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Frank Boulton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Amy Zhang, Tomoko Y Steen
The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents have called forth a growing body of research on their biological aftermaths. A variety of wild organisms, including primates, birds, fish, insects, and worms are being studied in the affected areas, with emerging morphological, physiological, and genetic aberrations ascribed to ionizing radiation. Despite the effort in surveying Chernobyl and Fukushima wildlife, little is known about the microorganisms associated with these radiation-contaminated animals. The microbiota, especially the gut commensal, plays an important role in shaping the metabolic reservoir and immune system of the host, and is sensitive to a wide array of environmental factors, including ionizing radiation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Mark S Conradi, Stephen A Altobelli, Nicholas J Sowko, Susan H Conradi, Eiichi Fukushima
Earth's field NMR has been developed to detect oil trapped under or in Arctic sea-ice. A large challenge, addressed here, is the suppression of the water signal that dominates the oil signal. Selective suppression of water is based on relaxation time T 1 because of the negligible chemical shifts in the weak earth's magnetic field, making all proton signals overlap spectroscopically. The first approach is inversion-null recovery, modified for use with pre-polarization. The requirements for efficient inversion over a wide range of B 1 and subsequent adiabatic reorientation of the magnetization to align with the static field are stressed...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Keisuke Nakase, Hanae Fukushima, Tomoko Yukawa, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
BACKGROUND: The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to be responsible for surgical site infections (SSIs). Skin disinfection before surgery therefore is of the utmost importance in the prevention of SSIs caused by skin bacteria. METHODS: We assessed the susceptibility of clinical isolates of two skin bacteria, P. acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, to disinfectants. RESULTS: The range of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for P...
February 15, 2018: Surgical Infections
Tomomi Takano, Kanae Hiramatsu, Mifuyu Matsuyama, Karin Mutoh, Yuka Matsumoto, Toshifumi Fukushima, Tomoyoshi Doki, Hajime Kusuhara, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Norovirus (NoV) infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages worldwide. When cats are experimentally infected with feline norovirus (FNoV), they develop symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, FNoV infection may serve as an animal model for the disease caused by human norovirus infection. In this study, we examined whether FNoV of cats infected with genogroup GVI are protected from reinfection with the same strain. The blood anti-FNoV IgG level was inversely correlated with the viral load in stool samples and the clinical score of FNoV-infected cats, but complete prevention of reinfection was not observed...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Virology
Chihiro Namatame, Tomohiro Sonoo, Kazutaka Fukushima, Hiromu Naraba, Hideki Hashimoto, Kensuke Nakamura
RATIONALE: Various neurological manifestations are observed in thyroid storm patients but protracted disturbance of consciousness is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital after a traffic accident. DIAGNOSES: Although awake on arrival, he fell into coma after admission. Based on the clinical symptoms and hyperthyroidism, the patient was diagnosed with thyroid storm (TS). INTERVENTIONS: Even after improvement of hyperthyroidism, disturbance of consciousness was protracted...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sho Hatayama, Takaaki Shimohata, Sachie Amano, Junko Kido, Anh Q Nguyen, Yuri Sato, Yuna Kanda, Aya Tentaku, Shiho Fukushima, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takashi Uebanso, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Campylobacter jejuni invasion is closely related to C. jejuni pathogenicity. The intestinal epithelium contains polarized epithelial cells that form tight junctions (TJs) to provide a physical barrier against bacterial invasion. Previous studies indicated that C. jejuni invasion of non-polarized cells involves several cellular features, including lipid rafts. However, the dynamics of C. jejuni invasion of polarized epithelial cells are not fully understood. Here we investigated the interaction between C. jejuni invasion and TJ formation to characterize the mechanism of C...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Takafumi Kubota, Atsushi Fukushima, Hiroko Hagiwara, Yoshinori Kamiya, Miyako Furuta, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Hitomi Fujioka, Sei-Etsu Fujiwara, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus play a role in inhibiting prolactin (PRL) secretion from the anterior pituitary. PRL is involved in a variety of behaviors, including feeding. Consequently, we hypothesized that fasting might reduce the activity of TIDA neurons, which might alter PRL secretion. However, direct examinations of TIDA neuron activity are difficult. Recently, transgenic mice were generated that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Kayo Toishigawa, Hiromi Nakagawa, Taisuke Furuta, Noriyasu Fukushima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Vania F S Mayoral, Fernanda B Fukushima, Aniela M Rodrigues, Raissa P Carvalho, Larissa P Carvalho, Leandro A F V Pinheiro, Bertha F Polegato, Marcos F Minicucci, Rick Bassett, Alvin H Moss, Karl E Steinberg, Edison I O Vidal
BACKGROUND: The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) paradigm is considered one of the most important strategies to respect patients' values at the end of life in the United States. The cross-cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Hiroaki Kataoka, Makiko Kawaguchi, Tsuyoshi Fukushima, Takeshi Shimomura
The growth, survival, and metabolic activities of multicellular organisms at the cellular level are regulated by intracellular signaling, systemic homeostasis and the pericellular microenvironment. Pericellular proteolysis has a crucial role in processing bioactive molecules in the microenvironment and thereby has profound effects on cellular functions. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) and HAI-2 are type I transmembrane serine protease inhibitors expressed by most epithelial cells...
