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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320499/precocious-development-of-self-awareness-in-dolphins
#1
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274762/the-olfactory-mirror-and-other-recent-attempts-to-demonstrate-self-recognition-in-non-primate-species
#2
REVIEW
Gordon G Gallup
The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an "olfactory mirror" test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the "olfactory mirror" constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, or ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244826/magpie-simplifying-access-and-execution-of-computational-models-in-the-life-sciences
#3
Christoph Baldow, Sebastian Salentin, Michael Schroeder, Ingo Roeder, Ingmar Glauche
Over the past decades, quantitative methods linking theory and observation became increasingly important in many areas of life science. Subsequently, a large number of mathematical and computational models has been developed. The BioModels database alone lists more than 140,000 Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) models. However, while the exchange within specific models classes has been supported by standardisation and database efforts, the generic application and especially the re-use of models is still limited by practical issues such as easy and straight forward model execution...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187607/interactions-between-cleaner-birds-and-ungulates-are-personality-dependent
#4
Rob Found
While a growing body of literature explores the ecological implications of consistent individual variation in the behaviour of wildlife, few studies have looked at the reciprocal influences of personality within interspecific interactions, despite the potentially significant impacts on biodiversity. Here I used two species involved in cleaner-bird behaviour-black-billed magpies (Pica pica) and Rocky mountain elk (Cervus canadensis)-to show that the exhibition of mutualistic behaviour can depend on the personality of the individual involved...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175405/arsenic-concentrations-and-speciation-in-wild-birds-from-an-abandoned-realgar-mine-in-china
#5
Fen Yang, Shaowen Xie, Jinxin Liu, Chaoyang Wei, Hongzhi Zhang, Tao Chen, Jing Zhang
Birds are at a higher level in the food chain; however, the potential bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic (As) in birds in As mines has rarely been studied. In this study, four passerine bird species (tree sparrow [Passer montanus], light-vented bulbul [Pycnonotus sinensis], Garrulax canorus [Leucodioptron canorus], and magpie [Pica pica]) were collected from an abandoned As mine in China. The highest recorded As concentrations were 4.95 mg/kg and 51.65 mg/kg in muscles and feathers, respectively...
November 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078034/so-much-for-the-city-urban-rural-song-variation-in-a-widespread-asiatic-songbird
#6
Samuel D Hill, Achyut Aryal, Matthew D M Pawley, Weihong Ji
Song plays a fundamental role in intraspecific communication in songbirds. The temporal and structural components of songs can vary in different habitats. These include urban habitats where anthropogenic sounds and alteration of habitat structure can significantly affect songbird vocal behavior. Urban-rural variations in song complexity, song length and syllable rate are not fully understood. In this study, using the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) as a model, we investigated urban-rural variation in song complexity, song length, syllable rate, syllable length and inter-syllable interval...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978738/deceptive-vocal-duets-and-multimodal-display-in-a-songbird
#7
Paweł Ręk, Robert D Magrath
Many group-living animals cooperatively signal to defend resources, but what stops deceptive signalling to competitors about coalition strength? Cooperative-signalling species include mated pairs of birds that sing duets to defend their territory. Individuals of these species sometimes sing 'pseudo-duets' by mimicking their partner's contribution, but it is unknown if these songs are deceptive, or why duets are normally reliable. We studied pseudo-duets in Australian magpie-larks, Grallina cyanoleuca, and tested whether multimodal signalling constrains deception...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953940/microbial-abundance-on-the-eggs-of-a-passerine-bird-and-related-fitness-consequences-between-urban-and-rural-habitats
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sang-Im Lee, Hyunna Lee, Piotr G Jablonski, Jae Chun Choe, Magne Husby
Urban environments present novel and challenging habitats to wildlife. In addition to well-known difference in abiotic factors between rural and urban environments, the biotic environment, including microbial fauna, may also differ significantly. In this study, we aimed to compare the change in microbial abundance on eggshells during incubation between urban and rural populations of a passerine bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica), and examine the consequences of any differences in microbial abundances in terms of hatching success and nestling survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922382/formal-comment-to-soler-et-al-great-spotted-cuckoo-nestlings-have-no-antipredatory-effect-on-magpie-or-carrion-crow-host-nests-in-southern-spain
#9
COMMENT
Daniela Canestrari, Diana Bolopo, Ted C J Turlings, Gregory Röder, José M Marcos, Vittorio Baglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899382/carrion-crows-corvus-corone-of-southwest-germany-important-hosts-for-haemosporidian-parasites
#10
