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Vascular smooth muscle cells, aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905925/expression-of-insulin-receptor-ir-a-and-b-isoforms-igf-ir-and-ir-igf-ir-hybrid-receptors-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-their-role-in-cell-migration-in-atherosclerosis
#1
N Beneit, C E Fernández-García, J L Martín-Ventura, L Perdomo, Ó Escribano, J B Michel, G García-Gómez, S Fernández, S Díaz-Castroverde, J Egido, A Gómez-Hernández, M Benito
BACKGROUND: Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerotic process. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) and its association with the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) confer a proliferative advantage to VSMCs. However, the role of IR and IGF-IR in VSMC migration remains poorly understood. METHODS: Wound healing assays were performed in VSMCs bearing IR (IRLoxP(+/+) VSMCs), or not (IR(-/-) VSMCs), expressing IRA (IRA VSMCs) or expressing IRB (IRB VSMCs)...
December 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902451/vitamin-d-and-male-reproductive-system
#2
Pablo R Costanzo, Pablo Knoblovits
Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent worldwide condition and affects people of all ages. The most important role of vitamin D is the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus to maintain muscle and bone homeostasis. Furthermore, in recent years it has been discovered that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely distributed in many organs and tissues where vitamin D can perform other actions that include the modulation of the immune response, insulin secretion, anti-proliferative effect on cells of vascular smooth muscle, modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and regulates cell growth in several organs...
December 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881847/epigenetic-regulation-of-l-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-aging-hypertensive-rats
#4
Jingwen Liao, Yanyan Zhang, Fang Ye, Lin Zhang, Yu Chen, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
Accumulating evidence has shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in hypertension and aging. L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs), the dominant channels in vascular myocytes, greatly contribute to arteriole contraction and blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the dynamic changes and epigenetic regulation of LTCC in the mesenteric arteries of aging hypertensive rats. LTCC function was evaluated by using microvascular rings and whole-cell patch-clamp in the mesenteric arteries of male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats at established hypertension (3 month old) and an aging stage (16 month old), respectively...
November 24, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#5
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849565/association-between-long-term-blood-pressure-variability-and-10-year-progression-in-arterial-stiffness-the-multiethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#7
Yacob G Tedla, Yuichiro Yano, Mercedes Carnethon, Philip Greenland
Experimental studies conducted on animal and human endothelium suggested that higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability reduces bioavailability of nitric oxide and increases vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. These vascular wall changes could stiffen the arterial wall. Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the association between long-term SBP variability and 10-year percent change in arterial stiffness among 1122 individuals (mean age 57 years, 46% males at baseline) who were not taking antihypertensive medications...
November 14, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847254/vascular-calcification-in-ckd-mbd-roles-for-phosphate-fgf23-and-klotho
#8
REVIEW
Shunsuke Yamada, Cecilia M Giachelli
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). VC is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the CKD population. Complex pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of VC, including osteochondrogenic differentiation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, instability and release of extracellular vesicles loaded calcium and phosphate, and elastin degradation. Elevated serum phosphate is a late manifestation of CKD, and has been shown to accelerate mineral deposition in both the vessel wall and heart valves...
November 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828948/control-of-mitochondrial-function-and-cell-growth-by-the-atypical-cadherin-fat1
#9
Longyue L Cao, Dario F Riascos-Bernal, Prameladevi Chinnasamy, Charlene M Dunaway, Rong Hou, Mario A Pujato, Brian P O'Rourke, Veronika Miskolci, Liang Guo, Louis Hodgson, Andras Fiser, Nicholas E S Sibinga
Mitochondrial products such as ATP, reactive oxygen species, and aspartate are key regulators of cellular metabolism and growth. Abnormal mitochondrial function compromises integrated growth-related processes such as development and tissue repair, as well as homeostatic mechanisms that counteract ageing and neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Physiologic mechanisms that control mitochondrial activity in such settings remain incompletely understood. Here we show that the atypical Fat1 cadherin acts as a molecular 'brake' on mitochondrial respiration that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation after arterial injury...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821371/age-related-changes-of-wall-composition-and-collagen-cross-linking-in-the-rat-carotid-artery-in-relation-with-arterial-mechanics
#10
Kozaburo Hayashi, Emiko Hirayama
In association with age-related changes in arterial wall mechanics, the composition of connective tissues, the fraction and size of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the degree of collagen cross-linking were studied with common carotid arteries harvested from 8, 16, 32, and 64 week-old Wistar rats. For histomorphometric studies, each arterial segment was fixed under in vivo operating force condition, and then sequentially sliced into thin specimens, followed by selective staining for the observation of collagen, elastin, and SMCs...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814594/cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-microvascular-arteriolar-capillaries-capioles-and-survival
#11
Carlos A Labarrere, Beate R Jaeger, Ghassan S Kassab
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a serious complication of heart transplantation in adults and children. Risk factors include human leukocyte antigen mismatches, number and duration of rejection episodes, type of immunosuppression, antibody-mediated rejection, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, diabetes, cytomegalovirus infection, mode of donor brain death, donor age and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Endothelial injury and dysfunction in CAV are characterized by changes in adhesion molecules and up-regulation of major histocompatibility class II antigens followed by endothelial activation of complement C4d...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812542/activating-transcription-factor-4-promotes-mineralization-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Masashi Masuda, Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai, Audrey L Keenan, Yuji Shiozaki, Kayo Okamura, Wallace S Chick, Kristina Williams, Xiaoyun Zhao, Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman, Yin Tintut, Christopher M Adams, Makoto Miyazaki
Emerging evidence indicates that upregulation of the ER stress-induced pro-osteogenic transcription factor ATF4 plays an important role in vascular calcification, a common complication in patients with aging, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we demonstrated the pathophysiological role of ATF4 in vascular calcification using global Atf4 KO, smooth muscle cell-specific (SMC-specific) Atf4 KO, and transgenic (TG) mouse models. Reduced expression of ATF4 in global ATF4-haplodeficient and SMC-specific Atf4 KO mice reduced medial and atherosclerotic calcification under normal kidney and CKD conditions...
