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Retinoic acid receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782174/expression-of-concentrative-nucleoside-transporters-slc28a-in-the-human-placenta-effects-of-gestation-age-and-prototype-differentiation-affecting-agents
#1
Lucie Jiraskova, Lukas Cerveny, Sara Karbanova, Zuzana Ptackova, Frantisek Staud
Equilibrative ( SLC29A) and concentrative ( SLC28A) nucleoside transporters contribute to proper placental development and mediate uptake of nucleosides/nucleoside-derived drugs. We analyzed placental expression of SLC28A mRNA during gestation. Moreover, we studied in choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells whether SLC29A and SLC28A mRNA levels can be modulated by activity of adenylyl cyclase, retinoic acid receptor activation, CpG islands methylation, or histone acetylation, using forskolin, all- trans-retinoic acid, and 5-azacytidine, and sodium butyrate/sodium valproate, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781215/strap-deficiency-impairs-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lineage-commitment-through-cyp26a1-mediated-retinoic-acid-homeostasis
#2
Lin Jin, Chenbei Chang, Kevin M Pawlik, Arunima Datta, Larry M Johnson, Trung Vu, Joseph L Napoli, Pran K Datta
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and vertebrate development. RA biosynthesis and metabolism are controlled by a series of enzymes, but the molecular regulators of these enzymes remain largely obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the WD-domain protein STRAP (serine threonine kinase receptor-associated protein) in the pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. We generated Strap knockout (KO) mouse ESCs and subjected them to spontaneous differentiation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777906/reduced-rar-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-lung-cancer-mice-is-upregulated-by-dotap-lipo-atra-treatment
#3
S Viswanathan, V M Berlin Grace
Molecular targeted therapy for specific genes is an emerging research. Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR-β) is a key tumor suppressor which is found to be lost drastically during much cancer progression. We hence, analyzed the expression level of RAR-β gene during B(a)P induced lung cancer development in mice and studied the lung cancer targeted action of All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) in DOTAP liposomal formulation. The effect of its treatment on lung cancer was determined by histopathological analysis. RAR-β gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR and qPCR...
May 16, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775622/clinicopathological-analysis-of-immunohistochemical-expression-of-retinoic-acid-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-t-in-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-not-otherwise-specified
#4
Eriko Yanagida, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Keisuke Kawamoto, Kazutaka Nakashima, Kotaro Matsuda, Kyohei Yamada, Reiji Muto, Koji Nagafuji, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is cytologically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) is a transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of naïve CD4+ helper T-cells to Th17 cells. In the present study, we immunohistochemically confirmed the expression of RORγt in PTCL-NOS. Pathological and clinical investigations were performed for 170 cases of PTCL-NOS. RORγt-positive cases accounted for 17.6% (30/170) of the total cases and they showed a significantly higher frequency of CD8 positivity (P=...
May 15, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774040/-oligocellula1-high-expression-of-osmotically-responsive-genes15-promotes-cell-proliferation-with-histone-deacetylase9-and-powerdress-during-leaf-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Marina Suzuki, Nanae Shinozuka, Tomohiro Hirakata, Miyuki T Nakata, Taku Demura, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Gorou Horiguchi
Organ size regulation is dependent on the precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion. A number of transcription factors have been identified that play a key role in the determination of aerial lateral organ size, but their functional relationship to various chromatin modifiers has not been well understood. To understand how leaf size is regulated, we previously isolated the oligocellula1 ( oli1 ) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that develops smaller first leaves than the wild type (WT) mainly due to a reduction in the cell number...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771291/long-noncoding-rnas-exchange-during-zygotic-genome-activation-in-goat
#6
Mingtian Deng, Yongjie Wan, Zifei Liu, Caifang Ren, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Yanli Zhang, Feng Wang
In mammals, their proper development during the early cleavage stages strongly relies on the gene products newly transcribed by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been characterized as key regulators of the ZGA process in mice and human. However, the ZGA stage has not yet been identified and epigenetic regulations of the ZGA process remain largely unknown in goats. Here, we show that ZGA occurred at the 8-cell stage in goats. During ZGA, tri-methylation of H3K9 was dynamically changed but maintained strong staining in development arrested embryos...
