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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762195/no-evidence-for-self-recognition-in-a-small-passerine-the-great-tit-parus-major-judged-from-the-mark-mirror-test
#1
Fanny-Linn Kraft, Tereza Forštová, A Utku Urhan, Alice Exnerová, Anders Brodin
Self-recognition is a trait presumed to be associated with high levels of cognition and something previously considered to be exclusive to humans and possibly apes. The most common test of self-recognition is the mark/mirror test of whether an animal can understand that it sees its own reflection in a mirror. The usual design is that an animal is marked with a colour spot somewhere on the body where the spot can only be seen by the animal by using a mirror. Very few species have passed this test, and among birds, only magpies have been affirmatively demonstrated to pass it...
July 31, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756236/accuracy-estimation-of-an-indirect-elisa-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-wild-birds-using-a-latent-class-model
#2
Marco Tamba, Antonino Caminiti, Alice Prosperi, Philippe Desprès, Davide Lelli, Giorgio Galletti, Ana Moreno, Giulia Paternoster, Annalisa Santi, Elio Licata, Sylvie Lecollinet, Luca Gelmini, Gianluca Rugna, Anna Procopio, Antonio Lavazza
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), genus Flavivirus, are members of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, and are maintained primarily in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. WNV is zoonotic, and poses a threat to public health, especially in relation to blood transfusion. Serosurveillance of wild birds is suitable for early detection of WNV circulation, although concerns remain to be addressed as regards i) the type of test used, whether ELISA, virus neutralization test (VNT), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), ii) the reagents (antigens, revealing antibodies), iii) the different bird species involved, and iv) potential cross-reactions with other Flaviviruses, such as USUV...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#3
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676793/immune-responses-of-chickens-infected-with-wild-bird-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus
#4
Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Runyu Yuan, Haili Ma, Bin Xiang, Zhaoxiong Wang, Xu Dai, Fumin Wang, Jiajie Xiao, Ming Liao, Tao Ren
Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283) in Pallas's sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015), whereas a virus (i.e., SW8) isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658287/an-experimental-test-of-host-s-life-history-traits-modulation-in-response-to-cuckoo-parasitism-risk
#5
Mónica Expósito-Granados, Deseada Parejo, Juan Gabriel Martínez, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Marta Precioso, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Jesús M Avilés
Hosts can counteract parasites through defences based on resistance and/or tolerance. The mechanistic basis of tolerance, which involve defensive mechanisms minimizing parasite damage after a successful parasitic attack, remains poorly explored in the study of cuckoo-host interactions. Here, we experimentally explore the possibility that the risk of great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius parasitism may induce tolerance defences in magpie Pica pica hosts through plasticity in life-history traits. We predict that magpies exposed to auditory cues indicating high parasitism risk will more likely exhibit resistance and/or modify their life-history traits to minimize parasitism costs (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610033/molecular-approaches-for-blood-meal-analysis-and-species-identification-of%C3%A2-mosquitoes-insecta-diptera-culicidae-in-rural-locations-in-southern-england-united-kingdom
#6
Luis Miguel Hernández-Triana, Victor Albert Brugman, Sean Williams John Prosser, Chris Weland, Nadya Nikolova, Leigh Thorne, Mar Fernández DE Marco, Anthony Richard Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria...
