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Retinoic acid receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#1
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336971/targeting-to-the-non-genomic-activity-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-gamma-by-acacetin-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Wenjun Zeng, Chunyun Zhang, Hongwei Cheng, Yun-Long Wu, Jie Liu, Zekun Chen, Jian-Gang Huang, Russell Erick Ericksen, Liqun Chen, Haiping Zhang, Alice Sze Tsai Wong, Xiao-Kun Zhang, Weiping Han, Jin-Zhang Zeng
We recently demonstrated that retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARγ) is overexpressed and acts as a tumor promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The oncogenic activity of RARγ is mainly attributed to its physiological interaction with p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K leading to constitutive activation of AKT. Here we report RARγ as a negative regulator of p53 signaling and thus extend the oncogenic potential of RARγ to a new role in controlling the balance between AKT and p53. A natural flavonoid acacetin is then identified to be capable of modulating RARγ-dependent AKT-p53 network...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#3
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332901/regulation-of-humoral-immunity-by-gut-microbial-products
#4
Myunghoo Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal tract provides ideal niches for several different microbial species, which are collectively called the gut microbiota. A key host immune effector that controls the microbiota and prevents mucosal infection is IgA. Gut microbiota-derived factors are largely classified into molecular pattern recognition receptor ligands and nutrient-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and adenosine triphosphate. Along with host-derived factors such as retinoic acid, various cytokines and cytokine-like molecules, gut microbial products profoundly shape B cell responses...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332183/retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptor-ror%C3%AE-regulates-differentiation-and-survival-of-keratinocytes-during-hypoxia
#5
Hongyu Li, Longjian Zhou, Jun Dai
Low O2 pressures present in the microenvironment of epidermis control keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function through hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) dependent gene expression. This study focuses on investigating relations of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) to HIF-1α in keratinocytes under hypoxic conditions. The expression level of RORα is significantly elevated under hypoxia in both human and murine keratinocytes. Gene silencing of RORA attenuates hypoxia-stimulated expression of genes related to late differentiation and epidermal barrier function, and leads to an enhanced apoptotic response...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327532/a-combination-of-soybean-and-haematococcus-extract-alleviates-ultraviolet-b-induced-photoaging
#6
Jieun Shin, Jong-Eun Kim, Kum-Ju Pak, Jung Il Kang, Tae-Seok Kim, Sang-Yoon Lee, Ik-Hyun Yeo, Jung Han Yoon Park, Jong Hun Kim, Nam Joo Kang, Ki Won Lee
Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be involved in retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and previously been associated with the inhibition of activator protein (AP)-1 dependent transcription. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a combination of soy extract (SE) and Haematococcus extract (HE) may prevent UVB-induced photoaging through specific signaling pathways, as measured by UVB-induced wrinkling on hairless mice skin and expression changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325765/caenorhabditis-elegans-rig-i-homolog-mediates-antiviral-rna-interference-downstream-of-dicer-dependent-biogenesis-of-viral-small-interfering-rnas
#7
Stephanie R Coffman, Jinfeng Lu, Xunyang Guo, Jing Zhong, Hongshan Jiang, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Wan-Xiang Li, Rui Lu, Morris Maduro, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323994/direct-regulation-of-histidine-ammonia-lyase-2-gene-by-thyroid-hormone-in-the-developing-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#8
Nga Luu, Liezhen Fu, Kenta Fujimoto, Yun-Bo Shi
Most vertebrate organs utilize adult stem cells to maintain homeostasis and ensure proper repair when damaged. How such organ-specific stem cells are formed during vertebrate development is largely unexplored. We have been using the thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis to address this issue. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that intestinal remodeling involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells...
