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Nuclear Receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235551/interleukin-1%C3%AE-induces-human-cementoblasts-to-support-osteoclastogenesis
#1
Nam C-N Huynh, Vincent Everts, Prasit Pavasant, Ruchanee S Ampornaramveth
Injury of the periodontium followed by inflammatory response often leads to root resorption. Resorption is accomplished by osteoclasts and their generation may depend on an interaction with the cells in direct contact with the root, the cementoblasts. Our study aimed to investigate the role of human cementoblasts in the formation of osteoclasts and the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β hereupon. Extracted teeth from healthy volunteers were subjected to sequential digestion by type I collagenase and trypsin. The effect of enzymatic digestion on the presence of cells on the root surface was analyzed by histology...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235014/increased-bile-acid-signals-after-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-improve-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-a-rodent-model-of-diet-induced-nash
#2
Takahiro Tsuchiya, Takeshi Naitoh, Munenori Nagao, Naoki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Hirofumi Imoto, Tomohiro Miyachi, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Michiaki Unno
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has resulted in it becoming a common cause of liver-related mortality; however, no efficient treatment has been established. It has been reported that bariatric surgery improves metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and NASH. Although the mechanism is unclear, it is thought that the changes in bile acid (BA) signaling via its nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), produce various metabolic effects...
December 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234821/-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-abdomen
#3
REVIEW
M Juchems
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (GEP-NEN) are a heterogeneous group of complex tumors, which is often difficult to classify due to heterogeneity and varying locations. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) are available for the localization of NEN as well as for the staging. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: In particular, nuclear medical examination methods with somatostatin analogues are of great importance since radioactively labeled receptor ligands make tumors visible with high sensitivity...
December 12, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234306/body-mass-index-influences-the-prognostic-impact-of-combined-nuclear-insulin-receptor-and-estrogen-receptor-expression-in-primary-breast-cancer
#4
Sofie Björner, Ann H Rosendahl, Maria Simonsson, Andrea Markkula, Karin Jirström, Signe Borgquist, Carsten Rose, Christian Ingvar, Helena Jernström
The prognostic importance of tumor-specific nuclear insulin receptor (InsR) expression in breast cancer is unclear, while membrane and cytoplasmic localization of InsR is better characterized. The insulin signaling network is influenced by obesity and may interact with the estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. The purpose was to investigate the interplay between nuclear InsR, ER, body mass index (BMI), and prognosis. Tumor-specific expression of nuclear InsR was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 900 patients with primary invasive breast cancer without preoperative treatment, included in a population-based cohort in Sweden (2002-2012) in relation to prognosis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234281/interleukin-6-induces-dec1-promotes-dec1-interaction-with-rxr%C3%AE-and-suppresses-the-expression-of-pxr-car-and-their-target-genes
#5
Rui Ning, Yunran Zhan, Shuangcheng He, Jinhua Hu, Zhu Zhu, Gang Hu, Bingfang Yan, Jian Yang, Wei Liu
Inflammatory burden is a primary cellular event in many liver diseases, and the overall capacity of drug elimination is decreased. PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) are two master regulators of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. DEC1 (differentiated embryonic chondrocyte-expressed gene 1) is a ligand-independent transcription factor and reportedly is induced by many inflammatory cytokines including IL-6. In this study, we used primary hepatocytes (human and mouse) as well as HepG2 cell line and demonstrated that IL-6 increased DEC1 expression and decreased the expressions of PXR, CAR, and their target genes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234103/an-exhaustive-search-algorithm-to-aid-nmr-based-structure-determination-of-rotationally-symmetric-transmembrane-oligomers
#6
Jing Yang, Alessandro Piai, Hong-Bin Shen, James J Chou