February 12, 2018: Pathology International
Shuki Maruyama, Yasuhiro Fukushima, Yuta Miyamae, Koji Koizumi
This study aimed to investigate the effects of parameter presets of the forward projected model-based iterative reconstruction solution (FIRST) on the accuracy of pulmonary nodule volume measurement. A torso phantom with simulated nodules [diameter: 5, 8, 10, and 12 mm; computed tomography (CT) density: - 630 HU] was scanned with a multi-detector CT at tube currents of 10 mA (ultra-low-dose: UL-dose) and 270 mA (standard-dose: Std-dose). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection [FBP; standard (Std-FBP), ultra-low-dose (UL-FBP)], FIRST Lung (UL-Lung), and FIRST Body (UL-Body), and analyzed with a semi-automatic software...
February 10, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Momo Kurihara, Yuichi Onda, Hiroaki Kato, Nicolas Loffredo, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Frederic Coppin
Cesium-137 (137Cs) migration in the litter layer consists of various processes, such as input via throughfall, output via litter decomposition, and input from deeper layers via soil organism activity. We conducted litter bag experiments over 2 years (December 2014-November 2016) to quantify the inputs and outputs of 137Cs in the litter layer in a Japanese cedar plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) and a mixed broadleaf forest dominated by Quercus serrata located 40 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mengistu T Teramage, Loic Carasco, Daniel Orjollet, Frederic Coppin
The effects of 137Cs deposit forms on its ageing in soil have not yet been reported. Soluble and Solid 137Cs input forms were mixed with the mineral soils collected under Fukushima's coniferous and broadleaf forests, incubated under controlled laboratory, and examined the evolution of 137Cs availability over time. Results show that the extracted 137Cs fraction with water was less than 1% for the soluble input form and below detection limit for the solid input forms. Likewise, with an acetate reagent, the extracted 137Cs fraction ranged from 46 to 56% for the soluble input and from 2 to 15% for the solid input, implying that the nature of the 137Cs contamination strongly influences its extractability and mobility in soil...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Neil Fuller, Alex T Ford, Liubov L Nagorskaya, Dmitri I Gudkov, Jim T Smith
Nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to contamination of the environment that will persist for many years. The consequences of chronic low-dose radiation exposure for non-human organisms inhabiting contaminated environments remain unclear. In radioecology, crustaceans are important model organisms for the development of environmental radioprotection. Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated deleterious effects of radiation exposure on crustacean reproduction. However, no studies have documented the effects of chronic radiation exposure on the reproduction of natural crustacean populations...
February 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ryota Otsubo, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Yuko Akazawa, Ayako Sato, Katsuya Matsuda, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Michiko Matsuse, Norisato Mitsutake, Takao Ando, Daisuke Niino, Takeshi Nagayasu, Masahiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: There have been great concerns about pediatric thyroid cancers after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 7-year-old Japanese girl with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) harboring an ETV6/NTRK3 rearrangement. The patient presented with tumors in both lobes and underwent thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation. Histopathology showed a classic type of PTC with cervical lymph node metastasis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Takeshi Baba, Takao Ohki, Yuji Kanaoka, Koji Maeda, Naoki Toya, Hiroki Ohta, Soichiro Fukushima, Masayuki Hara
PURPOSE: To evaluate initial and midterm clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysms involving the proximal anastomotic aneurysm (AAPAA) following initial open repair for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: Between July 2006 and August 2015, 24 patients underwent elective endovascular repair for the treatment of AAPAAs at our institution. AAPAA classification has been categorized as three types. Type I AAPAA is the most extensive, extending from the descending aorta to the prior proximal anastomosis as similar to Crawford type II or III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA)...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
To reconstruct 131I deposition and identify the source of radioiodine due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, 129I activity and 129I/127I atom ratio should be obtained by preparing and analyzing large numbers of samples economically. In this study, great efforts were made to realize mild TMAH (tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide) extraction of environmental samples at 90 °C to obtain solutions suitable for the following triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-QQQ) MS/MS mode analysis...
May 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Michio Murakami
Risk comparison is essential for effective societal and individual decision-making. After the Fukushima disaster, studies compared radiation and other disaster-related risks to determine the effective prioritizing of measures for response. Evaluating the value of risk comparison information can enable effective risk communication. In this review, the value of risk comparison after the Fukushima disaster for societal and individual decision-making is discussed while clarifying the concept of radiation risk assessment at low doses...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Masanobu Itoh, Ryutaro Kajihara, Yasuko Kato, Toshiyuki Takano-Shimizu, Yutaka Inoue
In order to investigate genetic impact of a large amount of radionuclides released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, we surveyed 2,304 haploid genomes of Drosophila melanogaster collected in three localities in Fukushima in 2012 and 2013 for chromosomal inversions. No unique inversion was found in 298 genomes in 2012 and only two in 2,006 genomes in 2013. The observed frequencies were even lower than the long-term average frequency of unique inversions in Japan. The common cosmopolitan inversions were also examined in Fukushima, Kyoto, and Iriomote (Okinawa) in 2012...
2018: PloS One
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