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Urinary tract infections prophylaxys

G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
Fosfomycin trometamol is a broad spectrum antibiotic recently marketed in the UK for the treatment of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adults(1,2) and in adult and adolescent females.(3) It is also indicated for prophylaxis in diagnostic and surgical transurethral procedures.(1-3) Fosfomycin was discovered in 1969 and the reference drug was first marketed as Monuril in France in 1986.(3,4) Although Monuril had UK marketing authorisation, it was never distributed in the UK. However, national guidance included the option of using unlicensed imported fosfomycin...
October 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
V Gómez-Dos Santos, V Díez-Nicolás, L Martínez-Arcos, J J Fabuel-Alcañiz, I Laso-García, S Álvarez-Rodríguez, F de Asís Donis-Canet, V Hevia-Palacios, M Ruiz-Hernández, F J Burgos-Revilla
: Mayor urological complications, fistulae and stenosis, mainly affect the vesicoureteral anastomosis and present in the early post-transplant period. The systematic use of ureteral catheters keeps selecbeing controversial with many groups using them only selectively depending on the existence of pretransplant or intraoperative risk factors. METHODS: We performed a bibliographic review through automatized search in the Medline bibliographic database, as the main bibliographic source, and also in Clinical Key...
October 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
A Liaw, B Knudsen
OBJECTIVES: We review the literature on infections associated with ureteral stents and new technologies aimed at preventing them. Ureteral stent placement is one of the most common urologic procedures, but carries a comparatively high morbidity. Infection is one of the most common stent-associated morbidities. Several new stent materials and coatings have been proposed and tested to reduce stent-associated infections. METHOD: We review the current methods of preventing bacterial infection, including antibiotic prophylaxis and minimising dwell time...
October 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Linda C Lee, Armando J Lorenzo, Martin A Koyle
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common bacterial cause of febrile illness in children. Of children presenting with a febrile UTI, 25-40% are found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Historically, the concern regarding VUR was that it could lead to recurrent pyelonephritis, renal scarring, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. As a result, many children underwent invasive surgical procedures to correct VUR. We now know that many cases of VUR are low-grade and have a high rate of spontaneous resolution...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Dominika Drzewiecka, Gabriela Lewandowska
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract...
September 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Cameron Edwin Alexander, Stuart Gowland, Jon Cadwallader, Dave Hopkins, John M Reynard, Benjamin W Turney
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of routine prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) after SWL, and to identify predictors of UTI development, in a multi-centre series of over 10,000 stone cases treated in New Zealand over a 20 year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with SWL on the Mobile Medical Technology (MMT) vehicle between 19/06/1995 and 01/12/2014 were identified. Data collection was undertaken prospectively for patient, stone, treatment characteristics and retrospectively for treatment outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Jared W Davis, Lynn S Jones
Nitrofurantoin has been documented as a cause of acute, sub-acute, and chronic pulmonary injury. This is a case of an 82 year-old female who presented with multiple episodes of respiratory symptoms due to recurrent pleural effusions after beginning nitrofurantoin therapy for urinary tract infection prophylaxis. Due to the rarity of pleural effusion as an adverse reaction to nitrofurantoin, the diagnosis was overlooked at first. This led to the patient undergoing multiple invasive procedures and accruing unnecessary healthcare cost before the diagnosis was made...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Lorenz Leitner, Ulla Sammer, Matthias Walter, Stephanie C Knüpfer, Marc P Schneider, Burkhardt Seifert, Jure Tornic, Ulrich Mehnert, Thomas M Kessler
Many of the patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) present with chronic bacteriuria. In these patients, antibiotic prophylaxis has been widely recommended since bacteriuria might impair treatment efficacy and cause urinary tract infections (UTI) but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an antibiotic prophylaxis is needed in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections...
2016: Scientific Reports
H Hof, D Bertsch, D Passek, R Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Resistance of uropathogenic bacteria against the common antibiotics is considerable-especially in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: In Germany nitroxoline is licensed for the treatment of acute urinary tract infections and for prophylaxis of recurrent infections. What is the actual resistance pattern of uropathogenic bacteria? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro susceptibility of 477 uropathogenic bacteria from patients in 2015 was determined by means of the agar diffusion method...
