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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774435/neophobia-does-not-account-for-motoric-self-regulation-performance-as-measured-during-the-detour-reaching-cylinder-task
#1
M K Stow, A Vernouillet, D M Kelly
The ability to restrain a prepotent response in favor of a more adaptive behavior, or to exert inhibitory control, has been used as a measure of a species' cognitive abilities. Inhibitory control defines a spectrum of behaviors varying in complexity, ranging from self-control to motoric self-regulation. Several factors underlying inhibitory control have been identified, however, the influence of neophobia (i.e., aversion to novelty) on inhibitory control has not received much attention. Neophobia is known to affect complex cognitive abilities, but whether neophobia also influences more basic cognitive abilities, such as motoric self-regulation, has received less attention...
May 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644612/tissue-distribution-and-oral-exposure-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-an-urban-bird-magpie-from-central-iran
#2
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
Direct ingestion of soil and/or soil attached to the food items is a potential rout for wildlife exposure to contaminants. In this study, bioaccumulation of five heavy metals (HMs) in internal tissues of an urban bird (Pica pica) collected from Aran-O-Bidgol City, Central Iran and their related soil were investigated. A total of 15 magpie specimens were collected in autumn 2013 and then their internal tissues were digested using a mixture of HNO3 and H2 O2 , and finally, concentrations of HMs were detected by ICP-OES...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579052/correction-magpie-simplifying-access-and-execution-of-computational-models-in-the-life-sciences
#3
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005898.].
March 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569788/large-uncertainty-in-carbon-uptake-potential-of-land-based-climate-change-mitigation-efforts
#4
Andreas Krause, Thomas A M Pugh, Anita D Bayer, Wei Li, Felix Leung, Alberte Bondeau, Jonathan C Doelman, Florian Humpenöder, Peter Anthoni, Benjamin L Bodirsky, Philippe Ciais, Christoph Müller, Guillermo Murray-Tortarolo, Stefan Olin, Alexander Popp, Stephen Sitch, Elke Stehfest, Almut Arneth
Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF)...
March 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517437/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-birds-and-potential-cross-transmission-in-a-zoo-environment
#5
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492785/comparing-cognition-by-integrating-concept-learning-proactive-interference-and-list-memory
#6
REVIEW
Anthony A Wright, Debbie M Kelly, Jeffrey S Katz
This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets...
February 28, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491996/spatially-biased-dispersal-of-acorns-by-a-scatter-hoarding-corvid-may-accelerate-passive-restoration-of-oak-habitat-on-california-s-largest-island
#7
Mario B Pesendorfer, T Scott Sillett, Scott A Morrison
Scatter hoarding by corvids (crows, jays, magpies, and nutcrackers) provides seed dispersal for many large-seeded plants, including oaks and pines. When hoarding seeds, corvids often choose nonrandom locations throughout the landscape, resulting in differential survival of seeds. In the context of habitat restoration, such disproportional storing of seeds in areas suitable for germination and establishment can accelerate expansion and recovery of large-seeded tree populations and their associated ecosystems...
August 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414945/cognitive-performance-is-linked-to-group-size-and-affects-fitness-in-australian-magpies
#8
Benjamin J Ashton, Amanda R Ridley, Emily K Edwards, Alex Thornton
The social intelligence hypothesis states that the demands of social life drive cognitive evolution. This idea receives support from comparative studies that link variation in group size or mating systems with cognitive and neuroanatomical differences across species, but findings are contradictory and contentious. To understand the cognitive consequences of sociality, it is also important to investigate social variation within species. Here we show that in wild, cooperatively breeding Australian magpies, individuals that live in large groups show increased cognitive performance, which is linked to increased reproductive success...
February 15, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361607/magnificent-magpie-colours-by-feathers-with-layers-of-hollow-melanosomes
#9
Doekele G Stavenga, Hein L Leertouwer, Bodo D Wilts
The blue secondary and purple-to-green tail feathers of magpies are structurally coloured owing to stacks of hollow, air-containing melanosomes embedded in the keratin matrix of the barbules. We investigated the spectral and spatial reflection characteristics of the feathers by applying (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. To interpret the spectral data, we performed optical modelling, applying the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method as well as an effective media approach, treating the melanosome stacks as multi-layers with effective refractive indices dependent on the component media...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320499/precocious-development-of-self-awareness-in-dolphins
#10
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274762/the-olfactory-mirror-and-other-recent-attempts-to-demonstrate-self-recognition-in-non-primate-species
#11
REVIEW
Gordon G Gallup, James R Anderson
The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an "olfactory mirror" test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kinds of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the "olfactory mirror" constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, nor ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality...
