, Daniel Kedar, Ofer Yossepowitch, David Lifshitz, Andrei Nadu, David Greenberg, Yossef Av-Gay
BACKGROUND: Catheter-Associated Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI's) are caused by biofilm-forming bacteria. Using a novel approach, we generated anti-infective barrier on catheters by charging them with Nitric Oxide (NO), a naturally-produced gas molecule. NO is slowly released from the catheter upon contact with physiological fluids, and prevents bacterial colonization and biofilm formation onto catheter surfaces. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the anti-infective properties of NO-charged catheters exposed to low concentration (up to 103 CFU/ml) of microbial cells in-vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408738/identification-of-exosomes-and-its-signature-mirnas-of-male-and-female-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#17
Zhanpeng Sun, Tong Hao, Jinze Tian
Exosomes are small membrane particles which are widely found in various cell lines and physiological fluids in mammalian. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed in exosomes have been identified as proper signatures for many diseases and response to therapies. However, the composition of exosomes and enclosed miRNAs in fishes has not been investigated. Cynoglossus semilaevis is an important commercial flatfish with ambiguous distinction between males and females before sex maturation, which leads to screening difficulty in reproduction and cultivation...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407811/saline-versus-balanced-crystalloids-for-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-the-emergency-department-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-multiple-crossover-trial
#18
Wesley H Self, Matthew W Semler, Jonathan P Wanderer, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Daniel W Byrne, Li Wang, Leanne Atchison, Matthew Felbinger, Ian D Jones, Stephan Russ, Andrew D Shaw, Gordon R Bernard, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in critically ill patients suggest the supra-physiologic chloride concentration of 0.9% ("normal") saline may be associated with higher risk of renal failure and death compared to physiologically balanced crystalloids. However, the comparative effects of 0.9% saline and balanced fluids are largely unexamined among patients outside the intensive care unit, who represent the vast majority of patients treated with intravenous fluids. METHODS/DESIGN: This study, entitled Saline Against Lactated Ringer's or Plasma-Lyte in the Emergency Department (SALT-ED), is a pragmatic, cluster, multiple-crossover trial at a single institution evaluating clinical outcomes of adults treated with 0...
April 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#19
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403108/analyses-and-treatments-of-postoperative-nasal-complications-after-endonasal-transsphenoidal-resection-of-pituitary-neoplasms
#20
You Cheng, Fei Xue, Tian-You Wang, Jun-Feng Ji, Wei Chen, Zhi-Yi Wang, Li Xu, Chun-Hua Hang, Xin-Feng Liu
In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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