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Dark tea

Jianyu Fu, Haipeng Lv, Feng Chen
Chinese dark teas (CDTs) are now among the popular tea beverages worldwide due to their unique health benefits. Because the production of CDTs involves fermentation that is characterized by the effect of microbes, microorganisms are believed to play critical roles in the determination of the chemical characteristics of CDTs. Some dominant fungi have been identified from CDTs. In contrast, little, if anything, is known about the composition of bacterial community in CDTs. This study was set to investigate the diversity and variation of bacterial community in four major types of CDTs from China...
2016: PloS One
Shuyuan Liu, Zhi Yu, Hongkai Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yuqiong Chen
BACKGROUND: Natural products have being used as potential inhibitors against carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes to treat diabetes mellitus. Chinese dark tea has various interesting bioactivities. In this study, the active compounds from Qingzhuan dark tea were separated and their anti-diabetic activity was examined using an in vitro enzymatic model. METHODS: The chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, sediment and residual aqua fractions of a Chinese dark tea (Qingzhuan tea) were prepared by successively isolating the water extract with different solvents and their in vitro inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase were assessed...
September 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Valerio Sanguigni, Melania Manco, Roberto Sorge, Lucio Gnessi, Davide Francomano
OBJECTIVE: The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. METHODS: In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream)...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Marla Hahn, Marília Baierle, Mariele F Charão, Guilherme B Bubols, Fernanda S Gravina, Paulo Zielinsky, Marcelo D Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia
This review aimed to investigate possible protective or deleterious effects of polyphenol-rich foods (PRF) on chronic diseases, e.g. cardiovascular, and in pregnant women, along with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A great variety of foods and beverages, such as herbal teas, grape and orange derivatives, dark chocolate, and many others contain high concentrations of flavonoids and are freely consumed by the general population. In humans, PRF consumption reduces lipid peroxidation, and several studies have shown a positive correlation between an increased consumption of PRF and a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular disease...
August 7, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sara Wickham
In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. As it is always useful to consider how we can facilitate physiological labour and birth, this month Sara shares some of the tips that she has gathered from midwives and other birth workers about how they help women and families to lower the light levels and create the semi-darkness which many people feel is conducive to normal birth...
March 2016: Practising Midwife
Justyna Brzezicha-Cirocka, Małgorzata Grembecka, Piotr Szefer
This study concerns application of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in assessment of macro- and microelement and toxic metal levels (Mg, Ca, K, Na, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd and Pb) in dark (Pu-erh) and fruit tea leaves and their infusions. Phosphorus was also determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. The reliability of the method was checked using three certified reference materials. The results of analysis were in agreement with the certified values, with analytical recovery ranging from 86 to 113 %...
April 2, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Yun-Song Lai, Sha Li, Qian Tang, Huan-Xiu Li, Shen-Xiang Chen, Pin-Wu Li, Jin-Yi Xu, Yan Xu, Xiang Guo
Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%)...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yong-Zhen Tian, Xiao Liu, Wen Liu, Wei-Yun Wang, Yan-Hua Long, Liang Zhang, Yan Xu, Guan-Hu Bao, Xiao-Chun Wan, Tie-Jun Ling
Fuzhuan brick-tea (FBT) is unique for a fungal fermentation stage in its manufacture process and is classified in dark tea. A new acylated flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-[E-p-coumaroyl-(→2)][α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)][α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, which was trivially named as camellikaempferoside A (1), was isolated from FBT along with camelliquercetiside C (2). Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 7...
February 17, 2016: Natural Product Research
Elżbieta Rusinek-Prystupa, Zbigniew Marzec, Iwona Sembratowicz, Wioletta Samolińska, Bożena Kiczorowska, Małgorzata Kwiecień
The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261...
July 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Xiumin Fu, Yiyong Chen, Xin Mei, Tsuyoshi Katsuno, Eiji Kobayashi, Fang Dong, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
Regulation of plant growth and development by light wavelength has been extensively studied. Less attention has been paid to effect of light wavelength on formation of plant metabolites. The objective of this study was to investigate whether formation of volatiles in preharvest and postharvest tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves can be regulated by light wavelength. In the present study, in contrast to the natural light or dark treatment, blue light (470 nm) and red light (660 nm) significantly increased most endogenous volatiles including volatile fatty acid derivatives (VFADs), volatile phenylpropanoids/benzenoids (VPBs), and volatile terpenes (VTs) in the preharvest tea leaves...
