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Urinary tract infections prophylaxys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215835/the-swedish-infant-high-grade-reflux-trial-uti-and-renal-damage
#1
Josefin Nordenström, Sofia Sjöström, Ulla Sillén, Rune Sixt, Per Brandström
INTRODUCTION: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal damage. Breakthrough UTI despite continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) during the first years of life is a matter of concern and evokes early intervention. We investigated whether early endoscopic treatment (ET) of VUR grade 4-5 can reduce the risk of UTI recurrence and renal scarring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled, multicentre, 1-year follow-up trial comprised 77 infants, <8 months of age with VUR grade 4-5 (Table) randomized to CAP (n = 39) or ET (with prophylaxis until resolution) (n = 38)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165546/highly-standardized-cranberry-extract-supplementation-anthocran%C3%A2-as-prophylaxis-in-young-healthy-subjects-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#2
A Ledda, G Belcaro, M Dugall, A Riva, S Togni, R Eggenhoffner, L Giacomelli
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have investigated the role of cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), on different selected subpopulations at increased risk of UTI. In this registry, we tested the prophylactic effects of an oral supplementation containing a highly standardized cranberry extract (Anthocran®) in young subjects with a previous history of recurrent UTIs, over a 2-months follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 36 otherwise healthy subjects in juvenile age (between 12 and 18 years of age) suffering by recurrent UTIs were enrolled...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160088/antibiotic-use-and-the-prevention-and-management-of-infectious-complications-in-stone-disease
#3
Daniel A Wollin, Adrian D Joyce, Mantu Gupta, Michael Y C Wong, Pilar Laguna, Stavros Gravas, Jorge Gutierrez, Luigi Cormio, Kunjie Wang, Glenn M Preminger
The importance of assessing perioperative urine/stone cultures and providing appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis prior to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or endoscopic intervention cannot be minimized. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication relating to stone intervention. Adequate assessment of culture data and adherence to appropriate guidelines may prevent the development of UTI and the potential for post-intervention urosepsis. This review outlines the current evidence for prophylaxis in the prevention of UTI and urosepsis, as well as the interpretation of stone culture data to provide an evidence-based approach for the judicious use of antibiotics in urologic stone practice...
February 3, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087926/urinary-tract-infections-in-infants-and-children
#4
Theresa A Schlager
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections in children and symptoms may be nonspecific. The risk of renal scarring is highest in children under 1 year of age with febrile UTI and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although treatment of UTI is usually straightforward, given increased rates of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, the choice of treatment for pediatric UTI should be guided by community resistance patterns whenever feasible. The benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis after first UTI and/or in the presence of VUR remains controversial, but a recent meta-analysis supports continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with VUR, indicating a need for more research in this area...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069040/anti-inflammatory-and-immune-regulatory-effects-of-acupuncture-after-craniotomy-study-protocol-for-a-parallel-group-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Seung-Yeon Cho, Seung-Bo Yang, Hee Sup Shin, Seung Hwan Lee, Jun Seok Koh, Seungwon Kwon, Woo-Sang Jung, Sang-Kwan Moon, Jung-Mi Park, Chang-Nam Ko, Seong-Uk Park
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in the medical and surgical fields, complications such as infection, pneumonia, or brain swelling may occur after a craniotomy. In some patients, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis causes adverse effects such as itching, rash, or digestive conditions. Certain patients still develop infections severe enough to require a repeat operation despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Acupuncture has been used to treat inflammatory conditions, and many basic and clinical studies have provided evidence of its anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043762/the-comeback-of-trimethoprim-in-france
#6
REVIEW
F Caron, V Wehrle, M Etienne
Already used in various countries, trimethoprim (TMP) was withdrawn from the French market in 1990, but should be soon available again. This article reviews the experience of TMP use around the world and its current use in Europe. Label use and guidelines only recommend the use of TMP for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Compared with co-trimoxazole (Co-T), a combination of TMP and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), TMP has (a) a similar resistance rate among Escherichia coli strains (estimated between 10 and 20% in uncomplicated cystitis), (b) a similar clinical efficacy for cystitis prevention and treatment, (c) a lower toxicity (as severe toxicity adverse effects of Co-T come from its sulfonamide component), (d) limited data for the treatment of pyelonephritis and male UTIs, and (e) an important impact on the microbiota...
