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Vascular smooth muscle cells, aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892998/exosomes-the-message-transporters-in-vascular-calcification
#1
REVIEW
Chao Zhang, Kun Zhang, Feifei Huang, Weijing Feng, Jie Chen, Huanji Zhang, Jingfeng Wang, Pei Luo, Hui Huang
Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, leading to severe cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. VC occurrences involve complicated mechanism networks, such as matrix vesicles or exosomes production, osteogenic differentiation, reduced cell viability, aging and so on. However, with present therapeutic methods targeting at VC ineffectively, novel targets for VC treatment are demanded...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888507/cd34-stromal-expression-is-inversely-proportional-to-smooth-muscle-actin-expression-and-extent-of-morphea
#2
Ji Su Lee, Hyun-Sun Park, Hyun-Sun Yoon, Jin Ho Chung, Soyun Cho
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is thought to be the main pathophysiology of scleroderma, and myofibroblasts play the main role in abnormal fibrotic pathologies. Altered distribution of dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and vascular abnormalities has been reported to relate to the pathogenesis of scleroderma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate fibrotic pathogenesis of morphea (localized scleroderma) by demonstrating the relative expression and distribution of DDCs and myofibroblasts, we performed immunohistochemical stains using several relevant antibodies...
June 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886543/preparation-and-culturing-of-human-primary-vascular-cells
#3
Finnbogi R Thormodsson, Ingvar H Olafsson, Dadi Th Vilhjalmsson
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) results from amyloid accumulation within arteries of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. This condition is age-related, especially prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the main feature of certain hereditary disorders (i.e., HCHWA-I). The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) appear to play a vital role in the development of CAA, which makes them well suited as an experimental model to study the disease and screen for possible remedies. We describe two different methods for isolating and culturing human VSMCs: First, using the human umbilical cord as an easy source of robust cells, and secondly, using brain tissue that provides the proper cerebral VSMCs, but is more problematic to work with...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867592/short-term-angiotensin-ii-treatment-affects-large-artery-biomechanics-and-function-in-the-absence-of-small-artery-alterations-in-mice
#4
Arthur J A Leloup, Sofie De Moudt, Cor E Van Hove, Lindsey Dugaucquier, Zarha Vermeulen, Vincent F M Segers, Gilles W De Keulenaer, Paul Fransen
Induction of hypertension by angiotensin II (AngII) is a widely used experimental stimulus to study vascular aging in mice. It is associated with large artery stiffness, a hallmark of arterial aging and a root cause of increased cardiovascular risk. We reported earlier that long term (4 week) AngII treatment in mice altered the active, contractile properties of the arteries in a vascular bed-specific manner and that, in healthy mice aorta, active contractile properties of the aortic wall determine isobaric aortic stiffness...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850246/phosphate-and-cardiovascular-disease-beyond-chronic-kidney-disease-and-vascular-calcification
#5
REVIEW
Sinee Disthabanchong
Phosphate is essential for life but its accumulation can be detrimental. In end-stage renal disease, widespread vascular calcification occurs as a result of chronic phosphate load. The accumulation of phosphate is likely to occur long before the rise in serum phosphate above the normal range since several observational studies in both general population and early-stage CKD patients have identified the relationship between high-normal serum phosphate and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Consumption of food high in phosphate increases both fasting and postprandial serum phosphate and habitual intake of high phosphate diet is associated with aging, cardiac hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and subclinical atherosclerosis...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849906/endothelium-as-a-potential-target-for-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#6
REVIEW
Jingyuan Sun, Hongping Deng, Zhen Zhou, Xiaoxing Xiong, Ling Gao
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was previously ascribed to weaken defective medial arterial/adventitial layers, for example, smooth muscle/fibroblast cells. Therefore, besides surgical repair, medications targeting the medial layer to strengthen the aortic wall are the most feasible treatment strategy for AAA. However, so far, it is unclear whether such drugs have any beneficial effect on AAA prognosis, rate of aneurysm growth, rupture, or survival. Notably, clinical studies have shown that AAA is highly associated with endothelial dysfunction in the aged population...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800267/update-on-non-coding-rnas-in-vascular-disease-from-basic-discoveries-to-clinical-applications
#7
Jan Fiedler, Andrew H Baker, Stefanie Dimmeler, Stephane Heymans, Manuel Mayr, Thomas Thum
Non-coding RNAs are increasingly recognized not only as regulators of various biological functions but also as targets for a new generation of RNA therapeutics and biomarkers. We hereby review recent insights relating to non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (e.g. miR-126, miR-146a), long non-coding RNAs (e.g. MIR503HG, GATA6-AS, SMILR) and circular RNAs (e.g. cZNF292) and their role in vascular diseases. This includes identification and therapeutic use of hypoxia-regulated non-coding RNAs and endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate intrinsic smooth muscle cell signalling, age-related non-coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biology and metabolic control...