2015: Scientific Reports
Fan Zhu, Ratchaneekorn Sakulnak, Sunan Wang
Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Sena Saklar, Erdal Ertas, Ibrahim S Ozdemir, Bulent Karadeniz
The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability...
October 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hitender Sharma, Munish Garg
AIMS: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Paolo Gontero, Giancarlo Marra, Francesco Soria, Marco Oderda, Andrea Zitella, Francesca Baratta, Giovanna Chiorino, Ilaria Gregnanin, Lorenzo Daniele, Luigi Cattel, Bruno Frea, Paola Brusa
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants effectiveness in prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention has been severely questioned, especially after the recent results of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. We present the results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial (dbRCT) on the pharmacokinetic, clinical, and molecular activity of dietary supplements containing lycopene, selenium, and green tea catechins (GTCs) in men with multifocal high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mHGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP)...
August 1, 2015: Prostate
Zehra Can, Oktay Yildiz, Huseyin Sahin, Emine Akyuz Turumtay, Sibel Silici, Sevgi Kolayli
This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization...
August 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
B A Matis, G Wang, J I Matis, N B Cook, G J Eckert
Patients are sometimes blamed for a reduced effect of bleaching when they do not adhere to a dentist's prescribed white diet. This study aimed to determine whether a white diet is necessary by evaluating the effects of coffee, tea, wine, and dark fruits on the potential tooth whitening during the bleaching process. Each of the effects of discoloration was categorized as "yes" or "no" based on a patient questionnaire. Data from five published studies were included in the analyses. Outcomes were based on the color change between baseline and the end of bleaching...
May 2015: Operative Dentistry
Qian Cheng, Shengbao Cai, Dejiang Ni, Ruojun Wang, Feng Zhou, Baoping Ji, Yuqiong Chen
In the present work, Qingzhuan tea, a unique dark tea produced by post-fermentation technology, was selected to investigate its antioxidant and pancreatic α-amylase inhibiting activities. Water extract of Qingzhuan tea was successively isolated by solvent partitioning procedures to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, sediment and residual aqua fractions. Of different fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction (QEF) had the highest total polyphenols and catechins contents, demonstrated the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity and exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity in vitro...
February 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Rachna Pandey, Alexander Ter Beek, Norbert O E Vischer, Jan P P M Smelt, Robèr Kemperman, Erik M M Manders, Stanley Brul
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and known for its antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms. Preliminary studies have shown that tea polyphenols can inhibit the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the effect of these compounds on germination and outgrowth of bacterial spores is unclear. Spore-forming bacteria are an aggravating problem for the food industry due to spore formation and their subsequent returning to vegetative state during food storage, thus posing spoilage and food safety challenges...
February 2015: Food Microbiology
Marina María de Jesús Romero-Prado, Jesús Aarón Curiel-Beltrán, María Viviana Miramontes-Espino, Ernesto Germán Cardona-Muñoz, Angeles Rios-Arellano, Lol-Be Balam-Salazar
Epidemiological studies have suggested that the daily intake of flavonoids is associated with a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the addition of dietary flavonoids (DF) to antihypertensive treatment (AHT), based on telmisartan (Tms) or captopril (Cpr), on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, leptin, lipid profile and inflammation in hypertensive young patients. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial was performed among 79 patients aged 20-55 years with grade I or grade II systemic arterial hypertension...
July 2015: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jennifer M Walker, Diana Klakotskaia, Deepa Ajit, Gary A Weisman, W Gibson Wood, Grace Y Sun, Peter Serfozo, Agnes Simonyi, Todd R Schachtman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific brain regions that control memory and cognitive functions. Epidemiological studies suggest that exercise and dietary antioxidants are beneficial in reducing AD risk. To date, botanical flavonoids are consistently associated with the prevention of age-related diseases. The present study investigated the effects of 4 months of wheel-running exercise, initiated at 2-months of age, in conjunction with the effects of the green tea catechin (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered orally in the drinking water (50 mg/kg daily) on: (1) behavioral measures: learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze, nest building, open-field, anxiety in the light-dark box; and (2) soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the cortex and hippocampus in TgCRND8 (Tg) mice...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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