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Nuclear Receptors

Yuan Xu, Yi-Fan Han, Bing Ye, Yin-Long Zhang, Jian-Da Dong, Shao-Jun Zhu, Jiong Chen
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment. It has been widely used in the treatment of various malignant tumors. In order to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemoresistance of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), we established the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance of human ATC SW1736 and 8305C cells and named them SW1736/Dox and 8305C/Dox, respectively. We evaluated the expression of various micro-RNAs (miRNAs) between control and Dox-resistant ATC cells and found that the expression of miR-27b-3p was significantly increased in Dox-resistant ATC cells...
June 20, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Shoko Nishihara
Cell surface glycans, which are tissue-specific and developmentally regulated, work as essential modulators in ligand-receptor interactions, binding to various signal ligands including Wnt, Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, and bone morphogenetic proteins, as well as in cell-cell interactions and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. These signals are essential for the stemness and differentiation of various kinds of stem cells. In addition, the intracellular O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, a form of glycosylation found only on nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins, regulates core transcription factors of stemness and phosphorylation of downstream signal components...
June 20, 2018: FEBS Letters
Yu-Chen Wang, An-Sheng Lee, Long-Sheng Lu, Liang-Yin Ke, Wei-Yu Chen, Jian-Wen Dong, Jonathan Lu, Zhenping Chen, Chih-Sheng Chu, Hua-Chen Chan, Taha Y Kuzan, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Wen-Li Hsu, Richard A F Dixon, Tatsuya Sawamura, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Chu-Huang Chen
Dysregulation of plasma lipids is associated with age-related cardiovascular diseases. L5, the most electronegative subfraction of chromatographically resolved low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces endothelial dysfunction, whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, does not. In this study, we examined the effects of L5 on endothelial senescence and its underlying mechanisms. C57B6/J mice were intravenously injected with L5 or L1 (2 mg kg-1  day-1 ) from human plasma. After 4 weeks, nuclear γH2AX deposition and senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining indicative of DNA damage and premature senescence, respectively, were increased in the aortic endothelium of L5-treated but not L1-treated mice...
June 19, 2018: Aging Cell
D Sathya Prabhu, V Devi Rajeswari
The agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) from natural victual products were used as antidiabetic agents. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a consequential legume that was known to possess potential antidiabetic activity, whose mechanism of action was unknown. The current study was focused to ascertain gene expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by Faba bean pod extract in rat cell lines (RINm5F).The real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that Faba bean pod extract in concentrations of 160 µg/mL have shown 4...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
S E Johnson-Lynn, A W McCaskie, A P Coll, A H N Robinson
Charcot neuroarthropathy is a rare but serious complication of diabetes, causing progressive destruction of the bones and joints of the foot leading to deformity, altered biomechanics and an increased risk of ulceration. Management is complicated by a lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis. In this review, we consider recent insights into the development of Charcot neuroarthropathy. It is likely to be dependent on several interrelated factors which may include a genetic pre-disposition in combination with diabetic neuropathy...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Ta Sun, Fanqi Wang, Wen Pan, Qihan Wu, Jingwen Wang, Jianfeng Dai
Ticks, blood-feeding arthropods, and secrete immunosuppressive molecules that inhibit host immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens. In this study, we characterized the immunosuppressive function of a novel tick salivary protein, DsCystatin, from Dermacentor silvarum of China. DsCystatin directly interacted with human Cathepsins L and B and inhibited their enzymatic activities. DsCystatin impaired the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL1β, IFNγ, TNFα, and IL6 from mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) that had been stimulated with LPS or Borrelia burgdorferi ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kang Chen, Qiang Fu, Siping Liang, Yiting Liu, Wenting Qu, Yongjian Wu, Xinger Wu, Lei Wei, Yi Wang, Yujuan Xiong, Weijia Wang, Minhao Wu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the leading cause of bacterial keratitis, especially in those who wear contact lens and who are immunocompromised. Once the invading pathogens are recognized by pattern recognition receptors expressed on the innate immune cells, the innate immune response is stimulated to exert host defense function, which is the first line to fight against PA infection. As a converging point of cytosolic DNA sense signaling, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was reported to participate in host-pathogen interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bing Han, Yu-Xia Cao, Zhan-Ming Li, Zhao-Xia Wu, Yu-Qin Mao, Hui-Ling Chen, Zhu-Jun Yao, Li-Shun Wang
Annonaceous acetogenins are a well-established family of natural products with significant bioactivities, especially high cytotoxic and antitumor activities. AA005 is an annonaceous acetogenin mimic that has shown significant cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cell lines, but its in vivo antitumor effects have not been demonstrated so far, and its anticancer mechanisms remain ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the effects of AA005 on human colon cancer cell lines in vivo. Human colon carcinoma cell line SW620 xenograft nude mice were treated with AA005 (5 mg/kg/day, i...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Mélanie Lambert, Samy Jambon, Sabine Depauw, Marie-Hélène David-Cordonnier
Transcription factors are involved in a large number of human diseases such as cancers for which they account for about 20% of all oncogenes identified so far. For long time, with the exception of ligand-inducible nuclear receptors, transcription factors were considered as “undruggable” targets. Advances knowledge of these transcription factors, in terms of structure, function (expression, degradation, interaction with co-factors and other proteins) and the dynamics of their mode of binding to DNA has changed this postulate and paved the way for new therapies targeted against transcription factors...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jialing Zhang, Tony Chen, Xinping Yang, Hui Cheng, Stephan S Späth, Paul E Clavijo, Jianhong Chen, Christopher Silvin, Natalia Issaeva, Xiulan Su, Wendell G Yarbrough, Christina M Annunziata, Zhong Chen, Carter Van Waes
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are linked to an epidemic increase in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), which display viral inactivation of tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 and rapid regional spread. However, the role of genomic alterations in enabling modulation of pathways that promote the aggressive phenotype of these cancers is unclear. Recently, a subset of HPV+ HNSCC has been shown to harbor novel genetic defects or decreased expression of TNF-receptor-associated-factor-3 (TRAF3)...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Research
Jun Terashima, Yoko Jimma, Keiko Jimma, Shuko Hakata, Maako Yachi, Wataru Habano, Shogo Ozawa
Most of cytochrome P450 (CYP) expressions are regulated by nuclear receptors. The regulation pathways of transcription are activated by binding of the ligand to the receptor. Many combination of CYPs and nuclear receptors in transcriptional regulation have been reported. However, we have reported that the combination changes depending on culture condition on the same type of cells. The regulation pathway of CYP1A expression is different between 2D monolayer cultured cells and 3D spheroids of human liver cancer cells...
