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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929247/are-parrots-poor-at-motor-self-regulation-or-is-the-cylinder-task-poor-at-measuring-it
#1
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
September 19, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899382/carrion-crows-corvus-corone-of-southwest-germany-important-hosts-for-haemosporidian-parasites
#2
Sandrine Schmid, Katrin Fachet, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other Haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon spp.) form a diverse group of vector-transmitted blood parasites that are abundant in many bird families. Recent studies have suggested that corvids may be an important host for Plasmodium spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. METHODS: To investigate the diversity of Haemosporida of resident carrion crows (Corvus corone) and Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) in southwest Germany, 100 liver samples of corvids were examined using a nested PCR method to amplify a 1063 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878059/can-hook-bending-be-let-off-the-hook-bending-unbending-of-pliant-tools-by-cockatoos
#3
I B Laumer, T Bugnyar, S A Reber, A M I Auersperg
The spontaneous crafting of hook-tools from bendable material to lift a basket out of a vertical tube in corvids has widely been used as one of the prime examples of animal tool innovation. However, it was recently suggested that the animals' solution was hardly innovative but strongly influenced by predispositions from habitual tool use and nest building. We tested Goffin's cockatoo, which is neither a specialized tool user nor a nest builder, on a similar task set-up. Three birds individually learned to bend hook tools from straight wire to retrieve food from vertical tubes and four subjects unbent wire to retrieve food from horizontal tubes...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857604/kea-nestor-notabilis-decide-early-when-to-wait-in-food-exchange-task
#4
Raoul Schwing, Stefan Weber, Thomas Bugnyar
The ability to forego an immediate reward in favor of a bigger or better one at a later point has been linked with advanced cognitive skills, such as impulse control and forward-planning, and can be assessed by the classic food exchange paradigm. While the ability to perform in such tasks has long been regarded as an exclusive trait of humans and some mammals, that is, primates and dogs, in recent years some bird species have been found to perform similarly as primates. Here we test 10 captive kea (Nestor notabilis), using a food exchange paradigm standardized in earlier experiments, but adding the use of a container to hold the initial item...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706072/ravens-parallel-great-apes-in-flexible-planning-for-tool-use-and-bartering
#5
Can Kabadayi, Mathias Osvath
The ability to flexibly plan for events outside of the current sensory scope is at the core of being human and is crucial to our everyday lives and society. Studies on apes have shaped a belief that this ability evolved within the hominid lineage. Corvids, however, have shown evidence of planning their food hoarding, although this has been suggested to reflect a specific caching adaptation rather than domain-general planning. Here, we show that ravens plan for events unrelated to caching-tool-use and bartering-with delays of up to 17 hours, exert self-control, and consider temporal distance to future events...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684773/the-temporal-dependence-of-exploration-on-neotic-style-in-birds
#6
Mark O'Hara, Berenika Mioduszewska, Auguste von Bayern, Alice Auersperg, Thomas Bugnyar, Anna Wilkinson, Ludwig Huber, Gyula Koppany Gajdon
Exploration (interacting with objects to gain information) and neophobia (avoiding novelty) are considered independent traits shaped by the socio-ecology of a given species. However, in the literature it is often assumed that neophobia inhibits exploration. Here, we investigate how different approaches to novelty (fast or slow) determine the time at which exploration is likely to occur across a number of species. We presented four corvid and five parrot species with a touchscreen discrimination task in which novel stimuli were occasionally interspersed within the familiar training stimuli...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653410/breeding-density-fine-scale-tracking-and-large-scale-modeling-reveal-the-regional-distribution-of-four-seabird-species
#7
Ewan D Wakefield, Ellie Owen, Julia Baer, Matthew J Carroll, Francis Daunt, Stephen G Dodd, Jonathan A Green, Tim Guilford, Roddy A Mavor, Peter I Miller, Mark A Newell, Stephen F Newton, Gail S Robertson, Akiko Shoji, Louise M Soanes, Stephen C Votier, Sarah Wanless, Mark Bolton
Population-level estimates of species' distributions can reveal fundamental ecological processes and facilitate conservation. However, these may be difficult to obtain for mobile species, especially colonial central-place foragers (CCPFs; e.g. bats, corvids, social insects), because it is often impractical to determine the provenance of individuals observed beyond breeding sites. Moreover, some CCPFs, especially in the marine realm (e.g. pinnipeds, turtles and seabirds) are difficult to observe because they range 10s to 10,000s km from their colonies...
June 27, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619108/scavenging-on-a-pulsed-resource-quality-matters-for-corvids-but-density-for-mammals
#8
Gjermund Gomo, Jenny Mattisson, Bjørn Roar Hagen, Pål Fossland Moa, Tomas Willebrand
BACKGROUND: Human food subsidies can provide predictable food sources in large quantities for wildlife species worldwide. In the boreal forest of Fennoscandia, gut piles from moose (Alces alces) harvest provide a potentially important food source for a range of opportunistically scavenging predators. Increased populations of predators can negatively affect threatened or important game species. As a response to this, restrictions on field dressing of moose are under consideration in parts of Norway...
June 15, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560573/sarcocystis-dehongensis-n-sp-apicomplexa-sarcocystidae-from-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-in-china
#9
Xinwen Chen, Tao Wen, Junjie Hu, Tingting Liu, Gerald W Esch, Yu Liang, Hongliang Li, Si Huang
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the intermediate host for at least four species of Sarcocystis: S. fusiformis, S. buffalonis, S. levinei, and S. sinensis/S. dubeyi. Here, a new species, Sarcocystis dehongensis, is reported in 51 of 756 (6.7%) water buffaloes in China. By light microscopy, the cysts of S. dehongensis were macroscopic, up to 18.5 mm long and 95 μm in diameter; 4.9-11.9 μm villous protrusions extended beyond the sarcocyst wall. Using transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had lancet- or leaf-like protrusions in longitudinal section, but the cross section showed that the protrusions appeared as mushroom-like in shape with a core of tightly packed microtubules, similar to "type 24...