May 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769220/retinoic-acid-induced-expression-of-hnf1%C3%AE-and-fzd4-is-required-for-pancreas-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#7
Maja B Gere, Claudia Pommerenke, Thomas Lingner, Tomas Pieler
Retinoic acid (RA) is required for pancreas specification in Xenopus and other vertebrates. However, the gene network that is directly induced by RA-signalling in this context remains to be defined. We identified the transcription factor Hnf1β and the Wnt-receptor Fzd4/Fzd4s as direct RA-target genes through RNA-sequencing of in vitro generated pancreatic explants. Functional analyses of Hnf1β and Fzd4/Fzd4s in programmed pancreatic explants and whole embryos revealed their requirement for pancreatic progenitor formation and differentiation...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766641/tailoring-the-homing-capacity-of-human-tregs-for-directed-migration-to-sites-of-th1-inflammation-or-intestinal-regions
#8
Romy E Hoeppli, Katherine N MacDonald, Pascal Leclair, Vivian C W Fung, Majid Mojibian, Jana Gillies, Seyed M R Rahavi, Andrew I M Campbell, Sanjiv K Gandhi, Anne M Pesenacker, Gregor Reid, Chinten J Lim, Megan K Levings
Cell-based therapy with CD4+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising strategy to limit organ rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Ongoing clinical applications have yet to consider how human Tregs could be modified to direct their migration to specific inflammation sites and/or tissues for more targeted immunosuppression. We show here that stable, homing-receptor-tailored human Tregs can be generated from thymic Tregs isolated from pediatric thymus or adult blood. To direct migration to Th1-inflammatory sites, addition of IFN-γ and IL-12 during Treg expansion produced suppressive, epigenetically-stable CXCR3+ TBET+ FOXP3+ Th1-Tregs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765354/pituitary-directed-therapies-for-cushing-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Fabienne Langlois, Jennifer Chu, Maria Fleseriu
Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by a pituitary corticotroph neuroendocrine tumor inducing uncontrolled hypercortisolism. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment in most cases. Nonetheless, some patients will not achieve cure even in expert hands, others may not be surgical candidates and a significant percentage will experience recurrence. Many patients will thus require medical therapy to achieve disease control. Pharmacologic options to treat CD have increased in recent years, with an explosion in knowledge related to pathophysiology at the molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#10
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757590/imbalance-of-peripheral-blood-t-helper-type-17-responses-in-patients-with-vitiligo
#11
Farinaz Behfarjam, Parvine Mansouri, Zohreh Jadali
There is growing evidence to suggest that Th cells play pivotal roles in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including vitiligo. However, the exact role of different subsets of Th cells in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is still a question. The purpose of present study was to determine the mRNA expression level of Th17 master transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors gamma (RORɣt) and cytokine mRNA and protein expression profiles of Th17 cells. 22 patients with vitiligo and 22 normal subjects were enrolled in the study...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757260/involvement-of-mafb-and-maff-in-retinoid-mediated-suppression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-invasion
#12
Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Seiya Oura
Retinoids exert antitumor effects through the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). In the present study, we sought to identify the factors involved in the RARα-mediated transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor gene and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All- trans -retinoic acid (ATRA) was used in the in vitro experiments. Cell invasiveness was measured using trans-well invasion assay. ATRA significantly increased TFPI2 expression through RARα in a human HCC cell line known as HuH7...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753314/allosteric-and-orthosteric-activators-of-mglur8-differentially-affect-the-chemotherapeutic-induced-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cell-damage-the-impact-of-cell-differentiation-state
#13
Danuta Jantas, Beata Grygier, Justyna Zatorska, Władysław Lasoń
The participation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in cancer growth and progression is still an understudied issue. Based on our recent data on high expression of mGluR8 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, in the present study we evaluated the effect of an mGluR8-specific positive allosteric modulator (PAM: AZ12216052) and orthosteric agonist ((S)-3,4-DCPG) on chemotherapeutic (doxorubicin, irinotecan or cisplatin)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) and retinoic acid-differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748133/retinoic-acid-inhibits-neuronal-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#14
Eric de Hoog, Mark K Lukewich, Gaynor E Spencer
Retinoic acid is the active metabolite of vitamin A and regulates several important cellular processes by activating retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). These receptors generally act as transcription factors, though non-genomic actions of both retinoic acid and the receptors have also been reported. One such nongenomic effect includes the modulation of Ca2+ levels during homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid can thus affect Ca2+ signaling and can potentially control both synaptic plasticity and neuronal firing...
