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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119221/preparing-japanese-surgeons-for-potential-mass-casualty-situations-will-require-innovative-and-systematic-programs
#1
H Uchino, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G V Oosthuizen, W Bekker, G L Laing, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing state of global geo-political instability means that it is prudent to prepare civilian surgeons to manage major military-type trauma. Japan has enjoyed a prolonged period of peace and consequently it is unlikely that surgeons will have been exposed to a sufficient volume of cases. This study reviews the state of trauma training and preparedness in Japan and reviews the trauma workload of a major Japanese emergency medical center and compared with a major South African trauma center with the intention of quantifying and comparing the time needed to gain adequate exposure to major trauma at the two centers...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#2
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
November 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605260/cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-report-from-a-nih-niaid-and-irsn-workshop
#3
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
August 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472554/efficacy-of-intravenous-cobinamide-versus-hydroxocobalamin-or-saline-for-treatment-of-severe-hydrogen-sulfide-toxicity-in-a-swine-sus-scrofa-model
#4
Vikhyat S Bebarta, Normalynn Garrett, Matthew Brenner, Sari B Mahon, Joseph K Maddry, Susan Boudreau, Maria Castaneda, Gerry R Boss
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a potentially deadly gas that naturally occurs in petroleum and natural gas. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration cites H2 S as a leading cause of workplace gas inhalation deaths. Mass casualties of H2 S toxicity may be caused by exposure from industrial accidents or release from oil field sites. H2 S is also an attractive terrorism tool because of its high toxicity and ease with which it can be produced. Several potential antidotes have been proposed for hydrogen sulfide poisoning but none have been completely successful...
September 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270259/assessment-of-the-knowledge-of-blast-injuries-management-among-physicians-working-in-tripoli-hospitals-libya
#5
Abdulhakim M Oun, Elmokhtar M Hadida, Charles Stewart
Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries. METHODS: A survey was conducted in all 13 hospitals in Tripoli between June 2014 and May 2015 by using interviews based on a questionnaire consisting of 29 questions covering physicians' education related to blast injury, hospital management of mass casualties, and aspects of hospital preparedness for such incidents...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250913/biomarkers-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-a-multiparametric-approach
#6
Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Grace Kah Mun Low, Pallavee Srivastava, Neisha Sundaram, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, M Prakash Hande
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893288/analyzing-injury-severity-of-bus-passengers-with-different-movements
#7
Duo Li, Yifei Zhao, Qiang Bai, Bei Zhou, Hongbiao Ling
OBJECTIVE: Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements...
July 4, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752635/a-study-on-the-disaster-medical-response-during-the-mauna-ocean-resort-gymnasium-collapse
#8
Myeong-Il Cha, Gi Woon Kim, Chu Hyun Kim, Minhong Choa, Dai Hai Choi, Inbyung Kim, Soon Joo Wang, In Sool Yoo, Han Deok Yoon, Kang Hyun Lee, Suck Ju Cho, Tag Heo, Eun Seog Hong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and document the disaster medical response during the Gyeongju Mauna Ocean Resort gymnasium collapse on February 17, 2014. METHODS: Official records of each institution were verified to select the study population. All the medical records and emergency medical service run sheets were reviewed by an emergency physician. Personal or telephonic interviews were conducted, without a separate questionnaire, if the institutions or agencies crucial to disaster response did not have official records or if information from different institutions was inconsistent...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686284/the-harmonization-process-to-set-up-and-maintain-an-operational-biological-and-physical-retrospective-dosimetry-network-qa-qm-applied-to-the-reneb-network
#9
Eric Gregoire, Liz Ainsbury, Leonardo Barrios, Céline Bassinet, Paola Fattibene, Ulrike Kulka, Ursula Oestreicher, Gabriel Pantelias, Georgia Terzoudi, Francois Trompier, Philippe Voisin, Anne Vral, Andrzej Wojcik, Laurence Roy
PURPOSE: The European Network of Biological and Physical Retrospective Dosimetry 'RENEB' has contributed to European radiation emergency preparedness. To give homogeneous dose estimation results, RENEB partners must harmonize their processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A first inter-comparison focused on biological and physical dosimetry was used to detect the outliers in terms of dose estimation. Subsequently, trainings were organized to improve both tools dose estimation...
January 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574325/use-of-clinical-decision-guidance-as-a-new-public-health-tool-for-the-medical-management-of-internal-contamination-in-radiological-mass-casualty-scenarios
#10
Albert L Wiley
This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557790/capabilities-of-the-reneb-network-for-research-and-large-scale-radiological-and-nuclear-emergency-situations
#11
Octávia Monteiro Gil, Pedro Vaz, Horst Romm, Cinzia De Angelis, Ana Catarina Antunes, Joan-Francesc Barquinero, Christina Beinke, Emanuela Bortolin, Christopher Ian Burbidge, Alexandra Cucu, Sara Della Monaca, Mercedes Moreno Domene, Paola Fattibene, Eric Gregoire, Valeria Hadjidekova, Ulrike Kulka, Carita Lindholm, Roberta Meschini, Radhia M'Kacher, Jayne Moquet, Ursula Oestreicher, Fabrizio Palitti, Gabriel Pantelias, Alegria Montoro Pastor, Irina-Anca Popescu, Maria Cristina Quattrini, Michelle Ricoul, Kai Rothkamm, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Georgia Terzoudi, Antonella Testa, François Trompier, Anne Vral
PURPOSE: To identify and assess, among the participants in the RENEB (Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry) project, the emergency preparedness, response capabilities and resources that can be deployed in the event of a radiological or nuclear accident/incident affecting a large number of individuals. These capabilities include available biodosimetry techniques, infrastructure, human resources (existing trained staff), financial and organizational resources (including the role of national contact points and their articulation with other stakeholders in emergency response) as well as robust quality control/assurance systems...
