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Orine infection

Tecla Ciociola, Thelma A Pertinhez, Laura Giovati, Martina Sperindè, Walter Magliani, Elena Ferrari, Rita Gatti, Tiziana D'Adda, Alberto Spisni, Stefania Conti, Luciano Polonelli
Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activitiesin vitroand/orin vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activitiesin vitro The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide...
April 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mary M Cameron, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Caryn Bern, Marleen Boelaert, Margriet den Boer, Sakib Burza, Lloyd A C Chapman, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Coleman, Orin Courtenay, Simon Croft, Pradeep Das, Erin Dilger, Geraldine Foster, Rajesh Garlapati, Lee Haines, Angela Harris, Janet Hemingway, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Sarah Jervis, Graham Medley, Michael Miles, Mark Paine, Albert Picado, Richard Poché, Paul Ready, Matthew Rogers, Mark Rowland, Shyam Sundar, Sake J de Vlas, David Weetman
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases and vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, to achieve sustained elimination of VL, an appropriate post elimination surveillance programme should be designed, and crucial knowledge gaps in vector bionomics, human infection and transmission need to be addressed...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Emily R Adams, Roy M Anderson, Katherine Atkins, Sarah Bartsch, María-Gloria Basáñez, Matthew Behrend, David J Blok, Lloyd A C Chapman, Luc Coffeng, Orin Courtenay, Ron E Crump, Sake J de Vlas, Andy Dobson, Louise Dyson, Hajnal Farkas, Alison P Galvani, Manoj Gambhir, David Gurarie, Michael A Irvine, Sarah Jervis, Matt J Keeling, Louise Kelly-Hope, Charles King, Bruce Y Lee, Epke A Le Rutte, Thomas M Lietman, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Graham F Medley, Edwin Michael, Abhishek Pandey, Jennifer K Peterson, Amy Pinsent, Travis C Porco, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Lisa Reimer, Kat S Rock, Brajendra K Singh, Wilma Stolk, Subramanian Swaminathan, Steve J Torr, Jeffrey Townsend, James Truscott, Martin Walker, Alexandra Zoueva
Quantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an overview of a collection of novel model-based analyses which aim to address key questions on the dynamics of transmission and control of nine NTDs: Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Lloyd A C Chapman, Louise Dyson, Orin Courtenay, Rajib Chowdhury, Caryn Bern, Graham F Medley, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis has been targeted for elimination as a public health problem (less than 1 case per 10,000 people per year) in the Indian sub-continent by 2017. However, there is still a high degree of uncertainty about the natural history of the disease, in particular about the duration of asymptomatic infection and the proportion of asymptomatically infected individuals that develop clinical visceral leishmaniasis. Quantifying these aspects of the disease is key for guiding efforts to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis and maintaining elimination once it is reached...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Maria S Andrade, Orin Courtenay, Maria E F Brito, Francisco G Carvalho, Ana Waléria S Carvalho, Fábia Soares, Silvia M Carvalho, Pietra L Costa, Ricardo Zampieri, Lucile M Floeter-Winter, Jeffrey J Shaw, Sinval P Brandão-Filho
BACKGROUND: The possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast Brazil. METHODS: The clinical and parasitological outcomes, and infectiousness to sandflies, were observed in 54 colonized animals of three species (18 Necromys lasiurus, 18 Nectomys squamipes and 18 Rattus rattus) experimentally infected with high (5...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hayley C King, Andrew Murphy, Phillip James, Emma Travis, David Porter, Yu-Jiun Hung, Jason Sawyer, Jennifer Cork, Richard J Delahay, William Gaze, Orin Courtenay, Elizabeth M Wellington
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs...
2015: Scientific Reports
Hayley C King, Andrew Murphy, Phillip James, Emma Travis, David Porter, Jason Sawyer, Jennifer Cork, Richard J Delahay, William Gaze, Orin Courtenay, Elizabeth M Wellington
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Aaron J Clark, Michael Safaee, Taemin Oh, Michael E Ivan, Vamsi Parimi, Rintaro Hashizume, Tomoko Ozawa, Charles D James, Orin Bloch, Andrew T Parsa
BACKGROUND: GL261 cells are murine glioma cells that demonstrate proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis when implanted in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, providing a highly useful immunocompetent animal model of glioblastoma. Modification of tumor cells for luciferase expression enables non-invasive monitoring of orthotopic tumor growth, and has proven useful for studying glioblastoma response to novel therapeutics. However, tumor modification for luciferase has the potential for evoking host immune response against otherwise syngeneic tumor cells, thereby mitigating the tumor cells' value for tumor immunology and immunotherapy studies...
2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
Amanda J Driscoll, Ruth A Karron, Niranjan Bhat, Bhagvanji Thumar, Maja Kodani, Barry S Fields, Cynthia G Whitney, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch
Several commercial assays are now available to detect the nucleic acid of multiple respiratory pathogens from a single specimen. Head-to-head comparisons of such assays using a single set of standard specimens provide additional information about key assay parameters such as sensitivity, specificity and lower limits of detection, and help to inform the decision regarding which method to use. We evaluated two real-time PCR platforms: the Fast-track Diagnostics® (FTD) multiplex respiratory panel and a TaqMan array card (TAC) for simultaneous uniplex detection of multiple respiratory pathogens...