April 24, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Su Hyun Jin, Hyunsoo Kim, Dong Ryun Gu, Keun Ha Park, Young Rae Lee, Yongwon Choi, Seoung Hoon Lee
Actin-binding LIM protein 1 (ABLIM1), a member of the LIM-domain protein family, mediates interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. However, the role of ABLIM1 in osteoclast and bone metabolism has not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the role of ABLIM1 in the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis. ABLIM1 expression was induced by RANKL treatment and knockdown of ABLIM1 by retrovirus infection containing Ablim1-specific short hairpin RNA (shAblim1) decreased mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity in a RANKL-dose dependent manner...
June 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Siao-Syun Guan, Cheng-Tien Wu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Tsai-Yueh Luo, Jeng-Yih Wu, Tse-Zung Liao, Shing-Hwa Liu
BACKGROUND: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) involved proliferation, angiogenesis, and reduced apoptosis in gastric cancer (GC), which is a common target for tumor therapy. HER2 is usually overexpressed in more than 15% GC patients, developing a reliable diagnostic tool for tumor HER2 detection is important. In this study, we attend to use polyethylene glycol (PEG) linked anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP-PEG) as a nuclear imaging agent probe for HER2 detection in GC xenograft animal model...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Qian-Ru Zhao, Jun-Mei Lu, Zhao-Yang Li, Yan-Ai Mei
Neuritin is a neurotrophic factor that is activated by neural activity and neurotrophins. Its major function is to promote neurite growth and branching; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address this issue, the present study investigated the effects of neuritin on neurite and spine growth and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Incubation of CGNs for 24 h with neuritin increased neurite length and spine density; this effect was mimicked by insulin and abolished by inhibiting insulin receptor (IR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Anton Glasnović, Maristela Stojić, Lidija Dežmalj, Ivana Tudorić-Đeno, Dominik Romić, Vjekoslav Jeleč, Anđelko Vrca, Vladimira Vuletić, Danka Grčević
OBJECTIVES: Our study focused on the RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)/RANK/OPG (osteoprotegerin) axis and selected proinflammatory/immunoregulatory upstream mediators in the peripheral blood (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: PBL and CSF were collected from healthy controls (n = 35) and MS patients at the clinical onset of the disease (n = 33). In addition, PBL samples were obtained from relapse-remitting (RR)-MS patients (n = 30)...
June 19, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
C Zhao, A Y-H Wu, X Yu, Y Gu, Y Lu, X Song, N An, Y Zhang
Airway remodeling manifested by hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and other structural and functional changes is a pathological condition in asthma not addressed by current treatment. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for ASMC proliferation. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) mediate Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). Upon sensing the depletion of Ca2+ in ER/SR, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) aggregates and redistributes at the microdomain of ER/SR-plasma membrane (PM) and activates Orai1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels, to initiate Ca2+ influx...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Federico M Daray, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Suicide and nonfatal suicidal behaviors are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Variability in rates of suicide and suicidal behaviors within and between countries has been attributed to population and individual risk factors, including economic status and cultural differences, both of which can have suicide risk effects mediated through a variety of factors, of which perhaps the least understood is the role of diet. We therefore review the scientific literature concerning two major dietary lipid classes, cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), that have been associated with higher risk of suicide attempts and suicide...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mohammad-Reza Khajevand-Khazaei, Parvaneh Mohseni-Moghaddam, Marjan Hosseini, Leila Gholami, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following severe sepsis, its incidence is increasing, and it is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Rutin is a glycoside of the bioflavonoid quercetin with various protective effects due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. In this research, we tried to assess the protective effect of rutin administration in a model of AKI in C57BL/6 mice. For induction of AKI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected once (10mg/kg, i.p.) and rutin was p...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hongfeng Zhang, Ling Li, Lei Liu
AIMS: Fcγ receptor I (FcγRI/CD64) that is restrictedly expressed on monocytes and macrophages, acts as the single high-affinity receptor of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human. The expression of FcγRI is positively correlated with immune inflammation. The primary aim of this study was to explore the effects of FcγRI expression on immune-related inflammatory response and investigate the potential mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: FcγRI-expressing Ba/F3 cells are the ideal models for evaluating the functions of FcγRI...
June 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Ju-Hee Kang, Hyungsik Lim, Dong-Seok Lee, Mijung Yim
Osteoclasts (OCs) are resorptive cells responsible for bone erosion in diseases, including osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Montelukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist clinically used for the treatment of asthma. In the present study, the role of CysLTR1 on OC formation and bone loss was investigated using montelukast. Montelukast inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL)‑induced OC formation in cultures of mouse bone marrow macrophages...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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