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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619108/scavenging-on-a-pulsed-resource-quality-matters-for-corvids-but-density-for-mammals
#1
Gjermund Gomo, Jenny Mattisson, Bjørn Roar Hagen, Pål Fossland Moa, Tomas Willebrand
BACKGROUND: Human food subsidies can provide predictable food sources in large quantities for wildlife species worldwide. In the boreal forest of Fennoscandia, gut piles from moose (Alces alces) harvest provide a potentially important food source for a range of opportunistically scavenging predators. Increased populations of predators can negatively affect threatened or important game species. As a response to this, restrictions on field dressing of moose are under consideration in parts of Norway...
June 15, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560573/sarcocystis-dehongensis-n-sp-apicomplexa-sarcocystidae-from-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-in-china
#2
Xinwen Chen, Tao Wen, Junjie Hu, Tingting Liu, Gerald W Esch, Yu Liang, Hongliang Li, Si Huang
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the intermediate host for at least four species of Sarcocystis: S. fusiformis, S. buffalonis, S. levinei, and S. sinensis/S. dubeyi. Here, a new species, Sarcocystis dehongensis, is reported in 51 of 756 (6.7%) water buffaloes in China. By light microscopy, the cysts of S. dehongensis were macroscopic, up to 18.5 mm long and 95 μm in diameter; 4.9-11.9 μm villous protrusions extended beyond the sarcocyst wall. Using transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had lancet- or leaf-like protrusions in longitudinal section, but the cross section showed that the protrusions appeared as mushroom-like in shape with a core of tightly packed microtubules, similar to "type 24...
May 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557688/learning-recruits-neurons-representing-previously-established-associations-in-the-corvid-endbrain
#3
Lena Veit, Galyna Pidpruzhnykova, Andreas Nieder
Crows quickly learn arbitrary associations. As a neuronal correlate of this behavior, single neurons in the corvid endbrain area "nidopallium caudolaterale" (NCL) change their response properties during association learning. In crows performing a delayed association task that required them to map both familiar and novel sample pictures to the same two choice pictures, NCL neurons established a common, prospective code for associations. Here, we report that neuronal tuning changes during learning were not distributed equally in the recorded population of NCL neurons...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494226/the-effect-of-prior-experience-on-children-s-tool-innovation
#4
Clare L Whalley, Nicola Cutting, Sarah R Beck
Spontaneous tool innovation to solve physical problems is difficult for young children. In three studies, we explored the effect of prior experience with tools on tool innovation in children aged 4-7years (N=299). We also gave children an experience more consistent with that experienced by corvids in similar studies to enable fairer cross-species comparisons. Children who had the opportunity to use a premade target tool in the task context during a warm-up phase were significantly more likely to innovate a tool to solve the problem on the test trial compared with children who had no such warm-up experience...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479980/memory-mental-time-travel-and-the-moustachio-quartet
#5
Nicola Clayton, Clive Wilkins
Mental time travel allows us to revisit our memories and imagine future scenarios, and this is why memories are not only about the past, but they are also prospective. These episodic memories are not a fixed store of what happened, however, they are reassessed each time they are revisited and depend on the sequence in which events unfold. In this paper, we shall explore the complex relationships between memory and human experience, including through a series of novels 'The Moustachio Quartet' that can be read in any order...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412529/vertical-string-pulling-in-green-jays-cyanocorax-yncas
#6
Héctor Marín Manrique, Adriano-Bruno Chaves Molina, Sandra Posada, Montserrat Colell
The cognition of green jays (Cyanocorax yncas), a non Corvus corvid species, was investigated by using the string-pulling paradigm. Five adult green jays performed a vertical string-pulling task in which they had to retrieve a worm attached to the end of a vertical hanging string while sitting on their perch. In the first experiment, three of the subjects managed to retrieve the worm by pulling on the string with their beaks and stepping on the resulting loop, and thereafter repeating this sequence until the worm was accessible...