December 30, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027334/weight-gain-and-obesity-in-infants-and-young-children-exposed-to-prolonged-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#7
M Bruce Edmonson, Jens C Eickhoff
Importance: An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. Objective: To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989639/the-swedish-infant-high-grade-reflux-trial-bladder-function
#8
J Nordenström, U Sillen, G Holmdahl, T Linnér, E Stokland, S Sjöström
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that infants with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) have lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) that is characterised by large bladder capacity (BC) and increased post-void residual (PVR). However, most of these infants have normal or small BC in early infancy and develop large capacity during the first year of life. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to see whether LUTD development during the infant years in children with high-grade VUR could be prevented by early reflux resolution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987067/prophylactic-antibiotic-treatment-following-laparoscopic-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-for-the-prevention-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-did-the-aua-guidelines-make-a-difference
#9
Miki Haifler, Yoram Mor, Zohar Dotan, Jacob Ramon, Dorit E Zilberman
We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the American Urological Association (AUA) antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Our prospective registry database was reviewed for all RALP cases. The following variables were evaluated: age, associated comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), total operative time, length of stay (LOS), prostate weight, pathological grade and stage. Until 11/2011, RALP patients were treated with antibiotics administered in the operating room and continued until urethral catheter removal...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951542/critical-analysis-of-a-series-of-early-inguinal-ureterostomies-are-they-useful-and-how-well-are-they-tolerated
#10
Aurore Bouty, Yan Lefevre, Luke Harper, Antoine Tran, Pierre Vergnes, Eric Dobremez
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate the advantages of temporary inguinal ureterostomy in the management of neonates with uropathies and early or recurrent pyelonephritis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ureterostomies between 1989 and 2012, with specific regards to indications and outcomes. We also performed a survey of parents to evaluate their acceptance of diversion. RESULTS: We included 18 patients (12 primary high-grade vesicoureteral reflux [VUR] and 6 primary obstructive megaureters [MUs])...
December 13, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932514/long-term-therapy-with-wu-ling-san-a-popular-antilithic-chinese-herbal-formula-did-not-prevent-subsequent-stone-surgery-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#11
San-Yuan Wu, Huey-Yi Chen, Kao-Sung Tsai, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Wen-Chi Chen
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), which is widely used to treat pain and urolithiasis, is a promising therapy for urinary stone prevention. This study investigated the clinical efficacy of a popular CHM, Wu-Ling-San (WLS), in Taiwan for the prophylaxis of recurrent nephrolithiasis as assessed by surgical stone treatment via a nationwide population-based cohort study. The National Health Insurance Research Database, 2000-2010, which included one million patient records. All patients diagnosed with stone disease at the beginning of the study...
2016: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919407/incidence-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-infants-with-antenatally-diagnosed-hydronephrosis-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#12
Sofia Visuri, Timo Jahnukainen, Seppo Taskinen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of AHN patients admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2013 were identified. Altogether 192 patients with nonrefluxing hydronephrosis (HN, n=135), nonrefluxing hydroureteronephrosis (HUN, n=21), or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, n=36) were identified. Patients with complex anomalies or neonatal decompression of the urinary tract were excluded...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891664/healthcare-costs-doubled-when-children-had-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-bacteria
#13
Oona Nieminen, Matti Korppi, Merja Helminen
AIM: The impact of the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms has rarely been studied in children, including the healthcare costs of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. We evaluated the effect of ESBL on UTI healthcare costs and risk factors for paediatric UTIs. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study covered 2005-2014 and focused on children below 16 years of age treated in a University hospital: 22 children with UTIs caused by ESBL-producing bacteria and 56 ESBL-negative UTI controls...