March 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244826/magpie-simplifying-access-and-execution-of-computational-models-in-the-life-sciences
#12
Christoph Baldow, Sebastian Salentin, Michael Schroeder, Ingo Roeder, Ingmar Glauche
Over the past decades, quantitative methods linking theory and observation became increasingly important in many areas of life science. Subsequently, a large number of mathematical and computational models has been developed. The BioModels database alone lists more than 140,000 Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) models. However, while the exchange within specific model classes has been supported by standardisation and database efforts, the generic application and especially the re-use of models is still limited by practical issues such as easy and straight forward model execution...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187607/interactions-between-cleaner-birds-and-ungulates-are-personality-dependent
#13
Rob Found
While a growing body of literature explores the ecological implications of consistent individual variation in the behaviour of wildlife, few studies have looked at the reciprocal influences of personality within interspecific interactions, despite the potentially significant impacts on biodiversity. Here I used two species involved in cleaner-bird behaviour-black-billed magpies ( Pica pica ) and Rocky mountain elk ( Cervus canadensis )-to show that the exhibition of mutualistic behaviour can depend on the personality of the individual involved...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175405/arsenic-concentrations-and-speciation-in-wild-birds-from-an-abandoned-realgar-mine-in-china
#14
Fen Yang, Shaowen Xie, Jinxin Liu, Chaoyang Wei, Hongzhi Zhang, Tao Chen, Jing Zhang
Birds are at a higher level in the food chain; however, the potential bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic (As) in birds in As mines has rarely been studied. In this study, four passerine bird species (tree sparrow [Passer montanus], light-vented bulbul [Pycnonotus sinensis], Garrulax canorus [Leucodioptron canorus], and magpie [Pica pica]) were collected from an abandoned As mine in China. The highest recorded As concentrations were 4.95 mg/kg and 51.65 mg/kg in muscles and feathers, respectively...
February 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078034/so-much-for-the-city-urban-rural-song-variation-in-a-widespread-asiatic-songbird
#15
Samuel D Hill, Achyut Aryal, Matthew D M Pawley, Weihong Ji
Song plays a fundamental role in intraspecific communication in songbirds. The temporal and structural components of songs can vary in different habitats. These include urban habitats where anthropogenic sounds and alteration of habitat structure can significantly affect songbird vocal behavior. Urban-rural variations in song complexity, song length and syllable rate are not fully understood. In this study, using the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) as a model, we investigated urban-rural variation in song complexity, song length, syllable rate, syllable length and inter-syllable interval...
March 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978738/deceptive-vocal-duets-and-multimodal-display-in-a-songbird
#16
Paweł Ręk, Robert D Magrath
Many group-living animals cooperatively signal to defend resources, but what stops deceptive signalling to competitors about coalition strength? Cooperative-signalling species include mated pairs of birds that sing duets to defend their territory. Individuals of these species sometimes sing 'pseudo-duets' by mimicking their partner's contribution, but it is unknown if these songs are deceptive, or why duets are normally reliable. We studied pseudo-duets in Australian magpie-larks, Grallina cyanoleuca , and tested whether multimodal signalling constrains deception...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953940/microbial-abundance-on-the-eggs-of-a-passerine-bird-and-related-fitness-consequences-between-urban-and-rural-habitats
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sang-Im Lee, Hyunna Lee, Piotr G Jablonski, Jae Chun Choe, Magne Husby
Urban environments present novel and challenging habitats to wildlife. In addition to well-known difference in abiotic factors between rural and urban environments, the biotic environment, including microbial fauna, may also differ significantly. In this study, we aimed to compare the change in microbial abundance on eggshells during incubation between urban and rural populations of a passerine bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica), and examine the consequences of any differences in microbial abundances in terms of hatching success and nestling survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922382/formal-comment-to-soler-et-al-great-spotted-cuckoo-nestlings-have-no-antipredatory-effect-on-magpie-or-carrion-crow-host-nests-in-southern-spain
#18
COMMENT
Daniela Canestrari, Diana Bolopo, Ted C J Turlings, Gregory Röder, José M Marcos, Vittorio Baglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899382/carrion-crows-corvus-corone-of-southwest-germany-important-hosts-for-haemosporidian-parasites
#19
Sandrine Schmid, Katrin Fachet, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other Haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon spp.) form a diverse group of vector-transmitted blood parasites that are abundant in many bird families. Recent studies have suggested that corvids may be an important host for Plasmodium spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. METHODS: To investigate the diversity of Haemosporida of resident carrion crows (Corvus corone) and Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) in southwest Germany, 100 liver samples of corvids were examined using a nested PCR method to amplify a 1063 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762195/no-evidence-for-self-recognition-in-a-small-passerine-the-great-tit-parus-major-judged-from-the-mark-mirror-test
#20
Fanny-Linn Kraft, Tereza Forštová, A Utku Urhan, Alice Exnerová, Anders Brodin
Self-recognition is a trait presumed to be associated with high levels of cognition and something previously considered to be exclusive to humans and possibly apes. The most common test of self-recognition is the mark/mirror test of whether an animal can understand that it sees its own reflection in a mirror. The usual design is that an animal is marked with a colour spot somewhere on the body where the spot can only be seen by the animal by using a mirror. Very few species have passed this test, and among birds, only magpies have been affirmatively demonstrated to pass it...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
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