April 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#7
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303393/effective-nut-dispersal-by-magpies-pica-pica-l-in-a-mediterranean-agroecosystem
#8
Jorge Castro, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Alexandro B Leverkus, Loreto Martínez-Baroja, Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Salvador Rebollo, José M Rey-Benayas
Scatter-hoarding animals such as corvids play a crucial role in the dispersal of nut-producing tree species. This interaction is well known for some corvids, but remains elusive for other species such as the magpie (Pica pica), an abundant corvid in agroecosystems and open landscapes of the Palearctic region. In addition, the establishment of the individual dispersed seeds-a prerequisite for determining seed-dispersal effectiveness-has never before been documented for the interaction between corvids and nut-producing trees...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222237/extreme-genetic-structure-in-a-social-bird-species-despite-high-dispersal-capacity
#9
Francisco Morinha, José A Dávila, Estela Bastos, João A Cabral, Óscar Frías, José L González, Paulo Travassos, Diogo Carvalho, Borja Milá, Guillermo Blanco
Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220657/a-geographic-study-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-dead-corvids-and-mosquitoes-in-ontario-using-spatial-scan-statistics-with-a-survival-time-application
#10
A L Thomas-Bachli, D L Pearl, O Berke, E J Parmley, I K Barker
Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151701/corvids-outperform-pigeons-and-primates-in-learning-a-basic-concept
#11
Anthony A Wright, John F Magnotti, Jeffrey S Katz, Kevin Leonard, Alizée Vernouillet, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120800/proactive-prosociality-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-corvid-the-azure-winged-magpie-cyanopica-cyana
#12
Lisa Horn, Clara Scheer, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
One of the contemporary hypotheses concerning the evolution of human altruism is the cooperative breeding hypothesis (CBH) which has recently been tested in non-human primates. Using a similar paradigm, we investigated prosociality in a cooperatively breeding corvid, the azure-winged magpie. We found that the magpies delivered food to their group members at high rates, and unlike other corvids, they did so without any cues provided by others. In two control conditions, the magpies stopped participating over time, indicating that they learned to discriminate prosocial tests from controls...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099075/occurrence-and-relevance-of-mycoplasma-sturni-in-free-ranging-corvids-in-germany
#13
Luisa Ziegler, Franca Möller Palau-Ribes, Liane Schmidt, Michael Lierz
Several Mycoplasma spp. are well-known pathogens in poultry. In birds of prey, White Storks ( Ciconia ciconia ), and some waterfowl (Anatidae, Pelecanidae) species, mycoplasmas occur commonly and seem to be apathogenic or commensal and most likely belong to the physiologic microbial flora of the respiratory tract. In other bird species, such as Common Nightingales ( Luscinia megarhynchos ) and tits (Paridae), Mycoplasma spp. are absent in healthy birds. In corvids, the prevalence and role of Mycoplasma spp...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974521/the-influence-of-wing-morphology-upon-the-dispersal-geographical-distributions-and-diversification-of-the-corvides-aves-passeriformes
#14
Jonathan D Kennedy, Michael K Borregaard, Knud A Jønsson, Petter Z Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Carsten Rahbek
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispersal ability, we assess this relationship among the global radiation of corvoid birds. We found that species distributions are associated with wing shape. Widespread species (occurring on both islands and continents), and those that are migratory, exhibit wing morphologies better adapted to long-distance flight compared with sedentary continental or insular forms...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922802/urban-breeding-corvids-as-disseminators-of-ticks-and-emerging-tick-borne-pathogens
#15
Attila D Sándor, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Ioana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Ioan-Daniel Mărcuţan
Crows (Corvidae) are common city dwellers worldwide and are increasingly important subjects of epidemiology studies. Although their importance as hosts and transmitters of a number of zoonotic parasites and pathogens is well known, there are no studies on their importance as tick hosts. After mosquitoes, ticks are the most important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, especially for those causing emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogenic bacteria, especially Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma spp., vectored by ticks, are the cause for most vector-borne diseases in Europe...
February 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920957/eurasian-jays-do-not-copy-the-choices-of-conspecifics-but-they-do-show-evidence-of-stimulus-enhancement
#16
Rachael Miller, Corina J Logan, Katherine Lister, Nicola S Clayton
Corvids (birds in the crow family) are hypothesised to have a general cognitive tool-kit because they show a wide range of transferrable skills across social, physical and temporal tasks, despite differences in socioecology. However, it is unknown whether relatively asocial corvids differ from social corvids in their use of social information in the context of copying the choices of others, because only one such test has been conducted in a relatively asocial corvid. We investigated whether relatively asocial Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) use social information (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890937/seasonal-changes-in-neophobia-and-its-consistency-in-rooks-the-effect-of-novelty-type-and-dominance-position
#17
Alison L Greggor, Jolle W Jolles, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Neophobia, or the fear of novelty, may offer benefits to animals by limiting their exposure to unknown danger, but can also impose costs by preventing the exploration of potential resources. The costs and benefits of neophobia may vary throughout the year if predation pressure, resource distribution or conspecific competition changes seasonally. Despite such variation, neophobia levels are often assumed to be temporally and individually stable. Whether or not neophobia expression changes seasonally and fluctuates equally for all individuals is crucial to understanding the drivers, consequences and plasticity of novelty avoidance...
November 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871752/public-acceptance-of-management-methods-under-different-human-wildlife-conflict-scenarios
#18
Vasilios Liordos, Vasileios J Kontsiotis, Marina Georgari, Kerasia Baltzi, Ioanna Baltzi
Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864088/modality-invariant-audio-visual-association-coding-in-crow-endbrain-neurons
#19
Felix W Moll, Andreas Nieder
Single neuron activity in the corvid nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), the supposed avian functional analog of the prefrontal cortex, represents associations of auditory with visual stimuli. This is of high adaptive value for songbirds that need to rely on audio-visual associations to communicate, find a mate or escape predators. However, it remains unclear whether NCL neurons can represent cross-modal associations in a modality invariant, abstract fashion. To dissociate between modality-dependent and modality-invariant NCL activity, we trained two crows to match auditory sample cues with visual test stimuli, and vice versa, across a temporal memory delay...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826273/clark-s-nutcrackers-nucifraga-columbiana-flexibly-adapt-caching-behavior-to-a-cooperative-context
#20
Dawson Clary, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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