February 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885778/single-dose-versus-multiple-dose-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
R Pinto-Lopes, B Sousa-Pinto, L F Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics are traditionally given as a single dose for caesarean section. However, inconsistent application of recommendations and recent evidence prompted a literature review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the optimal regimen for antibiotic prophylaxis in caesarean section by comparing single versus multiple doses of the same intervention. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, CENTRAL and ongoing trials databases were searched...
November 24, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878110/discontinuation-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-ap-in-children-with-spina-bifida-a-case-series-analysis
#15
Kevin G Couloures, Michael Anderson, Michael Machiorlatti, Olivera Marsenic, Lawrence Opas
BACKGROUND: Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI's but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847915/is-extended-preoperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-high-risk-patients-necessary-before-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#16
Aaron M Potretzke, Alyssa M Park, Tyler M Bauman, Jeffrey A Larson, Joel M Vetter, Brian M Benway, Alana C Desai
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare the rate of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) between patients who received 7, 2, or 0 days of preoperative antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of consecutive PCNLs performed at our institution. Patients with infected preoperative urine cultures were excluded. High-risk patients were defined as those with a history of previous urinary tract infection (UTI), hydronephrosis, or stone size ≥2 cm...
November 2016: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845696/prospective-non-randomized-study-on-the-use-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-ciprofloxacin-in-flexible-urethrocystoscopy
#17
María Carmen Cano-García, Rosario Casares-Pérez, Miguel Arrabal-Martín, Sergio Merino-Salas, Miguel Ángel Arrabal-Polo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to analyze whether there is a need for antibiotic prophylaxis in this outpatient procedure. METHODS: Prospective observational non-randomized study including 100 patients divided into two groups: - Group 1: 48 patients receiving 500 mg of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis 1 hour before urethrocystoscopy; - Group 2: 52 patients without antibiotic prophylaxis. Before inclusion of the patients in the study, we checked the absence of urinary tract infection by means of a urinalysis obtained 3 days before the procedure...
November 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785923/can-the-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-predict-the-development-of-urinary-tract-infections
#18
Casper Dj den Heijer, Suzanne E Geerlings, Jan M Prins, Mariëlle Aj Beerepoot, Ellen E Stobberingh, John Penders
AIM: To evaluate whether intestinal microbiota predicts the development of new-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) in postmenopausal women with prior recurrent UTIs (rUTIs). PATIENTS & METHODS: Fecal samples (n = 40) originated from women with rUTI who received 12 months' prophylaxis of either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or lactobacilli. Microbial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, fecal microbiota of women with zero and more than or equal to four UTIs during follow-up showed no significant differences...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785437/are-antibiotics-necessary-during-routine-cystoscopic-stent-removal
#19
Joel E Abbott, Allison Han, Michelle McDonald, Charlie Lakin, Roger L Sur
BACKGROUND: The 2008 American Urological Association (AUA) Best Practice Statement on antimicrobial prophylaxis states that prophylaxis is not warranted for subjects with normal risk profile undergoing cystourethroscopy unless manipulation such as ureteral stent removal is performed. To date no studies have specifically assessed the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis during cystoscopic ureteral stent removal. We sought to determine the risk of infectious complications following cystoscopic stent removal with and without antimicrobial prophylaxis...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773650/is-preoperative-assessment-and-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-necessary-for-reducing-the-risk-of-postoperative-symptomatic-urinary-tract-infections-after-urologic-surgical-procedures
#20
Tommaso Cai, Paolo Verze, Alessandro Palmieri, Mauro Gacci, Paolo Lanzafame, Gianni Malossini, Gabriella Nesi, Gernot Bonkat, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Vincenzo Mirone, Riccardo Bartoletti, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether it is always necessary to test for the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in patients undergoing urologic surgical procedures, and if present, whether to treat AB with antimicrobial prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent urologic surgical procedures from December 2008 to October 2013 in a tertiary referral urologic center were considered for this study. All patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis in line with European Association of Urology guidelines on urologic infections...
January 2017: Urology
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