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been an important source of structural restraints for solving structures of oligomeric transmembrane domains (TMDs) of cell surface receptors and viral membrane proteins. In NMR studies, oligomers are assembled using inter-protomer distance restraints. But, for oligomers that are higher than dimer, these distance restraints all have two-fold directional ambiguity, and resolving such ambiguity often requires time-consuming trial-and-error calculations using restrained molecular dynamics (MD) with simulated annealing (SA)...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233982/cacul1-reciprocally-regulates-sirt1-and-lsd1-to-repress-ppar%C3%AE-and-inhibit-adipogenesis
#7
Min Jun Jang, Ui-Hyun Park, Jeong Woo Kim, Hanbyeul Choi, Soo-Jong Um, Eun-Joo Kim
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and is closely linked to the development of obesity. Despite great progress in elucidating the transcriptional network of PPARγ, epigenetic regulation of this pathway by histone modification remains elusive. Here, we found that CDK2-associated cullin 1 (CACUL1), identified as a novel SIRT1 interacting protein, directly bound to PPARγ through the co-repressor nuclear receptor (CoRNR) box 2 and repressed the transcriptional activity and adipogenic potential of PPARγ...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233969/receptor-interacting-protein-140-as-a-co-repressor-of-heat-shock-factor-1-regulates-neuronal-stress-response
#8
Yu-Lung Lin, Hong-Chieh Tsai, Pei-Yao Liu, Michael Benneyworth, Li-Na Wei
Heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved transcriptional program that protects organisms against various stressful conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating HSR, especially the suppression of HSR, is poorly understood. Here, we found that RIP140, a wide-spectrum cofactor of nuclear hormone receptors, acts as a co-repressor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) to suppress HSR in healthy neurons. When neurons are stressed such as by heat shock or sodium arsenite (As), cells engage specific proteosome-mediated degradation to reduce RIP140 level, thereby relieving the suppression and activating HSR...
December 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233935/ligand-dependent-interaction-of-ppar%C3%AE-with-t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-45-enhances-insulin-signaling
#9
Taesik Yoo, Sun Ah Ham, Won Jin Lee, Seon In Hwang, Jin-A Park, Jung Seok Hwang, Jinwoo Hur, Ho-Chul Shin, Sung Gu Han, Chi-Ho Lee, Dong Wook Han, Kyung Shin Paek, Han Geuk Seo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ plays a pivotal role in metabolic homeostasis through its effect on insulin signaling. Although diverse genomic actions of PPARδ are postulated, the specific molecular mechanisms whereby PPARδ controls insulin signaling have not been fully elucidated. We demonstrate here that short-term activation of PPARδ results in formation of a stable complex with nuclear T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase 45 (TCPTP45) isoform. This interaction of PPARδ with TCPTP45 blocked translocation of TCPTP45 into the cytoplasm, thereby preventing its interaction with the insulin receptor, which inhibits insulin signaling...
December 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233934/chronic-infusion-of-taurolithocholate-into-the-brain-increases-fat-oxidation-in-mice
#10
Hannah M Eggink, Lauren L Tambyrajah, Rosa van den Berg, Isabel Mol, Jose K van den Heuvel, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Johannes A Romijn, Patrick C N Rensen, Sander Kooijman, Maarten R Soeters
Bile acids can function in the postprandial state as circulating signaling molecules in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism via the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR. Both receptors are present in the central nervous system, but their function in the brain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of taurolithocholate (tLCA), a strong TGR5 agonist, and GW4064, a synthetic FXR agonist, on energy metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic icv infusion of tLCA, GW4064, or vehicle on energy expenditure, body weight and composition as well as tissue specific fatty acid uptake in mice equipped with osmotic minipumps...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232411/rev-erb-agonist-improves-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-survival-in-myocardial-infarction-through-an-anti-inflammatory-mechanism
#11
Endin Nokik Stujanna, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Kazuko Tajiri, DongZhu Xu, Taizo Kimura, Rujie Qin, Duo Feng, Saori Yonebayashi, Yukino Ogura, Fumi Yamagami, Akira Sato, Akihiko Nogami, Kazutaka Aonuma
Rev-erb α, known as nuclear receptor 1D1 (NR1D1), regulates circadian rhythm, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammatory response. However, little is known about the effect of Rev-erb agonist on the progression of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure. To investigate it, wild-type male mice underwent sham-operation or permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to create MI model. Rev-erb agonist SR9009 (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231996/molecular-mechanisms-of-tributyltin-induced-alterations-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-hamster-testis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#12