February 13, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743862/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-retinoid-receptors-cross-talk-at-the-cyp1a1-promoter-in-vitro
#15
Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Anke Ehlers, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
The epithelium of the small intestine plays an important role in detoxification processes due to the presence of various xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes from phase I and II, as well as transport proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. Exposure to xenobiotics induces the expression of these proteins in the small intestine, with multiple signaling pathways stimulated by exogenous compounds converging at individual gene promoters by mechanisms which have not been fully understood yet. In this context the promoter region of the CYP1A1 gene, encoding the phase I monooxygenase cytochrome P450 1A1, was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with regard to binding of xeno-sensing receptors following stimulation of Caco-2 cells with agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and retinoid receptors...
2018: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737242/bms-493-modulates-retinoic-acid-induced-differentiation-during-expansion-of-human-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-for-islet-regeneration
#16
Ruth Marise Elgamal, Gillian I Bell, Sarah Krause, David A Hess
Cellular therapies are emerging as a novel treatment strategy for diabetes. Thus, the induction of endogenous islet regeneration in situ represents a feasible goal for diabetes therapy. Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) isolated by high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH<sup>hi</sup>) have previously been shown to reduce hyperglycemia after intrapancreatic (iPan) transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735542/pml-recruits-tet2-to-regulate-dna-modification-and-cell-proliferation-in-response-to-chemotherapeutic-agent
#17
Chengli Song, Lina Wang, Xiaoyan Wu, Kai Wang, Dan Xie, Qi Xiao, Songyu Li, Kui Jiang, Lujian Liao, John R Yates, Jiing-Dwan Lee, Qingkai Yang
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer. Failure to demethylate and to consequently reactivate methylation-silenced genes in cancer contributes to chemotherapeutic resistance, yet the regulatory mechanisms of DNA demethylation in response to chemotherapeutic agents remain unclear. Here, we show that promyelocytic leukemia (PML) recruits ten-eleven translocation dioxygenase 2 (TET2) to regulate DNA modification and cell proliferation in response to chemotherapeutic agents...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731429/electrophysiologic-characterization-of-calcium-handling-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-atrial-cardiomyocytes
#18
Mariana Argenziano, Erin Lambers, Liang Hong, Arvind Sridhar, Meihong Zhang, Brandon Chalazan, Ambili Menon, Eleonora Savio-Galimberti, Joseph C Wu, Jalees Rehman, Dawood Darbar
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived atrial cardiomyocytes (CMs) hold great promise for elucidating underlying cellular mechanisms that cause atrial fibrillation (AF). In order to use atrial-like hiPSC-CMs for arrhythmia modeling, it is essential to better understand the molecular and electrophysiological phenotype of these cells. We performed comprehensive molecular, transcriptomic, and electrophysiologic analyses of retinoic acid (RA)-guided hiPSC atrial-like CMs and demonstrate that RA results in differential expression of genes involved in calcium ion homeostasis that directly interact with an RA receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 2 (COUP-TFII)...
April 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721256/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-starfish-metamorphosis
#19
Shumpei Yamakawa, Yoshiaki Morino, Masanao Honda, Hiroshi Wada
Background: Although retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a crucial role in the body patterning of chordates, its function in non-chordate invertebrates, other than its mediation of environmental cues triggering metamorphosis in cnidarians, is largely unknown. We investigated the role of RA signaling in the metamorphosis of starfish (Echinodermata). Results: We found that exogenous RA treatment induced metamorphosis in starfish larvae. In contrast, inhibitors of RA synthesis and RA receptors suppressed metamorphosis triggered by attachment to a substrate...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720894/pleiotropic-associations-of-rarres2-gene-variants-and-circulating-chemerin-levels-potential-roles-of-chemerin-involved-in-the-metabolic-and-inflammation-related-diseases
#20
Leay-Kiaw Er, Semon Wu, Lung-An Hsu, Ming-Sheng Teng, Yu-Ching Sun, Yu-Lin Ko
Chemerin, an adipokine and inflammatory mediator, is associated with metabolic, inflammation- and immune-mediated diseases. The genetic, clinical, and biomarker correlates of circulating chemerin levels have not been completely elucidated. We analyzed the determinants and correlates of retinoic acid receptor responder 2 ( RARRES2 ; encoding chemerin) gene variants and chemerin levels in the Taiwanese population. In total, 612 individuals were recruited. Clinical and metabolic phenotypes, 13 inflammatory markers, 5 adipokines, and 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the RARRES2 region were analyzed...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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