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Dark tea

Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Monika Gorzynik-Debicka, Paulina Przychodzen, Francesco Cappello, Alicja Kuban-Jankowska, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Narcyz Knap, Michal Wozniak, Magdalena Gorska-Ponikowska
Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Minxuan Wang, Yongjie Zhang
Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, but counterfeit or adulterated tea can be found now and then on the tea market. The traditional methods dependent on sensory, physical and chemical tests cannot identify the composition of adulterated plant species accurately. We developed therefore a method for identification of adulterated plants in tea based on qualitative detection of plant rbcL (Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase large subunit) fragments, which involved amplification, sequencing and sequence analyses of rbcL fragments...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Simonetta Camandola, Natalie Plick, Mark P Mattson
Increasing evidence suggests that regular consumption of coffee, tea and dark chocolate (cacao) can promote brain health and may reduce the risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the complex array of phytochemicals in coffee and cacao beans and tea leaves has hindered a clear understanding of the component(s) that affect neuronal plasticity and resilience. One class of phytochemicals present in relatively high amounts in coffee, tea and cacao are methylxanthines. Among such methylxanthines, caffeine has been the most widely studied and has clear effects on neuronal network activity, promotes sustained cognitive performance and can protect neurons against dysfunction and death in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Hyang-Gi Ji, Yeong-Ran Lee, Min-Seuk Lee, Kyeong-Hwan Hwang, Clara Yongjoo Park, Eun-Hee Kim, Jun Seong Park, Young-Shick Hong
With increase of tea (Camellia sinensis) consumption, its chemical or metabolite compositions play a crucial role in the determination of tea quality. In general, metabolite compositions of fresh tea leaves including shoots depend on plucking seasons and tea cultivators. Therefore, choosing specific plucking time of tea leaves can provide use-specified tea products. Artificial control of tea growing, typically shade treatments, can lead to significant changes of the tea metabolite compositions of tea. However, metabolic characteristics of tea grown under various shade treatments conditions remain unclear...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Luting Cao, Xuemei Guo, Guangjin Liu, Yuelin Song, Chi-Tang Ho, Ruyan Hou, Liang Zhang, Xiaochun Wan
A total of 98 compounds including 20 aldehydes, eight arenes, six acids, 17 alcohols, 13 ketones, nine esters, nine methoxyphenolics, three alkenes, seven alkanes, and six other components were tentatively identified in six Chinese dark teas (CDTs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that dark teas from Yunnan and Guangxi provinces could be classified into one group, and other CDTs belonged to the other cluster. The diagnostic volatile compounds being responsible for CDTs' discrimination were observed as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, methoxyphenolics, geraniol, α-terpineol, 2,4-heptadienal, cis-jasmone, linalool oxides, and 2-nonenal...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Lei Bian, Xiao-Ming Cai, Zong-Xiu Luo, Zhao-Qun Li, Zhao-Jun Xin, Zong-Mao Chen
The tea leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, is a serious pest of the tea plant. E. onukii prefers to inhabit vigorously growing tender tea leaves. The host selection of E. onukii adults may be associated with plant volatile compounds (VOCs). We sought to identify potentially attractive VOCs from tea leaves at three different ages and test the behavioral responses of E. onukii adults to synthetic VOC blends in the laboratory and field to aid in developing an E. onukii adult attractant. In darkness, the fresh or mature tea leaves of less than 1-mo old could attract more leafhoppers than the mature branches (MB) that had many older leaves (leaf age >1 mo)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Wei Long, Guanghui Zhang, Yinping Dong, Deguan Li
The hematopoietic system is widely studied in radiation research. Tea has been proved to have antioxidative activity. In the present study, we describe the protective effects of dark tea extract (DTE) on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. DTE administration significantly enhanced the survival rate of mice after 7.0 and 7.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). The results showed that DTE not only markedly increased the numbers and cloning potential of hematopoietic cells, but also decreased DNA damages after mice were exposed to 6...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Juan M Sanchez
Methylxanthines present psychostimulant effects. These compounds have low toxicity and their consumption at moderate levels presents some beneficial health effects, whereas some significant risk appears at high levels. Samples of common types of methylxanthine-containing beverages and foods consumed in Spain were analyzed to determine their content. Caffeine was the methylxanthine that was most found in the samples investigated. Instant coffees gave the highest caffeine percentage (18-44 mg·g-1 ). Green and scented teas were found to have a caffeine dry-weight content (8-26 mg·g-1 ) equivalent to ground coffees (13-23 mg·g-1 ), but black and pu-erh teas (18-30 mg·g-1 ) had a higher caffeine content...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Guoyuan Qi, Yashi Mi, Yiwen Wang, Runnan Li, Shuxian Huang, Xingyu Li, Xuebo Liu
Many studies have shown that oxidative stress is a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of human diseases including cognitive impairment. Tea polyphenols (TPs), natural plant flavonoids found in tea plant leaves, possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases via antioxidant associated mechanisms. However, the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of TPs in the brain of mice housed in constant darkness and in H2O2-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells are yet to be elucidated...