May 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794344/performance-of-marrow-stromal-cell-seeded-small-caliber-multilayered-vascular-graft-in-a-senescent-sheep-model
#8
Krishna Madhavan, Winston Elliott, Yan Tan, Eric Monnet, Wei Tan
Failure of small-caliber grafts, used as bypass or reconstructive grafts in cardiovascular treatments, is often caused by thrombosis and stenosis. We have developed a multilayered, compliant graft with an electrospun heparin-encapsulated core and collagen-chitosan shell. Herein, the performances of acellular and cell-seeded grafts were evaluated in adult sheep for preclinical assessment. Allogeneic ovine marrow stroma cells were uniformly attached to the lumen of cell-seeded grafts. Interposition grafts were used for carotid arteries...
May 24, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780355/therapeutic-interference-with-vascular-calcification-lessons-from-klotho-hypomorphic-mice-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Florian Lang, Christina Leibrock, Lisann Pelzl, Meinrad Gawaz, Burkert Pieske, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl
Medial vascular calcification, a major pathophysiological process associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality, involves osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In chronic kidney disease (CKD), osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and, thus, vascular calcification is mainly driven by hyperphosphatemia, resulting from impaired elimination of phosphate by the diseased kidneys. Hyperphosphatemia with subsequent vascular calcification is a hallmark of klotho-hypomorphic mice, which are characterized by rapid development of multiple age-related disorders and early death...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759909/the-predictive-value-of-arteriogenic-erectile-dysfunction-for-coronary-artery-disease-in-men
#10
Sherif Salah Azab, Hossam El Din Hosni, Taha A El Far, Nashaat Nabil Ismail, Yasser K El Bakdady, Ahmed F Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is assumed to be connected with vascular disease caused by endothelial dysfunction, and characterized by the incapability of the smooth muscle cells lining the arterioles to relax, therefore, inhibit vasodilatation. AIM: To assess the predictive value of arteriogenic ED for coronary artery disease in men above the age of 40 years. METHODS: 75 Patients reporting arteriogenic ED and 25 men with normal erectile function were enrolled in the study...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750880/akt-enos-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-mediated-the-phenotypic-switching-of-thoracic-aorta-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aging-hypertensive-rats
#11
Lin Zhang, Zhaoxia Xu, Ying Wu, Jingwen Liao, Fanxing Zeng, Lijun Shi
Considerable evidence demonstrates that phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is influenced by aging and hypertension. During phenotypic switching, VSMCs undergo a switch to a proliferative and migratory phenotype, with this switch being a common pathology in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the joint influence of age and hypertension on thoracic aortic smooth muscle phenotypic switching and the balance of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling during this switch...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749440/vitamin-k%C3%A2-dependent-proteins-involved-in-bone-and-cardiovascular-health-review
#12
Lianpu Wen, Jiepeng Chen, Lili Duan, Shuzhuang Li
In postmenopausal women and elderly men, bone density decreases with age and vascular calcification is aggravated. This condition is closely associated with vitamin K2 deficiency. A total of 17 different vitamin K‑dependent proteins have been identified to date. Vitamin K‑dependent proteins are located within the bone, heart and blood vessels. For instance, carboxylated osteocalcin is beneficial for bone and aids the deposition of calcium into the bone matrix. Carboxylated matrix Gla protein effectively protects blood vessels and may prevent calcification within the vascular wall...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729720/small-intestinal-lymphatic-hypoplasia-in-three-dogs-with-clinical-signs-of-protein-losing-enteropathy
#13
J M Malatos, N A Kurpios, G E Duhamel
Intestinal lymphatic hypoplasia (ILH) is a rare but well-documented cause of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) in human infants. To our knowledge, this condition has not been reported previously in veterinary medicine. Here we report the clinical and histopathological findings in three dogs that presented with clinical signs of PLE. The onset of PLE was early in an 18-month-old Great Pyrenees, while the other two dogs, a pug and a Tibetan terrier, had a later onset at 4 and 12 years of age, respectively. The presence of intestinal lymphatic and blood vessels was assessed by immunohistochemistry for human prospero homeobox 1 (prox-1), a lymphatic endothelial nuclear transcription factor and human von Willebrand factor (vWf), a marker of vascular endothelial cells, respectively...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717623/aortic-sca-1-sup-sup-progenitor-cells-arise-from-the-somitic-mesoderm-lineage-in-mouse
#14