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322972/potential-role-of-cyp1b1-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-metabolic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Fei Li, Weifeng Zhu, Frank J Gonzalez
Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a member of CYP450s, is expressed in liver and extrahepatic tissues carries out the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, including the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surprisingly, CYP1B1 was also shown to be important in regulating endogenous metabolic pathways, including the metabolism of steroid hormones, fatty acids, melatonin, and vitamins. CYP1B1 and nuclear receptors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), estrogen receptor (ER), and retinoic acid receptors (RAR) contribute to the maintenance of the homeostasis of these endogenous compounds...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321213/cd161-tconv-and-cd161-treg-share-a-transcriptional-and-functional-phenotype-despite-limited-overlap-in-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire
#10
Chantal L Duurland, Chrysothemis C Brown, Ryan F L O'Shaughnessy, Lucy R Wedderburn
Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in immune regulation, but can also show plasticity in specific settings. CD161 is a lectin-like receptor and its expression identifies an effector-like Treg population. Here, we determined how CD161(+) Treg relate to CD161(+) conventional T cells (Tconv). Transcriptional profiling identified a shared transcriptional signature between CD161(+) Tconv and CD161(+) Treg, which is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and tissue homing, including high expression of gut-homing receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318945/identification-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-quinoline-tertiary-alcohol-modulators-of-ror%C3%AE-t
#11
David A Kummer, Maxwell D Cummings, Marta Abad, Joseph Barbay, Glenda Castro, Ronald Wolin, Kevin D Kreutter, Umar Maharoof, Cynthia Milligan, Rachel Nishimura, Joan Pierce, Celine Schalk-Hihi, John Spurlino, Maud Urbanski, Hariharan Venkatesan, Aihua Wang, Craig Woods, Xiaohua Xue, James P Edwards, Anne M Fourie, Kristi Leonard
A high-throughput screen of the ligand binding domain of the nuclear receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) employing a thermal shift assay yielded a quinoline tertiary alcohol hit. Optimization of the 2-, 3- and 4-positions of the quinoline core using structure-activity relationships and structure-based drug design methods led to the discovery of a series of modulators with improved RORγt inhibitory potency and inverse agonism properties.
February 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318351/retinoids-a-journey-from-the-molecular-structures-and-mechanisms-of-action-to-clinical-uses-in-dermatology-and-adverse-effects
#12
Samar Khalil, Tara Bardawil, Carla Stephan, Nadine Darwiche, Ossama Abbas, Abdul Ghani Kibbi, Georges Nemer, Mazen Kurban
Retinoids are a class of compounds derived from vitamin A or have structural and/or functional similarity with vitamin A. They are classified into three generations based on their molecular structures. Inside the body, retinoids bind to several classes of proteins including retinoid-binding proteins and retinoid nuclear receptors. This eventually leads to the activation of specific regulatory regions of DNA - called the retinoic acid response elements - involved in regulating cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317833/regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-pml-and-pml-rar%C3%AE
#13
Abrar Ahmed, Xiaochun Wan, Izaskun Mitxitorena, Andrew J Lindsay, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Mary W McCaffrey, Karen Keeshan, Youhai H Chen, Ruaidhrí J Carmody
Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) is a nuclear protein that forms sub-nuclear structures termed nuclear bodies associated with transcriptionally active genomic regions. PML is a tumour suppressor and regulator of cell differentiation. We demonstrate that PML promotes TNFα-induced transcriptional responses by promoting NF-κB activity. TNFα-treated PML(-/-) cells show normal IκBα degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation but significantly reduced NF-κB DNA binding and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. We also demonstrate that the PML retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) oncofusion protein, which causes acute promyelocytic leukemia, inhibits TNFα induced gene expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300844/il-27-triggers-il-10-production-in-th17-cells-via-a-c-maf-ror%C3%AE-t-blimp-1-signal-to-promote-the-progression-of-endometriosis
#14
Kai-Kai Chang, Li-Bing Liu, Li-Ping Jin, Bing Zhang, Jie Mei, Hui Li, Chun-Yan Wei, Wen-Jie Zhou, Xiao-Yong Zhu, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is also increased in endometriosis. IL-10 production by Th17 cells is critical for limiting autoimmunity and inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of inducing IL-10-producing Th17 cells is still largely unknown. The present study investigated the differentiation mechanism and role of IL-10-producing Th17 cells in endometriosis. Here, we report that IL-10(+)Th17 cells are significantly increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, along with an elevation of IL-27, IL-6 and TGF-β...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300567/9-cis-retinoic-acid-modulates-myotrophin-expression-and-its-mir-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-cell-models
