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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353438/examination-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-heart-failure-patients
#1
Zsolt Sarszegi, Dora Szabo, Balazs Gaszner, Attila Konyi, Dora Reglodi, Jozsef Nemeth, Beata Lelesz, Beata Polgar, Adel Jungling, Andrea Tamas
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#2
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#3
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349685/solute-transport-in-the-bone-lacunar-canalicular-system-lcs
#4
REVIEW
Liyun Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solute transport in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) plays important roles in osteocyte metabolism and cell-cell signaling. This review will summarize recent studies that establish pericellular matrix (PCM), discovered inside the LCS, as a crucial regulator of solute transport in bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Utilizing confocal imaging and mathematical modeling, recent studies successfully quantified molecular diffusion and convection in the LCS as well as the size-dependent sieving effects of the PCM, leading to the quantification of the effective PCM fiber spacing (10 to 17 nm) in murine adult bones...
January 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349580/perianesthetic-management-of-laparoscopic-kidney-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Georges Nasrallah, Fouad G Souki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laparoscopic kidney surgery is commonly used for living donor, partial, and total tumor nephrectomy. The successful emergence of laparoscopic technique was justified by the many benefits offered such as reduced blood loss, tissue trauma, pain, and hospital stay. However, this comes at the expense of physiologic changes and complications secondary to pneumoperitoneum, surgical technique, and patient positioning with significant challenges in anesthetic management. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of laparoscopic approaches (transperitoneal, retroperitoneal, hand-assisted, robotic) are used with some having advantages over others...
January 18, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346132/enzymatic-sources-and-physio-pathological-functions-of-soluble-pro-renin-receptor
#6
Qing Zhu, Tianxin Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) belongs to type I transmembrane receptor family and binds both prorenin and renin, representing a potential regulator of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Soluble form of PRR (sPRR) is generated by intracellular protease-mediated cleavage of full-length PRR. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action and production of sPRR. RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been demonstrated that site-1-protease (S1P) plays a dominant role in the generation of sPRR...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346026/a-scintigraphic-method-for-quantitation-of-lymphatic-function-in-arm-lymphedema
#7
Svend Hvidsten, Navid M Toyserkani, Jens A Sørensen, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Jane A Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Lymphoscintigraphy is commonly used to assess breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, a reliable quantitative method that clearly distinguishes normal lymphatic function from lymphedema is desired. We propose a quantitative method based upon the physiological mean transit time (MTT) measure of lymph fluid passing through the arm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven patients, aged 34-68 years, with unilateral arm lymphedema following breast cancer treatment underwent simultaneous bilateral lymphoscintigraphy using intradermal injection of 99mTc-labeled human serum albumin (HSA)...
January 18, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#8
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342932/interstitial-glucose-and-physical-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes-integrative-physiology-technology-and-the-gap-in-between
#9
REVIEW
Othmar Moser, Jane E Yardley, Richard M Bracken
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342085/development-of-a-region-specific-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-brain-model-to-assess-hippocampus-and-frontal-cortex-pharmacokinetics
#10
Zaril Zakaria, Raj Badhan
Central nervous system drug discovery and development is hindered by the impermeable nature of the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacokinetic modeling can provide a novel approach to estimate CNS drug exposure; however, existing models do not predict temporal drug concentrations in distinct brain regions. A rat CNS physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed, incorporating brain compartments for the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HC), "rest-of-brain" (ROB), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Model predictions of FC and HC Cmax, tmax and AUC were within 2-fold of that reported for carbamazepine and phenytoin...
January 17, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#11
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340277/comparative-computed-flow-dynamic-analysis-of-different-optimization-techniques-in-left-main-either-provisional-or-culotte-stenting
#12
Gianluca Rigatelli, Fabio Dell'Avvocata, Marco Zuin, Sara Giatti, Khanh Duong, Trung Pham, Nguyen Si Tuan, Dobrin Vassiliev, Ramesh Daggubati, Thach Nguyen
Background and Objectives: Provisional and culotte are the most commonly used techniques in left main (LM) stenting. The impact of different post-dilation techniques on fluid dynamic of LM bifurcation has not been yet investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD), the impact of different post-dilation techniques including proximal optimization technique (POT), kissing balloon (KB), POT-Side-POT and POT-KB-POT, 2-steps Kissing (2SK) and Snuggle Kissing balloon (SKB) on flow dynamic profile after LM provisional or culotte stenting...
December 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340118/apelin-apj-system-a-key-therapeutic-target-for-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Shuang-Yu Lv, Binbin Cui, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Apelin, a new bioactive peptide, was identified as an endogenous ligand for APJ (Angiotensin II receptor-like 1). Apelin and its receptor have an abundant distribution in central nervous system and peripheral tissues, including liver. Apelin/APJ has diverse physiological and pathological effects, including regulation of cardiovascular function, angiogenesis, fluid homeostasis and so on. Apelin/APJ system may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for liver disease. In this article, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in liver fibrosis, hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver injury and metabolic liver disease...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#14
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Graça Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Kaitlin Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area CA3. While injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337433/numerical-simulation-of-two-consecutive-nasal-respiratory-cycles-toward-a-better-understanding-of-nasal-physiology
#16
Ludovic de Gabory, Nicolas Reville, Yannick Baux, Nicolas Boisson, Laurence Bordenave
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0...
January 16, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336068/isatin-an-endogenous-nonpeptide-biofactor-a-review-of-its-molecular-targets-mechanisms-of-actions-and-their-biomedical-implications
#17
REVIEW
Alexei Medvedev, Olga Buneeva, Oksana Gnedenko, Pavel Ershov, Alexis Ivanov
Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) is an oxidized indole. It is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and body fluids, where isatin concentrations vary significantly from <0.1 to > 10 µM. Isatin output is increased under conditions of stress. Exogenously administered isatin is characterized by low toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity in vivo. Cytotoxic effects of isatin on various cell cultures are usually observed at concentrations exceeding 100 µM. Binding of [3 H]isatin to rat brain sections is consistent with its physiological concentrations...
January 16, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333494/ensuring-adequate-vascular-access-in-patients-with-major-trauma-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#18
Kevin Verhoeff, Rachelle Saybel, Pamela Mathura, Bonnie Tsang, Vanessa Fawcett, Sandy Widder
Ensuring adequate vascular access in major trauma patients prior to decompensative physiological processes is crucial to patient outcomes. Most protocols suggest achieving two 18-gauge or larger intravenous lines immediately in patients with major trauma. We discuss a quality improvement approach to ensure that >90% of patients with major trauma (as defined by an injury severity score ≥12) at a level one trauma centre receive timely and adequate fluid access. Applying Donabedian principles for process improvement, we used the Alberta Trauma Registry to perform a 4-month chart audit on patients with major trauma at the University of Alberta Hospital...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331348/effects-of-l-tryptophan-on-the-growth-intestinal-enzyme-activities-and-non-specific-immune-response-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka-exposed-to-crowding-stress
#20
Endong Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P < ...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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