April 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589845/deep-phylogeographic-breaks-in-magpie-pica-pica-across-the-holarctic-concordance-with-bioacoustics-and-phenotypes
#7
Alexey P Kryukov, Liudmila N Spiridonova, Sayaka Mori, Vladimir Yu Arkhipov, Yaroslav A Red'kin, Oleg A Goroshko, Evgeny G Lobkov, Elisabeth Haring
We examined sequences of the mitochondrial control region in magpies (Pica pica) from the entire distribution range and found deep genetic splits into four major lineages: (1) group West (Europe-Siberia), (2) group East (southern Far East), (3) P. p. mauritanica (North Africa), and (4) P. p. hudsonia (North America). These lineages show a geographic pattern corresponding to known subspecies or subspecies groups. Genetic variation within the widely-distributed group West is low and neutrality tests supported a recent expansion scenario...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#8
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510577/are-horses-capable-of-mirror-self-recognition-a-pilot-study
#9
Paolo Baragli, Elisa Demuru, Chiara Scopa, Elisabetta Palagi
Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499128/stress-induced-by-heavy-metals-on-breeding-of-magpie-pica-pica-from-central-iran
#10
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422953/great-spotted-cuckoo-nestlings-have-no-antipredatory-effect-on-magpie-or-carrion-crow-host-nests-in-southern-spain
#11
Manuel Soler, Liesbeth de Neve, María Roldán, Tomás Pérez-Contreras, Juan José Soler
Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415177/influence-of-atomic-kinetics-in-the-simulation-of-plasma-microscopic-properties-and-thermal-instabilities-for-radiative-bow-shock-experiments
#12
G Espinosa, R Rodríguez, J M Gil, F Suzuki-Vidal, S V Lebedev, A Ciardi, J G Rubiano, P Martel
Numerical simulations of laboratory astrophysics experiments on plasma flows require plasma microscopic properties that are obtained by means of an atomic kinetic model. This fact implies a careful choice of the most suitable model for the experiment under analysis. Otherwise, the calculations could lead to inaccurate results and inappropriate conclusions. First, a study of the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the calculation of the average ionization, mean radiative properties, and cooling times of argon plasmas in a range of plasma conditions of interest in laboratory astrophysics experiments on radiative shocks is performed in this work...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314903/diatoms-in-drowning-cases-in-forensic-veterinary-context-a-preliminary-study
#13
Nadia Fucci, Carlo P Campobasso, L Mastrogiuseppe, C Puccinelli, S Marcheggiani, L Mancini, L Marino, V L Pascali
In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303393/effective-nut-dispersal-by-magpies-pica-pica-l-in-a-mediterranean-agroecosystem
#14
Jorge Castro, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Alexandro B Leverkus, Loreto Martínez-Baroja, Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Salvador Rebollo, José M Rey-Benayas
Scatter-hoarding animals such as corvids play a crucial role in the dispersal of nut-producing tree species. This interaction is well known for some corvids, but remains elusive for other species such as the magpie (Pica pica), an abundant corvid in agroecosystems and open landscapes of the Palearctic region. In addition, the establishment of the individual dispersed seeds-a prerequisite for determining seed-dispersal effectiveness-has never before been documented for the interaction between corvids and nut-producing trees...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192043/serosurvey-for-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-steller-s-jays-cyanocitta-stelleri-captured-in-coastal-california-usa
#15
Elena West, Erik Hofmeister, M Zach Peery
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-14 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird immunoglobulin G enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died...
July 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151701/corvids-outperform-pigeons-and-primates-in-learning-a-basic-concept
#16
Anthony A Wright, John F Magnotti, Jeffrey S Katz, Kevin Leonard, Alizée Vernouillet, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120800/proactive-prosociality-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-corvid-the-azure-winged-magpie-cyanopica-cyana
#17
Lisa Horn, Clara Scheer, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
One of the contemporary hypotheses concerning the evolution of human altruism is the cooperative breeding hypothesis (CBH) which has recently been tested in non-human primates. Using a similar paradigm, we investigated prosociality in a cooperatively breeding corvid, the azure-winged magpie. We found that the magpies delivered food to their group members at high rates, and unlike other corvids, they did so without any cues provided by others. In two control conditions, the magpies stopped participating over time, indicating that they learned to discriminate prosocial tests from controls...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851906/magpy-a-python-toolbox-for-controlling-magstim-transcranial-magnetic-stimulators
#18
Nicolas A McNair
BACKGROUND: To date, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies manipulating stimulation parameters have largely used blocked paradigms. However, altering these parameters on a trial-by-trial basis in Magstim stimulators is complicated by the need to send regular (1Hz) commands to the stimulator. Additionally, effecting such control interferes with the ability to send TMS pulses or simultaneously present stimuli with high-temporal precision. NEW METHOD: This manuscript presents the MagPy toolbox, a Python software package that provides full control over Magstim stimulators via the serial port...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808198/animal-behaviour-magpies-behave-cooperatively
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801957/a-new-marker-based-on-the-avian-spindlin-gene-that-is-able-to-sex-most-birds-including-species-problematic-to-sex-with-chd-markers
#20
Deborah A Dawson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Gavin J Horsburgh
We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
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