#15
Mariarita Perri, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Nannan Liu, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Erika Cione
Functional studies indicate that essential cellular processes are controlled by Vitamin A derivatives. Among these the retinoic acid isoforms, all-trans- and 9-cis (9cRA), regulate the expression of various genes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Using several in vitro experimental models such as pancreatic β-cells, pre-adipocytes and breast cancer cells with different phenotypes, we demonstrated the capability of 9cRA to modulate myotrophin (Mtpn) and miR-375 expressions. The 9cRA effect in pancreatic β-cells line INS-1 832/13 point out a decreased expression of Mptn at both mRNA and protein levels associated to a concomitant increase of miR-375...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300138/reduced-dna-methylation-and-psychopathology-following-endogenous-hypercortisolism-a-genome-wide-study
#16
Camilla A M Glad, Johanna C Andersson-Assarsson, Peter Berglund, Ragnhildur Bergthorsdottir, Oskar Ragnarsson, Gudmundur Johannsson
Patients with Cushing's Syndrome (CS) in remission were used as a model to test the hypothesis that long-standing excessive cortisol exposure induces changes in DNA methylation that are associated with persisting neuropsychological consequences. Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed in 48 women with CS in long-term remission (cases) and 16 controls matched for age, gender and education. The Fatigue impact scale and the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale were used to evaluate fatigue, depression and anxiety...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295214/negative-regulators-of-the-rig-i-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#17
REVIEW
Kendra M Quicke, Michael S Diamond, Mehul S Suthar
Upon recognition of specific molecular patterns on microbes, host cells trigger an innate immune response, which culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFNs), pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and restricts pathogen replication and spread within the host. At each stage of this response, there are stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate the magnitude, quality, and character of the response. Positive regulation promotes an antiviral state to control and eventually clear infection, whereas negative regulation dampens inflammation and prevents immune-mediated tissue damage...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295207/human-gestation-associated-tissues-express-functional-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors
#18
Aled H Bryant, Georgina E Menzies, Louis M Scott, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Lleucu B Davies, Rachel A Smith, Ruth H Jones, Catherine A Thornton
The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291828/retinoic-acid-exacerbates-chlorpyrifos-action-in-ensuing-adipogenic-differentiation-of-c3h10t%C3%A2-cells-in-a-gsk3%C3%AE-dependent-pathway
#19
Harkirat Singh Sandhu, A J S Bhanwer, Sanjeev Puri
The cell differentiation can be exploited as a paradigm to evaluate the effects of noxious chemicals, on human health, either alone or in combinations. In this regard, the effect of a known cell differentiation agent, retinoic acid (RA) was analyzed in the presence of a noxious chemical chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate (OP), the receptors of which have recently been localized to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The observed imbalance of adipogenic to skeletal differentiation by CPF together with conundrum about adipogenic potential of RA prompted us to delineate their combinatorial effects on C3H10T½MSC-like undifferentiated cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289717/retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-c-inhibition-suppresses-th17-cells-and-induces-thymic-aberrations
#20
Christine Guntermann, Alessandro Piaia, Marie-Laure Hamel, Diethilde Theil, Tina Rubic-Schneider, Alberto Del Rio-Espinola, Linda Dong, Andreas Billich, Klemens Kaupmann, Janet Dawson, Klemens Hoegenauer, David Orain, Samuel Hintermann, Rowan Stringer, Dhavalkumar D Patel, Arno Doelemeyer, Mark Deurinck, Jens Schümann
Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C (RORC) is a master regulator of Th17 cells, which are pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Genetic Rorc deficiency in mice, while preventing autoimmunity, causes early lethality due to metastatic thymic T cell lymphomas. We sought to determine whether pharmacological RORC inhibition could be an effective and safe therapy for autoimmune diseases by evaluating its effects on Th17 cell functions and intrathymic T cell development. RORC inhibitors effectively inhibited Th17 differentiation and IL-17A production, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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