August 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557688/learning-recruits-neurons-representing-previously-established-associations-in-the-corvid-endbrain
#10
Lena Veit, Galyna Pidpruzhnykova, Andreas Nieder
Crows quickly learn arbitrary associations. As a neuronal correlate of this behavior, single neurons in the corvid endbrain area nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) change their response properties during association learning. In crows performing a delayed association task that required them to map both familiar and novel sample pictures to the same two choice pictures, NCL neurons established a common, prospective code for associations. Here, we report that neuronal tuning changes during learning were not distributed equally in the recorded population of NCL neurons...
October 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494226/the-effect-of-prior-experience-on-children-s-tool-innovation
#11
Clare L Whalley, Nicola Cutting, Sarah R Beck
Spontaneous tool innovation to solve physical problems is difficult for young children. In three studies, we explored the effect of prior experience with tools on tool innovation in children aged 4-7years (N=299). We also gave children an experience more consistent with that experienced by corvids in similar studies to enable fairer cross-species comparisons. Children who had the opportunity to use a premade target tool in the task context during a warm-up phase were significantly more likely to innovate a tool to solve the problem on the test trial compared with children who had no such warm-up experience...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479980/memory-mental-time-travel-and-the-moustachio-quartet
#12
Nicola Clayton, Clive Wilkins
Mental time travel allows us to revisit our memories and imagine future scenarios, and this is why memories are not only about the past, but they are also prospective. These episodic memories are not a fixed store of what happened, however, they are reassessed each time they are revisited and depend on the sequence in which events unfold. In this paper, we shall explore the complex relationships between memory and human experience, including through a series of novels 'The Moustachio Quartet' that can be read in any order...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412529/vertical-string-pulling-in-green-jays-cyanocorax-yncas
#13
Héctor Marín Manrique, Adriano-Bruno Chaves Molina, Sandra Posada, Montserrat Colell
The cognition of green jays (Cyanocorax yncas), a non Corvus corvid species, was investigated by using the string-pulling paradigm. Five adult green jays performed a vertical string-pulling task in which they had to retrieve a worm attached to the end of a vertical hanging string while sitting on their perch. In the first experiment, three of the subjects managed to retrieve the worm by pulling on the string with their beaks and stepping on the resulting loop, and thereafter repeating this sequence until the worm was accessible...
April 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#14
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303393/effective-nut-dispersal-by-magpies-pica-pica-l-in-a-mediterranean-agroecosystem
#15
Jorge Castro, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Alexandro B Leverkus, Loreto Martínez-Baroja, Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Salvador Rebollo, José M Rey-Benayas
Scatter-hoarding animals such as corvids play a crucial role in the dispersal of nut-producing tree species. This interaction is well known for some corvids, but remains elusive for other species such as the magpie (Pica pica), an abundant corvid in agroecosystems and open landscapes of the Palearctic region. In addition, the establishment of the individual dispersed seeds-a prerequisite for determining seed-dispersal effectiveness-has never before been documented for the interaction between corvids and nut-producing trees...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222237/extreme-genetic-structure-in-a-social-bird-species-despite-high-dispersal-capacity
#16
Francisco Morinha, José A Dávila, Estela Bastos, João A Cabral, Óscar Frías, José L González, Paulo Travassos, Diogo Carvalho, Borja Milá, Guillermo Blanco
Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220657/a-geographic-study-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-dead-corvids-and-mosquitoes-in-ontario-using-spatial-scan-statistics-with-a-survival-time-application
#17
A L Thomas-Bachli, D L Pearl, O Berke, E J Parmley, I K Barker
Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151701/corvids-outperform-pigeons-and-primates-in-learning-a-basic-concept
#18
Anthony A Wright, John F Magnotti, Jeffrey S Katz, Kevin Leonard, Alizée Vernouillet, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120800/proactive-prosociality-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-corvid-the-azure-winged-magpie-cyanopica-cyana
#19
Lisa Horn, Clara Scheer, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
One of the contemporary hypotheses concerning the evolution of human altruism is the cooperative breeding hypothesis (CBH) which has recently been tested in non-human primates. Using a similar paradigm, we investigated prosociality in a cooperatively breeding corvid, the azure-winged magpie. We found that the magpies delivered food to their group members at high rates, and unlike other corvids, they did so without any cues provided by others. In two control conditions, the magpies stopped participating over time, indicating that they learned to discriminate prosocial tests from controls...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099075/occurrence-and-relevance-of-mycoplasma-sturni-in-free-ranging-corvids-in-germany
#20
Luisa Ziegler, Franca Möller Palau-Ribes, Liane Schmidt, Michael Lierz
Several Mycoplasma spp. are well-known pathogens in poultry. In birds of prey, White Storks ( Ciconia ciconia ), and some waterfowl (Anatidae, Pelecanidae) species, mycoplasmas occur commonly and seem to be apathogenic or commensal and most likely belong to the physiologic microbial flora of the respiratory tract. In other bird species, such as Common Nightingales ( Luscinia megarhynchos ) and tits (Paridae), Mycoplasma spp. are absent in healthy birds. In corvids, the prevalence and role of Mycoplasma spp...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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