January 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426066/-model-and-enlightenment-from-rescue-of-august-2nd-kunshan-explosion-casualty
#12
Q Tan, H B Qiu, B W Sun, Y M Shen, L J Nie, H W Zhang
On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411523/-a%C3%A2-new-age-of-mass-casuality-education-the-insitu-project-realistic-training-in-virtual-reality-environments
#13
D Lorenz, W Armbruster, C Vogelgesang, H Hoffmann, A Pattar, D Schmidt, T Volk, D Kubulus
BACKGROUND: Chief emergency physicians are regarded as an important element in the care of the injured and sick following mass casualty accidents. Their education is very theoretical; practical content in contrast often falls short. Limitations are usually the very high costs of realistic (large-scale) exercises, poor reproducibility of the scenarios, and poor corresponding results. OBJECTIVES: To substantially improve the educational level because of the complexity of mass casualty accidents, modified training concepts are required that teach the not only the theoretical but above all the practical skills considerably more intensively than at present...
September 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356057/acute-radiation-syndrome-severity-score-system-in-mouse-total-body-irradiation-model
#14
Natalia I Ossetrova, Patrick H Ney, Donald P Condliffe, Katya Krasnopolsky, Kevin P Hieber
Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues...
August 2016: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308865/development-of-sulfanegen-for-mass-cyanide-casualties
#15
REVIEW
Steven E Patterson, Bryant Moeller, Herbert T Nagasawa, Robert Vince, Daune L Crankshaw, Jacquie Briggs, Michael W Stutelberg, Chakravarthy V Vinnakota, Brian A Logue
Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216892/preparedness-of-finnish-emergency-medical-services-for-chemical-emergencies
#16
Timo J Jama, Markku J Kuisma
UNLABELLED: Introduction The preparedness level of Finnish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for treating chemical emergencies is unknown. The aim of this study was to survey the preparedness level of EMS systems for managing and handling mass-casualty chemical incidents in the prehospital phase in Finland. Hypothesis The study hypothesis was that university hospital districts would have better clinical capability to treat patients than would central hospital districts in terms of the number of patients treated in the field within one hour after dispatching as well as patients transported to hospital within one hour or two hours after dispatching...
August 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195995/collaborative-development-and-results-of-a-nigerian-trauma-registry
#17
Laura D Cassidy, Oluwole Olaomi, Allison Ertl, Emmanuel A Ameh
BACKGROUND: More than 90% of injury-related deaths and disabilities occur in low- and middle-income countries. The development of the Nigerian Trauma Registry (NTR) and the first descriptive data analysis of the patient characteristics, mechanisms of injury, injury severity, and treatments are reported. METHODS: Existing data collection tools were modified to capture a minimum data set of variables reflective of the trauma experience in Nigeria. Data are collected using the secure, Web-based application, REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture)...
2016: Journal of Registry Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955248/epidemiology-of-emergency-medical-services-assessed-mass-casualty-incidents-according-to-causes
#18
Ju Ok Park, Sang Do Shin, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jungeun Kim
To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period...
March 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928295/usefulness-of-a-multiplying-factor-in-predicting-the-final-number-of-victims-during-a-mass-casualty-incident
#19
Olga Maurin, Michel Bignand, Daniel Jost, Stéphane Travers, Stéphane Raclot, Julie Trichereau, Olivier Bon, Benoit Frattini, Thomas Loeb, Eric Lecarpentier, René Noto, Gaëtan Poncelin de Raucourt, Jean-Pierre Tourtier
OBJECTIVE: Whenever a mass casualty incident (MCI) occurs, it is essential to anticipate the final number of victims to dispatch the adequate number of ambulances. In France, the custom is to multiply the initial number of prehospital victims by 2-4 to predict the final number. However, no one has yet validated this multiplying factor (MF) as a predictive tool. We aimed to build a statistical model to predict the final number of victims from their initial count. METHODS: We observed retrospectively over 30 years of MCIs triggered in a large urban area...
October 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911474/an-epidemiological-approach-to-mass-casualty-incidents-in-the-principality-of-asturias-spain
#20
Rafael Castro Delgado, Cecilia Naves Gómez, Tatiana Cuartas Álvarez, Pedro Arcos González
BACKGROUND: Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) have been rarely studied from epidemiological approaches. The objective of this study is to establish the epidemiological profile of MCI in the autonomous region of the Principality of Asturias (Spain) and analyse ambulance deployment and severity of patients. METHODS: This is a population-based prospective study run in 2014. Inclusion criteria for MCI is "every incident with four or more people affected that requires ambulance mobilisation"...
February 24, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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