Sandrine Schmid, Katrin Fachet, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other Haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon spp.) form a diverse group of vector-transmitted blood parasites that are abundant in many bird families. Recent studies have suggested that corvids may be an important host for Plasmodium spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. METHODS: To investigate the diversity of Haemosporida of resident carrion crows (Corvus corone) and Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) in southwest Germany, 100 liver samples of corvids were examined using a nested PCR method to amplify a 1063 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762195/no-evidence-for-self-recognition-in-a-small-passerine-the-great-tit-parus-major-judged-from-the-mark-mirror-test
#11
Fanny-Linn Kraft, Tereza Forštová, A Utku Urhan, Alice Exnerová, Anders Brodin
Self-recognition is a trait presumed to be associated with high levels of cognition and something previously considered to be exclusive to humans and possibly apes. The most common test of self-recognition is the mark/mirror test of whether an animal can understand that it sees its own reflection in a mirror. The usual design is that an animal is marked with a colour spot somewhere on the body where the spot can only be seen by the animal by using a mirror. Very few species have passed this test, and among birds, only magpies have been affirmatively demonstrated to pass it...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756236/accuracy-estimation-of-an-indirect-elisa-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-wild-birds-using-a-latent-class-model
#12
Marco Tamba, Antonino Caminiti, Alice Prosperi, Philippe Desprès, Davide Lelli, Giorgio Galletti, Ana Moreno, Giulia Paternoster, Annalisa Santi, Elio Licata, Sylvie Lecollinet, Luca Gelmini, Gianluca Rugna, Anna Procopio, Antonio Lavazza
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), genus Flavivirus, are members of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, and are maintained primarily in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. WNV is zoonotic, and poses a threat to public health, especially in relation to blood transfusion. Serosurveillance of wild birds is suitable for early detection of WNV circulation, although concerns remain to be addressed as regards i) the type of test used, whether ELISA, virus neutralization test (VNT), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), ii) the reagents (antigens, revealing antibodies), iii) the different bird species involved, and iv) potential cross-reactions with other Flaviviruses, such as USUV...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#13
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676793/immune-responses-of-chickens-infected-with-wild-bird-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-virus
#14
Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Runyu Yuan, Haili Ma, Bin Xiang, Zhaoxiong Wang, Xu Dai, Fumin Wang, Jiajie Xiao, Ming Liao, Tao Ren
Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283) in Pallas's sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015), whereas a virus (i.e., SW8) isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658287/an-experimental-test-of-host-s-life-history-traits-modulation-in-response-to-cuckoo-parasitism-risk
#15
Mónica Expósito-Granados, Deseada Parejo, Juan Gabriel Martínez, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Marta Precioso, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Jesús M Avilés
Hosts can counteract parasites through defences based on resistance and/or tolerance. The mechanistic basis of tolerance, which involve defensive mechanisms minimizing parasite damage after a successful parasitic attack, remains poorly explored in the study of cuckoo-host interactions. Here, we experimentally explore the possibility that the risk of great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius parasitism may induce tolerance defences in magpie Pica pica hosts through plasticity in life-history traits. We predict that magpies exposed to auditory cues indicating high parasitism risk will more likely exhibit resistance and/or modify their life-history traits to minimize parasitism costs (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610033/molecular-approaches-for-blood-meal-analysis-and-species-identification-of%C3%A2-mosquitoes-insecta-diptera-culicidae-in-rural-locations-in-southern-england-united-kingdom
#16
Luis Miguel Hernández-Triana, Victor Albert Brugman, Sean Williams John Prosser, Chris Weland, Nadya Nikolova, Leigh Thorne, Mar Fernández DE Marco, Anthony Richard Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria...
April 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589845/deep-phylogeographic-breaks-in-magpie-pica-pica-across-the-holarctic-concordance-with-bioacoustics-and-phenotypes
#17
Alexey P Kryukov, Liudmila N Spiridonova, Sayaka Mori, Vladimir Yu Arkhipov, Yaroslav A Red'kin, Oleg A Goroshko, Evgeny G Lobkov, Elisabeth Haring
We examined sequences of the mitochondrial control region in magpies (Pica pica) from the entire distribution range and found deep genetic splits into four major lineages: (1) group West (Europe-Siberia), (2) group East (southern Far East), (3) P. p. mauritanica (North Africa), and (4) P. p. hudsonia (North America). These lineages show a geographic pattern corresponding to known subspecies or subspecies groups. Genetic variation within the widely-distributed group West is low and neutrality tests supported a recent expansion scenario...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#18
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510577/are-horses-capable-of-mirror-self-recognition-a-pilot-study
#19
Paolo Baragli, Elisa Demuru, Chiara Scopa, Elisabetta Palagi
Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499128/stress-induced-by-heavy-metals-on-breeding-of-magpie-pica-pica-from-central-iran
#20
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples...
September 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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