November 1, 2017: Food & Function
Hai-Peng Lv, Yue Zhang, Jiang Shi, Zhi Lin
Dark teas are rich in secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids, which have been suggested to be associated with their health benefits. In this study, the concentrations of tea polyphenols, tea pigments, catechins, flavonoids, alkaloid, and volatile components in 44 dark tea samples, including Pu-erh, Fuzhuan and Liubao teas, were systematically examined. Among the samples tested, Pu-erh tea contained the highest total flavonoid content (5.24±0.05%), followed by Liubao (4.45±0.61%) and Fuzhuan teas (3...
October 2017: Food Research International
Suelen J Souza, Aline A Petrilli, Andrea M Teixeira, Patricia M Pontilho, Antonio A Carioca, Liania A Luzia, José M Souza, Nágila R Damasceno, Aluisio A Segurado, Patricia H Rondó
OBJECTIVE: HIV/AIDS is generally associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative imbalance, which are caused by the infection itself and by antiretroviral therapy (ART). The flavonoids, found in cocoa and yerba mate, have antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of dark chocolate and mate tea on the lipid profiles of individuals with HIV/AIDS who are undergoing ART. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted with 92 patients receiving ART for ≥6 mo and with viral suppression...
November 2017: Nutrition
Qin Li, Jianan Huang, Yongdi Li, Yiyang Zhang, Yu Luo, Yuan Chen, Haiyan Lin, Kunbo Wang, Zhonghua Liu
Fu brick tea is a unique post-fermented tea product which is fermented with microorganism during the manufacturing process. Metabolic analysis showed that most metabolites content were decreased during the manufacturing process of Fu brick tea, except GA (gallic acid). Illumina MiSeq sequencing of ITS gene amplicons was applied to analyze the fungal community succession. The genera Aspergillus, Cyberlindnera and Candida were predominant at the early stage of manufacturing process (from "primary dark tea" to "fermentation for 3 days"), but after the stage of "fermentation for 3 days" only Aspergillus was still dominated, and maintain a relatively constant until to the end of manufacturing process...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Huma Ikram, Beenish Mirza, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Clinical studies on psychiatric patients suggest that life events stress precipitates depression. The possible involvement of 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) in depression and other behavioral deficits is also suggested by clinical studies. As a natural stimulant, green tea (Camellia Sinensis) diminishes stress, worry and anxiety, allowing the brain to focus and concentrate better. Previously we have reported that beneficial effects of green tea might be associated with altered levels of 5-HT, which in turn may help in coping with stress...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Chang Hyun Jin
The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Paweł Wityk, Magdalena Zdrowowicz, Justyna Wiczk, Janusz Rak
5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) photosensitizes DNA to strand break formation. However, this type of photodamage is completely quenched by the presence of triethylamine (TEA) which originates from RP-HPLC purification commonly employed by oligonucleotide providers. While the presence of TEA in oligonucleotide samples does not interfere with PCR or other molecular biology applications, the mechanism of photochemical reaction proceeding in the labeled DNA is dramatically changed due to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between the photoexcited BrdU and the ground state TEA...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ye Jiao, Jialiang He, Fengli Li, Guanjun Tao, Shuang Zhang, Shikang Zhang, Fang Qin, Maomao Zeng, Jie Chen
The levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) in 99 tea samples from 14 geographic regions, including 44 green, 7 oolong, 41 black, and 7 dark teas were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CML and CEL contents varied from 11.0 to 1701μg/g tea and 4.6 to 133μg/g tea, respectively. Dark tea presented the highest levels of CML and CEL, whereas green and oolong teas presented the lowest levels. Five kinds of catechins in the tea were also analyzed, and spearman's correlation coefficients showed that all the catechins negatively correlated with CML and CEL...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yuwan Wang, Mingyue Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Hengqian Lu, Xueling Gao, Pengxiang Yue
BACKGROUND: Theabrownins (TB) are bioactive components that are usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, in which they are present at low concentrations. The present study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content (i.e. inoculum size, liquid-solid ratio and rotation speed) were optimized using response surface methodology. RESULT: Optimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ana Gabriela Murillo, Maria Luz Fernandez
The chemical structure of polyphenols consisting of aromatic rings, capable of quenching free radicals, makes them ideal candidates to protect against oxidation. Polyphenols are present in a variety of foods including grapes, berries, dark chocolate, coffee and tea to mention a few. A number of studies have shown that dietary polyphenols exert a protective effect against hypertension, dyslipidemias, inflammation, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, conditions associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease...
March 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Wu-Xia Bai, Chao Wang, Yijun Wang, Wen-Jun Zheng, Wei Wang, Xiaochun Wan, Guan-Hu Bao
A novel acylated flavonol tetraglycoside, kaempferol 3-O-[(E)-p- coumaroyl-(1→2)][α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)][β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-α-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (camellikaempferoside C, 1), together with two flavonol and eighteen flavone and flavonol glycosides (FGs) (2-21) was isolated from the green tea Lu'an GuaPian (Camellia sinensis L.O. Kuntze). Their structures were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Four acylated FGs (1, 7, 8, 9) were found to inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at the concentrations 25, 50, 100 µM (P < 0...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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