November 3, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785109/leiomyomatosis-peritonealis-disseminata-in-postmenopausal-women-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#13
Hailu Wondimu Gebresellassie
BACKGROUND: Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterized by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. It is commonly described in women of reproductive age and is rarely seen in men and postmenopausal women. CASE DETAILS: A 65-year-old female patient with a history of abdominal surgery for gastrointestinal stromal tumor presented with abdominal pain, weakness, weight loss, and vomiting...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777573/artery-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-powerhouses-of-atherosclerosis-immunity
#14
Changjun Yin, Sarajo Kumar Mohanta, Prasad Srikakulapu, Christian Weber, Andreas J R Habenicht
Artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) are atherosclerosis-associated lymphoid aggregates with varying degrees of complexity ranging from small T/B-cell clusters to well-structured lymph node-like though unencapsulated lymphoid tissues. ATLOs arise in the connective tissue that surrounds diseased arteries, i.e., the adventitia. ATLOs have been identified in aged atherosclerosis-prone hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice: they are organized into distinct immune cell compartments, including separate T-cell areas, activated B-cell follicles, and plasma cell niches...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774580/trpv1-attenuates-intracranial-arteriole-remodeling-through-inhibiting-vsmc-phenotypic-modulation-in-hypertension
#15
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yun Liu, Zi-Cheng Hu, Yi Zhou, Yan Pi, Lu Guo, Xu Wang, Xue Chen, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling...
October 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753901/os-02-01-role-of-aldosterone-and-nadph-oxidase-1-in-hypertension-associated-vascular-aging
#16
Adam P Harvey, Augusto Montezano, Khai C Wong, Katie Y Hood, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Graziela S Ceravolo, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Delyth Graham, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: In hypertension, the vasculature undergoes alterations that resemble those seen in aging. The involvement of aldosterone and Noxs in the mechanisms underlying age-associated vascular damage is unclear. We postulated that aging-like changes in the vasculature is amplified in hypertension due to increased aldosterone-induced Nox-redox signalling. DESIGN AND METHOD: We assessed vascular aging in arteries from adult WKY (18 weeks), aged WKY (52 weeks) and adult stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744418/the-protective-role-of-sirt1-in-vascular-tissue-its-relationship-to-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#17
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706682/effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-the-senescence-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
S G Li, M Z Yan, D Zhang, M Ye, J J Deng
The development of age-related cardiovascular disease is associated with the senescence of vascular cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Primary VSMCs were cultured and divided into control, D-galactose (D-gal), Rg1-L, and Rg1-H groups, which were cultured without and with D-gal, and with low- and high-concentrations of Rg1, respectively. D-gal-induced cellular senescence was identified by b-galactosidase staining, and ultrastructural changes within the cells were observed...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696667/the-anti-ageing-hormone-klotho-induces-nrf2-mediated-antioxidant-defences-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Giuseppe Maltese, Paraskevi-Maria Psefteli, Benedetta Rizzo, Salil Srivastava, Luigi Gnudi, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C M Siow
Vascular ageing in conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, is associated with the activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and diminished expression of antioxidant defences mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The anti-ageing hormone klotho promotes longevity and protects against cardiovascular and renal diseases. Klotho has been shown to activate Nrf2 and attenuate oxidative damage in neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms by which it protects against vascular smooth muscle cell VSMC dysfunction elicited by Angiotensin II (AngII) remain to be elucidated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683672/vascular-mineralocorticoid-receptor-regulates-microrna-155-to-promote-vasoconstriction-and-rising-blood-pressure-with-aging
#20
Jennifer J DuPont, Amy McCurley, Ana P Davel, Joseph McCarthy, Shawn B Bender, Kwangseok Hong, Yan Yang, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Mark Aronovitz, Wendy E Baur, Demetra D Christou, Michael A Hill, Iris Z Jaffe
Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
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