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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890937/seasonal-changes-in-neophobia-and-its-consistency-in-rooks-the-effect-of-novelty-type-and-dominance-position
#1
Alison L Greggor, Jolle W Jolles, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Neophobia, or the fear of novelty, may offer benefits to animals by limiting their exposure to unknown danger, but can also impose costs by preventing the exploration of potential resources. The costs and benefits of neophobia may vary throughout the year if predation pressure, resource distribution or conspecific competition changes seasonally. Despite such variation, neophobia levels are often assumed to be temporally and individually stable. Whether or not neophobia expression changes seasonally and fluctuates equally for all individuals is crucial to understanding the drivers, consequences and plasticity of novelty avoidance...
November 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871752/public-acceptance-of-management-methods-under-different-human-wildlife-conflict-scenarios
#2
Vasilios Liordos, Vasileios J Kontsiotis, Marina Georgari, Kerasia Baltzi, Ioanna Baltzi
Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864088/modality-invariant-audio-visual-association-coding-in-crow-endbrain-neurons
#3
Felix W Moll, Andreas Nieder
Single neuron activity in the corvid nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), the supposed avian functional analog of the prefrontal cortex, represents associations of auditory with visual stimuli. This is of high adaptive value for songbirds that need to rely on audio-visual associations to communicate, find a mate or escape predators. However, it remains unclear whether NCL neurons can represent cross-modal associations in a modality invariant, abstract fashion. To dissociate between modality-dependent and modality-invariant NCL activity, we trained two crows to match auditory sample cues with visual test stimuli, and vice versa, across a temporal memory delay...
November 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826273/clark-s-nutcrackers-nucifraga-columbiana-flexibly-adapt-caching-behavior-to-a-cooperative-context
#4
Dawson Clary, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811974/graded-mirror-self-recognition-by-clark-s-nutcrackers
#5
Dawson Clary, Debbie M Kelly
The traditional 'mark test' has shown some large-brained species are capable of mirror self-recognition. During this test a mark is inconspicuously placed on an animal's body where it can only be seen with the aid of a mirror. If the animal increases the number of actions directed to the mark region when presented with a mirror, the animal is presumed to have recognized the mirror image as its reflection. However, the pass/fail nature of the mark test presupposes self-recognition exists in entirety or not at all...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789089/can-hedgerow-management-mitigate-the-impacts-of-predation-on-songbird-nest-survival
#6
Jenny C Dunn, Derek Gruar, Chris Stoate, John Szczur, Will J Peach
Nest predators can have significant impacts on songbird reproductive success. These impacts may be amplified by habitat simplification and here we test whether sympathetic management of farmland hedgerows can reduce nest depredation, especially by corvids. We test whether songbirds select nest sites according to structural features of hedgerows (including nest visibility and accessibility), and whether these features influence nest predation risk. Songbirds selected nesting sites affording higher vegetation cover above the nest, increased visibility on the nest-side of the hedgerow and reduced visibility on the far side of the hedge...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781155/the-influence-of-flight-style-on-the-aerodynamic-properties-of-avian-wings-as-fixed-lifting-surfaces
#7
John J Lees, Grigorios Dimitriadis, Robert L Nudds
The diversity of wing morphologies in birds reflects their variety of flight styles and the associated aerodynamic and inertial requirements. Although the aerodynamics underlying wing morphology can be informed by aeronautical research, important differences exist between planes and birds. In particular, birds operate at lower, transitional Reynolds numbers than do most aircraft. To date, few quantitative studies have investigated the aerodynamic performance of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces and none have focused upon the differences between wings from different flight style groups...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718536/encoding-of-global-visual-motion-in-the-nidopallium-caudolaterale-of-behaving-crows
#8
Lysann Wagener, Andreas Nieder
Songbirds possess acute vision. How higher brain centers represent basic and parameterized visual stimuli to process sensory signals according to their behavioral importance has not been studied in a systematic way. We therefore examined how carrion crows (Corvus corone) and their nidopallial visual neurons process global visual motion information in dynamic random-dot displays during a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. The behavioral data show that moderately fast motion speeds (16 degrees of visual angle/second) result in superior direction discrimination performance...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709603/does-the-colonization-of-new-biogeographic-regions-influence-the-diversification-and-accumulation-of-clade-richness-among-the-corvides-aves-passeriformes
#9
Jonathan D Kennedy, Michael K Borregaard, Knud A Jønsson, Ben Holt, Jon Fjeldså, Carsten Rahbek
Regional variation in clade richness can be vast, reflecting differences in the dynamics of historical dispersal and diversification among lineages. Although it has been proposed that dispersal into new biogeographic regions may facilitate diversification, to date there has been limited assessment of the importance of this process in the generation, and maintenance, of broad-scale biodiversity gradients. To address this issue, we analytically derive biogeographic regions for a global radiation of passerine birds (the Corvides, c...
