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Orine infection

Pauline Wanjugi, Mano Sivaganesan, Asja Korajkic, Brian McMinn, Catherine A Kelty, Eric Rhodes, Mike Cyterski, Richard Zepp, Kevin Oshima, Elyse Stachler, Julie Kinzelman, Stephan R Kurdas, Mark Citriglia, Fu-Chih Hsu, Orin C Shanks
There is a growing interest for the use of coliphage as an alternative indicator to assess fecal pollution in recreational waters. Coliphage are a group of viruses that infect Escherichia coli and are considered as potential surrogates to infer the likely presence of enteric viral pathogens. We report the use of a dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration single agar layer method to enumerate F+ and somatic coliphage from surface waters collected from three Great Lake areas. At each location, three sites (two beaches; one river) were sampled five days a week over the 2015 beach season (n = 609 total samples)...
April 25, 2018: Water Research
Rupert J Quinnell, Seyi Soremekun, Paul A Bates, Matthew E Rogers, Lourdes M Garcez, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to sand fly saliva have been suggested to be a useful marker of exposure to sand fly bites and Leishmania infection and a potential tool to monitor the effectiveness of entomological interventions. Exposure to sand fly bites before infection has also been suggested to modulate the severity of the infection. Here, we test these hypotheses by quantifying the anti-saliva IgG response in a cohort study of dogs exposed to natural infection with Leishmania infantum in Brazil...
January 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
D C M Pereira-Fonseca, F M Oliveira-Rovai, L A C Rodas, C A C Beloti, R B P Torrecilha, P K R K Ito, S V Avanço, R S Cipriano, Y T Utsunomiya, R M Hiramoto, L Calvo-Bado, O Courtenay, G F Machado, V M F Lima, C M Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
Ariel Loza, Adrianna Talaga, Gladys Herbas, Ruben Jair Canaviri, Thalia Cahuasiri, Laura Luck, Alvaro Guibarra, Raquel Goncalves, Juan Antonio Pereira, Sonia A Gomez, Albert Picado, Louisa Alexandra Messenger, Caryn Bern, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: Despite large-scale reductions in Chagas disease prevalence across Central and South America, Trypanosoma cruzi infection remains a considerable public health problem in the Gran Chaco region where vector-borne transmission persists. In these communities, peridomestic animals are major blood-meal sources for triatomines, and household presence of infected dogs increases T. cruzi transmission risk for humans. To address the pressing need for field-friendly, complementary methods to reduce triatomine infestation and interrupt T...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Susan C Morpeth, Maria Deloria Knoll, J Anthony G Scott, Daniel E Park, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Charatdao Bunthi, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Louis Peter Githua, Melissa M Higdon, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sirirat Makprasert, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Toni Whistler, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: We investigated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among children from 7 low- and middle-income countries. Methods.: We tested blood by PCR for the pneumococcal autolysin gene in children aged 1-59 months in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. Children had World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia or were age-frequency-matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maria Deloria Knoll, Wei Fu, Qiyuan Shi, Christine Prosperi, Zhenke Wu, Laura L Hammitt, Daniel R Feikin, Henry C Baggett, Stephen R C Howie, J Anthony G Scott, David R Murdoch, Shabir A Madhi, Donald M Thea, W Abdullah Brooks, Karen L Kotloff, Mengying Li, Daniel E Park, Wenyi Lin, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, Scott L Zeger
In pneumonia, specimens are rarely obtained directly from the infection site, the lung, so the pathogen causing infection is determined indirectly from multiple tests on peripheral clinical specimens, which may have imperfect and uncertain sensitivity and specificity, so inference about the cause is complex. Analytic approaches have included expert review of case-only results, case-control logistic regression, latent class analysis, and attributable fraction, but each has serious limitations and none naturally integrate multiple test results...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Muntasir Alam, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Eunice M Machuka, Sirirat Makprasert, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, John Mwaba, Salim Mwarumba, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Ornuma Sangwichian, Seydou Sissoko, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.: We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tecla Ciociola, Thelma A Pertinhez, Laura Giovati, Martina Sperindè, Walter Magliani, Elena Ferrari, Rita Gatti, Tiziana D'Adda, Alberto Spisni, Stefania Conti, Luciano Polonelli
Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activitiesin vitroand/orin vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activitiesin vitro The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide...
April 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mary M Cameron, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Caryn Bern, Marleen Boelaert, Margriet den Boer, Sakib Burza, Lloyd A C Chapman, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Coleman, Orin Courtenay, Simon Croft, Pradeep Das, Erin Dilger, Geraldine Foster, Rajesh Garlapati, Lee Haines, Angela Harris, Janet Hemingway, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Sarah Jervis, Graham Medley, Michael Miles, Mark Paine, Albert Picado, Richard Poché, Paul Ready, Matthew Rogers, Mark Rowland, Shyam Sundar, Sake J de Vlas, David Weetman
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases and vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, to achieve sustained elimination of VL, an appropriate post elimination surveillance programme should be designed, and crucial knowledge gaps in vector bionomics, human infection and transmission need to be addressed...