V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, M A Akbarsha, B Kadalmani
Tributyltins (TBT) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disturb normal endocrine function including gonadal function in humans and marine organisms. TBT was administered through oral route to male Syrian hamsters at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm/kg for 65 days. Changes in testis morphology, immunohistochemistry of iNOS, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, cholesterol transport receptor, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors were analyzed. TBT treatment affected each of these parameters to significant levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle treated control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231728/protective-effect-of-mulberry-morus-alba-l-extract-against-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-skin-damage-through-inhibition-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#14
Hyunju Woo, JungA Lee, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230949/glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-is-associated-with-increased-resistance-to-heat-induced-hyperthermia-and-injury
#15
Yifan Chen, Tianzheng Yu
AIM: Anti-inflammatory mediators likely play a key role in maintaining thermal homeostasis and providing protection against heat stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and resistance to heat-induced hyperthermia and injury. METHODS: Effects of heat exposure on core body temperature, muscle GR phosphorylation status and subcellular expression were examined in control mice and thermal acclimation (TA)-exposed mice...
December 12, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230689/the-combination-of-curcumin-and-5-fluorouracil-in-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Yumeng Wei, Panjing Yang, Shousong Cao, Ling Zhao
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) alone or in combination with other therapeutic drugs has been widely used for clinical treatment of various cancers. However, 5-FU-based chemotherapy has limited anticancer efficacy in clinic due to multidrug resistance and dose-limiting cytotoxicity. Some molecules and genes in cancer cells, such as nuclear factor kappa B, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten and Bcl-2 etc...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#17
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230512/rebound-associated-vertebral-fractures-after-discontinuation-of-denosumab-for-the-treatment-of-maxillitis
#18
R Niimi, T Kono, A Nishihara, M Hasegawa, T Kono, A Sudo
We reported a 69-year-old female who discontinued denosumab due to dental treatment and subsequently suffered rebound-associated vertebral fractures 10 months after the last injection. This case raised an alarm regarding the discontinuation of denosumab for dental treatment. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody administered by subcutaneous injection, to the best of our knowledge, is the only fully investigated inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand. Discontinuation of denosumab leads to bone turnover rebound and rapid bone mineral density loss...
December 11, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230238/fluid-retention-caused-by-rosiglitazone-is-related-to-increases-in-aqp2-and-%C3%AE-enac-membrane-expression
#19
Jinghua Xu, Mingyue Pan, Xiaoli Wang, Lishi Xu, Lanfang Li, Cheng Xu
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The decreased phosphorylation of PPARγ due to rosiglitazone (ROS) is the main reason for the increased insulin sensitivity caused by this antidiabetic drug. However, there is no clear evidence whether the nuclear translocation of p-PPARγ stimulated by ROS is related to fluid retention. It is also unclear whether the translocation of p-PPARγ is associated with the change of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and epithelial sodium channel α subunit (αENaC) in membranes, cytoplasm, and nucleus...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230216/metabolism-controls-the-balance-of-th17-t-regulatory-cells
#20
REVIEW
Licheng Sun, Jinrong Fu, Yufeng Zhou
Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolism reprogramming is critically important to T cell differentiation, and manipulating metabolic pathways in T cells can shape their fate and function. During T cell differentiation, metabolism provides T cells with energy as well as precursors for various biological processes. Some key metabolic reactions, such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, are also considered to play important roles in T cell activation and differentiation. In this review, we will explain why cellular metabolism is important for the Th17/T-regulatory (Treg) cell balance and how metabolism reprogramming impacts this balance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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