October 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672510/regional-drivers-of-clutch-loss-reveal-important-trade-offs-for-beach-nesting-birds
#10
Brooke Maslo, Thomas A Schlacher, Michael A Weston, Chantal M Huijbers, Chris Anderson, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly, David S Schoeman
Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639565/transfer-of-physical-understanding-in-a-non-tool-using-parrot
#11
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Physical cognition has generally been assessed in tool-using species that possess a relatively large brain size, such as corvids and apes. Parrots, like corvids and apes, also have large relative brain sizes, yet although parrots rarely use tools in the wild, growing evidence suggests comparable performances on physical cognition tasks. It is, however, unclear whether success on such tasks is facilitated by previous experience and training procedures. We therefore investigated physical comprehension of object relationships in two non-tool-using species of captive neotropical parrots on a new means-end paradigm, the Trap-Gaps task, using unfamiliar materials and modified training procedures that precluded procedural cues...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629645/discovery-of-species-wide-tool-use-in-the-hawaiian-crow
#12
Christian Rutz, Barbara C Klump, Lisa Komarczyk, Rosanna Leighton, Joshua Kramer, Saskia Wischnewski, Shoko Sugasawa, Michael B Morrissey, Richard James, James J H St Clair, Richard A Switzer, Bryce M Masuda
Only a handful of bird species are known to use foraging tools in the wild. Amongst them, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) stands out with its sophisticated tool-making skills. Despite considerable speculation, the evolutionary origins of this species' remarkable tool behaviour remain largely unknown, not least because no naturally tool-using congeners have yet been identified that would enable informative comparisons. Here we show that another tropical corvid, the 'Alalā (C. hawaiiensis; Hawaiian crow), is a highly dexterous tool user...
September 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533282/bajan-birds-pull-strings-two-wild-antillean-species-enter-the-select-club-of-string-pullers
#13
Jean-Nicolas Audet, Simon Ducatez, Louis Lefebvre
String-pulling is one of the most popular tests in animal cognition because of its apparent complexity, and of its potential to be applied to very different taxa. In birds, the basic procedure involves a food reward, suspended from a perch by a string, which can be reached by a series of coordinated pulling actions with the beak and holding actions of the pulled lengths of string with the foot. The taxonomic distribution of species that pass the test includes several corvids, parrots and parids, but in other families, data are much spottier and the number of individuals per species that succeed is often low...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503195/abstract-concept-learning-in-black-billed-magpies-pica-hudsonia
#14
John F Magnotti, Anthony A Wright, Kevin Leonard, Jeffrey S Katz, Debbie M Kelly
relational concepts depend upon relationships between stimuli (e.g., same vs. different) and transcend features of the training stimuli. Recent evidence shows that learning abstract concepts is shared across a variety species including birds. Our recent work with a highly-skilled food-storing bird, Clark's nutcracker, revealed superior same/different abstract-concept learning compared to rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Here we test a more social, but less reliant on food-storing, corvid species, the Black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia)...
August 8, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478138/differential-activation-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-distribution-in-the-hippocampal-pallial-and-midbrain-brain-regions-in-response-to-cognitive-performance-in-indian-house-crows-exposed-to-abrupt-light-environment
#15
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Vinod Kumar
Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466440/humanoid-infers-archimedes-principle-understanding-physical-relations-and-object-affordances-through-cumulative-learning-experiences
#16
Ajaz Ahmad Bhat, Vishwanathan Mohan, Giulio Sandini, Pietro Morasso
Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations...
July 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429456/street-smart-faster-approach-towards-litter-in-urban-areas-by-highly-neophobic-corvids-and-less-fearful-birds
#17
Alison L Greggor, Nicola S Clayton, Antony J C Fulford, Alex Thornton
The extent to which animals respond fearfully to novel stimuli may critically influence their ability to survive alongside humans. However, it is unclear whether the fear of novel objects, object neophobia, consistently varies in response to human disturbance. Where variation has been documented, it is unclear whether this variation is due to a change in fear towards specific novel stimuli, or whether it is symptomatic of a general change in fear behaviour. We measured levels of object neophobia in free-flying birds across urban and rural habitats, comparing corvids, a family known for being behaviourally flexible and innovative, with other urban-adapting bird species...
July 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421709/episodic-like-memory-in-zebrafish
#18
Trevor J Hamilton, Allison Myggland, Erika Duperreault, Zacnicte May, Joshua Gallup, Russell A Powell, Melike Schalomon, Shannon M Digweed
Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm...
July 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341492/evaluation-of-nucleic-acid-preservation-cards-for-west-nile-virus-testing-in-dead-birds
#19
Leslie Foss, William K Reisen, Ying Fang, Vicki Kramer, Kerry Padgett
The California West Nile virus (WNV) Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP) is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298365/birds-have-primate-like-numbers-of-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#20
Seweryn Olkowicz, Martin Kocourek, Radek K Lučan, Michal Porteš, W Tecumseh Fitch, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Pavel Němec
Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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