January 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Emily R Adams, Roy M Anderson, Katherine Atkins, Sarah Bartsch, María-Gloria Basáñez, Matthew Behrend, David J Blok, Lloyd A C Chapman, Luc Coffeng, Orin Courtenay, Ron E Crump, Sake J de Vlas, Andy Dobson, Louise Dyson, Hajnal Farkas, Alison P Galvani, Manoj Gambhir, David Gurarie, Michael A Irvine, Sarah Jervis, Matt J Keeling, Louise Kelly-Hope, Charles King, Bruce Y Lee, Epke A Le Rutte, Thomas M Lietman, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Graham F Medley, Edwin Michael, Abhishek Pandey, Jennifer K Peterson, Amy Pinsent, Travis C Porco, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Lisa Reimer, Kat S Rock, Brajendra K Singh, Wilma Stolk, Subramanian Swaminathan, Steve J Torr, Jeffrey Townsend, James Truscott, Martin Walker, Alexandra Zoueva
Quantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an overview of a collection of novel model-based analyses which aim to address key questions on the dynamics of transmission and control of nine NTDs: Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Lloyd A C Chapman, Louise Dyson, Orin Courtenay, Rajib Chowdhury, Caryn Bern, Graham F Medley, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis has been targeted for elimination as a public health problem (less than 1 case per 10,000 people per year) in the Indian sub-continent by 2017. However, there is still a high degree of uncertainty about the natural history of the disease, in particular about the duration of asymptomatic infection and the proportion of asymptomatically infected individuals that develop clinical visceral leishmaniasis. Quantifying these aspects of the disease is key for guiding efforts to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis and maintaining elimination once it is reached...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Maria S Andrade, Orin Courtenay, Maria E F Brito, Francisco G Carvalho, Ana Waléria S Carvalho, Fábia Soares, Silvia M Carvalho, Pietra L Costa, Ricardo Zampieri, Lucile M Floeter-Winter, Jeffrey J Shaw, Sinval P Brandão-Filho
BACKGROUND: The possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast Brazil. METHODS: The clinical and parasitological outcomes, and infectiousness to sandflies, were observed in 54 colonized animals of three species (18 Necromys lasiurus, 18 Nectomys squamipes and 18 Rattus rattus) experimentally infected with high (5...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hayley C King, Andrew Murphy, Phillip James, Emma Travis, David Porter, Yu-Jiun Hung, Jason Sawyer, Jennifer Cork, Richard J Delahay, William Gaze, Orin Courtenay, Elizabeth M Wellington
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs...
2015: Scientific Reports
Hayley C King, Andrew Murphy, Phillip James, Emma Travis, David Porter, Jason Sawyer, Jennifer Cork, Richard J Delahay, William Gaze, Orin Courtenay, Elizabeth M Wellington
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Aaron J Clark, Michael Safaee, Taemin Oh, Michael E Ivan, Vamsi Parimi, Rintaro Hashizume, Tomoko Ozawa, Charles D James, Orin Bloch, Andrew T Parsa
BACKGROUND: GL261 cells are murine glioma cells that demonstrate proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis when implanted in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, providing a highly useful immunocompetent animal model of glioblastoma. Modification of tumor cells for luciferase expression enables non-invasive monitoring of orthotopic tumor growth, and has proven useful for studying glioblastoma response to novel therapeutics. However, tumor modification for luciferase has the potential for evoking host immune response against otherwise syngeneic tumor cells, thereby mitigating the tumor cells' value for tumor immunology and immunotherapy studies...
2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
Amanda J Driscoll, Ruth A Karron, Niranjan Bhat, Bhagvanji Thumar, Maja Kodani, Barry S Fields, Cynthia G Whitney, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch
Several commercial assays are now available to detect the nucleic acid of multiple respiratory pathogens from a single specimen. Head-to-head comparisons of such assays using a single set of standard specimens provide additional information about key assay parameters such as sensitivity, specificity and lower limits of detection, and help to inform the decision regarding which method to use. We evaluated two real-time PCR platforms: the Fast-track Diagnostics® (FTD) multiplex respiratory panel and a TaqMan array card (TAC) for simultaneous uniplex detection of multiple respiratory pathogens...
December 2014: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Orin Courtenay, Connor Carson, Leo Calvo-Bado, Lourdes M Garcez, Rupert J Quinnell
BACKGROUND: The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. METHODS: Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daniel R Feikin, Eunice W Kagucia, Jennifer D Loo, Ruth Link-Gelles, Milo A Puhan, Thomas Cherian, Orin S Levine, Cynthia G Whitney, Katherine L O'Brien, Matthew R Moore
BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction...
2013: PLoS Medicine
Rupert J Quinnell, Connor Carson, Richard Reithinger, Lourdes M Garcez, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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