December 2014: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Orin Courtenay, Connor Carson, Leo Calvo-Bado, Lourdes M Garcez, Rupert J Quinnell
BACKGROUND: The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. METHODS: Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daniel R Feikin, Eunice W Kagucia, Jennifer D Loo, Ruth Link-Gelles, Milo A Puhan, Thomas Cherian, Orin S Levine, Cynthia G Whitney, Katherine L O'Brien, Matthew R Moore
BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction...
2013: PLoS Medicine
Rupert J Quinnell, Connor Carson, Richard Reithinger, Lourdes M Garcez, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carle Paul, Peter van de Kerkhof, Lluis Puig, Kristina Unnebrink, Orin Goldblum, Diamant Thaçi
BACKGROUND: Adalimumab is a fully human anti-TNF monoclonal antibody with demonstrated efficacy and safety in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of PsA on adalimumab treatment response in patients from the Phase IIIb BELIEVE trial (NCT00574249, registry), and response of other markers of disease burden to adalimumab treatment. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, patients with or without a history of PsA and with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized to adalimumab plus adjunctive topical therapy (calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate) or monotherapy (adalimumab plus matching topical vehicle)...
November 2012: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Giancarlo Lembo, Ellie J C Goldstein, Orin Troum, Bert Mandelbaum
Mycobacterium terrae is an unusual, ubiquitous organism that can cause clinical disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a septic knee whose arthroscopy cultures grew M. terrae. The patient was successfully treated using a 6-month regimen of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole. Mycobacterium terrae should be considered in the differential diagnoses for monoarticular swelling and pain of unknown etiology, especially in the setting of initially negative routine microbiological cultures...
October 2012: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Orin Bloch, Michael W McDermott
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement is the standard of care for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Studies have reported shunt complication rates up to 38%, with subdural hemorrhage rates as high as 10%. Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts with horizontal-vertical valves (HVV) are an alternative for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion that avoids direct cerebral injury and may reduce the risk of overdrainage. Here we reviewed our experience with LP-HVV shunt placement for iNPH. We retrospectively reviewed our 33 patients with LP-HVV shunts inserted for the treatment of iNPH from 1998 to 2009...
August 2012: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien, Maria Deloria-Knoll, David R Murdoch, Daniel R Feikin, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Shabir A Madhi, Susan A Maloney, Samba Sow, Donald M Thea, J Anthony Scott
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is a 7-country, standardized, comprehensive evaluation of the etiologic agents causing severe pneumonia in children from developing countries. During previous etiology studies, between one-quarter and one-third of patients failed to yield an obvious etiology; PERCH will employ and evaluate previously unavailable innovative, more sensitive diagnostic techniques. Innovative and rigorous epidemiologic and analytic methods will be used to establish the causal association between presence of potential pathogens and pneumonia...
April 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sylvain Mermond, Virginie Zurawski, Eric D'Ortenzio, Amanda J Driscoll, Andrea N DeLuca, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Jennifer C Moïsi, David R Murdoch, Isabelle Missotte, Laurent Besson-Leaud, Cyril Chevalier, Vincent Debarnot, Fabien Feray, Stephanie Noireterre, Bernard Duparc, Frederique Fresnais, Olivia O'Connor, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Orin S Levine
We conducted a prospective pilot study over a 1-year period in New Caledonia in preparation for the Pneumonia Research for Child Health (PERCH) project. The pathogens associated with hospitalized lower respiratory infections in children were identified through the use of culture of induced sputum and blood, urinary antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on respiratory specimens, and serology on paired sera. Respiratory viruses were detected on respiratory specimens by immunofluorescence and PCR, and by serology on paired sera...
April 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Laura L Hammitt, David R Murdoch, J Anthony G Scott, Amanda Driscoll, Ruth A Karron, Orin S Levine, Katherine L O'Brien
Diagnosing the etiologic agent of pneumonia has an essential role in ensuring the most appropriate and effective therapy for individual patients and is critical to guiding the development of treatment and prevention strategies. However, establishing the etiology of pneumonia remains challenging because of the relative inaccessibility of the infected tissue and the difficulty in obtaining samples without contamination by upper respiratory tract secretions. Here, we review the published and unpublished literature on various specimens available for the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia...
April 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maria Deloria-Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, J Anthony G Scott, Katherine L O'Brien, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Orin S Levine
Methods for the identification and selection of patients (cases) with severe or very severe pneumonia and controls for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project were needed. Issues considered include eligibility criteria and sampling strategies, whether to enroll hospital or community controls, whether to exclude controls with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or nonsevere pneumonia, and matching criteria, among others. PERCH ultimately decided to enroll community controls and an additional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected control group at high HIV-prevalence sites matched on age and enrollment date of cases; controls with symptoms of URTI or nonsevere pneumonia will not be excluded...
April 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Zunera Gilani, Yuenting D Kwong, Orin S Levine, Maria Deloria-Knoll, J Anthony G Scott, Katherine L O'Brien, Daniel R Feikin
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is the largest multicountry etiology study of childhood pneumonia since the Board on Science and Technology in International Development studies of the 1980s. However, it is not the only recent or ongoing pneumonia etiology study, and even with seven sites, it cannot capture all epidemiologic settings in the developing world. Funding providers, researchers and policymakers rely on the best available evidence to strategically plan programs, new research directions and interventions...
April 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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