September 5, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Derrick L Johnston, Aslam H Qureshi, Rhys W Irvine, Dana W Giel, David S Hains
The past 30 years have seen broad changes in the diagnosis and management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Recently, a clinical debate has generated an open discussion in academic circles. New evidence has shifted treatment patterns away from widespread surgical management and recently brought into question some pharmacologic treatments. VUR is usually not hazardous by itself but is a significant risk factor for urinary tract infection (UTI) and less commonly, renal scarring and insufficiency. Given the costs and morbidity of UTI as well as the potential for significant renal injury, our approach remains conservative...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Pediatrics
Ahmed M Fahmy, Ahmed Kotb, Tamer Abo Youssif, Hussien Abdeldiam, Omer Algebaly, Ahmed Elabbady
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of infectious complications after single-dose fosfomycin vs. standard fluoroquinolone (FQ)-based prophylaxis in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBx), as there is an alarming trend worldwide of increasing resistance to FQs limiting their suitability as appropriate prophylaxis for TRUSBx. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 412 consecutive patients undergoing TRUSBx between February 2012 and June 2015...
September 2016: Arab Journal of Urology
Anouk E Muller, Els M Verhaegh, Stephan Harbarth, Johan W Mouton, Angela Huttner
OBJECTIVES: Nitrofurantoin has been used for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) for over 60 years. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess nitrofurantoin's efficacy and safety in the prophylaxis of UTI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all human controlled trials assessing nitrofurantoin for UTI prophylaxis published from 1946 to 2015. We further reviewed population-level cohort studies evaluating nitrofurantoin's toxicity...
August 16, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Charalampos Antachopoulos, Maria Ioannidou, Athanasios Tratselas, Elias Iosifidis, Aspasia Katragkou, Paschalis Kadiltzoglou, Konstantinos Kollios, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in high-risk children. However, there is growing concern about the use of β-lactams as prophylaxis and subsequent development of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial we compared cotrimoxazole (SXT) and second-generation cephalosporins (2GC) as UTI prophylaxis in children ranging in age from 1 to 60 months...
August 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
İpek Akil, Çınar Özen, Beyhan Cengiz
BACKGROUND/AIM: In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis (ABP) with respect to the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) and evaluated the development of renal scarring in patients treated with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 22 patients were included in the study. The patients were administered ABP in the first year (the ABP-received period) but not in the second year (the ABP-discontinued period)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
P Rubenwolf, J Herrmann-Nuber, M Schreckenberger, R Stein, R Beetz
PURPOSE: Primary non-refluxing megaureter (pMU) is a multifaceted and challenging congenital pathology of the urinary tract. We report our 23-year experience with this anomaly in terms of presentation, diagnostic work-up and management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 212 children diagnosed with pMU between 1986 and 2009 at our institution. Mean follow-up was 45.17 (0-192) months. RESULTS: Of the total, 168 (79 %) children presented with upper urinary tract dilation on perinatal ultrasound screening...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Mesut Arici, Salih Kavukcu, Sakine Tuncay Tanrıverdi, Aylin Arici, Sedef Gidener, Ayse Gelal, Ozgen Ozer
OBJECTIVES: Nitrofurantoin is widely used in the prophylaxis of urinary-tract infections. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize innovative transdermal formulations of nitrofurantoin, to increase the patient compliance and decrease the adverse effects such as nausea and vomiting which limit the drug use in long-term. METHODS: Nitrofurantoin loaded microemulsion, gel (hydrogel, lipogel and DMSO gel) and film formulations were prepared and characterized via several parameters...
July 28, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Sultan S AlKhateeb, Nayf A AlShammari, Mohand A AlZughaibi, Yahya G Ghazwani, Khalid A Alrabeeah, Nasser M Albqami
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI), or sepsis secondary to trans-rectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy of the prostate, the pathogens involved, and patterns of antibiotic resistance in a cohort of patients. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent elective TRUS biopsy at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2012 and December 2014. All patients who underwent the TRUS guided prostate biopsy were prescribed the standard prophylactic antibiotics...
August 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Türkan Toka Özer, Süleyman Durmaz, Erkan Yula
Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed...
September 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Ronghua Liu, Lin Lin, Dujuan Wang
Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used routinely for pre-, intra- and post-operative caesarean section. One of the most important risk factors for postpartum infection is caesarean delivery. Caesarean section shows a higher incidence of infection than vaginal delivery. It is complicated by surgical site infections, endometritis or urinary tract infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the usage of antimicrobials in women undergoing caesarean section at a Tertiary Care Hospital. A prospective study was conducted in 100 women during the period of February 2013 to August 2013 in the inpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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