Sarah K Steinbach, Tao Wang, Martha H Carruthers, Angela Li, Rickvinder Besla, Adam P Johnston, Clinton S Robbins, Mansoor Husain
Sca-1<sup>+</sup> progenitor cells in the adult mouse aorta are known to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but their embryological origins and temporal abundance are not known. Using tamoxifen-inducible <i>Myf5-Cre</i><sup>ER</sup> mice, we demonstrate that Sca-1<sup>+</sup> adult aortic cells arise from the somitic mesoderm beginning at E8.5 and continue throughout somitogenesis. <i>Myf5</i> lineage-derived Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells greatly expand in situ starting at 4 weeks of age and become a major source of aortic Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells by 6 weeks of age...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670546/-in-utero-exposure-to-maternal-diabetes-is-associated-with-early-abnormal-vascular-structure-in-offspring
#16
Abdallah Dib, Cyrielle Payen, Jennifer Bourreau, Mathilde Munier, Linda Grimaud, Ziad Fajloun, Laurent Loufrani, Daniel Henrion, Céline Fassot
Aim/hypothesis: In utero exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disorders during adulthood. We have previously shown that this is associated with changes in vascular tone in favor of a vasoconstrictor profile, which is involved in the development of hypertension. This excessive constrictor tone has also a strong impact on vascular structure. Our objective was to study the impact of in utero exposure to maternal diabetes on vascular structure and remodeling induced by chronic changes in hemodynamic parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653075/inhibition-of-semicarbazide-sensitive-amine-oxidase-reduces-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#17
Shu-Huei Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Feng-Chiao Tsai, Chris J Weston, Mao-Shin Lin, Chi-Sheng Hung, Hsien-Li Kao, Yu-I Li, Montse Solé, Mercedes Unzeta, Yuh-Lien Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang, Hung-Yuan Li
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and formation of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) are important for atherosclerosis. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and has semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity, which catalyzes oxidative deamination to produce hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes, leading to generation of AGEs and ALEs. However, the effect of VAP-1/SSAO inhibition on atherosclerosis remains controversial, and no studies used coronary angiography to evaluate if plasma VAP-1/SSAO is a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
March 27, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620941/cerebrovascular-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-and-associated-microhemorrhages-in-a-tg2576-alzheimer-mouse-model-are-reduced-with-a-dha-enriched-diet
#18
Justine Hur, Véronique Mateo, Nicolas Amalric, Mégane Babiak, Gilbert Béréziat, Claire Kanony-Truc, Thierry Clerc, Régis Blaise, Isabelle Limon
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major contributor to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Like AD, CAA is often accompanied by marked inflammation, aggravating associated vasculopathies. No evidence-based prevention or treatment strategies are available. Here, we evaluate the possible beneficial effect of a diet enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is known to attenuate inflammation in CAA. Tg2576 mice, a transgenic model of AD/CAA, were fed a DHA-enriched diet starting at 2 mo of age and ending at 10, 14, or 18 mo of age...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603864/vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-direct-extracellular-dysregulation-in-aortic-stiffening-of-hypertensive-rats
#19
Tristan T Hays, Ben Ma, Ning Zhou, Shaunrick Stoll, William J Pearce, Hongyu Qiu
Aortic stiffening is an independent risk factor that underlies cardiovascular morbidity in the elderly. We have previously shown that intrinsic mechanical properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in aortic stiffening in both aging and hypertension. Here, we test the hypothesis that VSMCs also contribute to aortic stiffening through their extracellular effects. Aortic stiffening was confirmed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) vs. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats in vivo by echocardiography and ex vivo by isometric force measurements in isolated de-endothelized aortic vessel segments...
June 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603682/adipose-derived-stem-cells-improve-erectile-function-partially-through-the-secretion-of-igf-1-bfgf-and-vegf-in-aged-rats
#20
J Yang, Y Zhang, G Zang, T Wang, Z Yu, S Wang, Z Tang, J Liu
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have recently been considered as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the mechanism of ADSC-based therapy is unclear. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by ADSCs were assessed in vitro. Sixteen 24-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for comparative analysis of 2-week treatment with labeled ADSCs or PBS. Eight additional 5-month-old rats were used as a young rat group...
May 2018: Andrology
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