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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100811/the-molecular-speciation-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-collected-from-school-children-across-six-endemic-countries
#1
Santosh George, Peter Geldhof, Marco Albonico, Shaali M Ame, Jeffrey M Bethony, Dirk Engels, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Sopheak Hem, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Nguyen Thu Huong, Gagandeep Kang, Jozef Vercruysse, Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms) is traditionally based on the demonstration of eggs in stool using microscopic techniques. While molecular techniques are more appropriate to speciate STH species they are seldom applied. In this study we speciated STH eggs from stool using molecular techniques to gain insights into the distribution of both human and animal STH species in the human host. METHODS: We speciated 207 STH egg isolates from stool collected during the baseline survey of six drug efficacy trials conducted in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Vietnam applying a PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphisms based approach...
January 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096855/helminth-infections-of-meriones-persicus-persian-jird-mus-musculus-house-mice-and-cricetulus-migratorius-grey-hamster-a-cross-sectional-study-in-meshkin-shahr-district-northwest-iran
#2
Zabiholah Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Zahra Heidari, Jaber Davoodi, Afshin Shabestari, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Eshrat Beigom Kia
BACKGROUND: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. METHODS: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#3
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#4
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074315/the-roundworm-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-children-dogs-and-soil-inside-and-outside-a-segregated-settlement-in-eastern-slovakia-frequent-but-hardly-detectable-parasite
#5
G Štrkolcová, M Goldová, E Bocková, J Mojžišová
A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043382/protozoan-and-helminth-parasite-fauna-of-free-living-croatian-wild-wolves-canis-lupus-analyzed-by-scat-collection
#6
Carlos Hermosilla, Sonja Kleinertz, Liliana M R Silva, Jörg Hirzmann, Djuro Huber, Josip Kusak, Anja Taubert
The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039389/low-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-trichuris-trichiura-infection-in-schoolchildren-from-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#7
Ivan Müller, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Jürg Utzinger, Leyli Zondie, Cheryl Walter, Peter Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Albendazole is one of two standard drugs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. METHODS: A total of 149 schoolchildren from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears before and 2 weeks after administration of albendazole (400 mg). RESULTS: Trichuris trichiura was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth species (prevalence 60.4%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (47...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030334/trichuris-suis-secrete-products-that-reduce-disease-severity-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#8
Christine Søholm Hansen, Henrik Hasseldam, Idahella Hyldgaard Bacher, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Helene Kringel
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease, which affects about 1 in 1000 individuals in the western world. It has been suggested that this relatively high prevalence is linked to a high level of hygiene, i.e. a reduced exposure to various microorganisms, including parasites. Parasites are known to employ different immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. We have investigated the immunomodulation by the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis, by measuring the impact of oral administration of T...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007484/diagnosis-of-intestinal-parasites-in-a-rural-community-of-venezuela-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-using-microscopy-or-rt-pcr
#9
Renzo Nino Incani, Elizabeth Ferrer, Denise Hoek, Robbert Ramak, Jeroen Roelfsema, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Titia Kortbeek, Elena Pinelli
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica...
December 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992978/-concordance-between-the-zinc-sulphate-flotation-and-centrifugal-sedimentation-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-intestinal-parasites
#10
Elizabete De Jesus Inês, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo Pacheco, Milena Carneiro Pinto, Patrícia Silva de Almeida Mendes, Hugo Da Costa-Ribeiro, Neci Matos Soares, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques...
December 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988408/risk-of-human-helminthiases-geospatial-distribution-and-targeted-control
#11
Weiwei Yu, Allen G Ross, Remigio M Olveda, Donald A Harn, Yuesheng Li, Delia Chy, Gail M Williams
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012 among 22 rural barangays in Northern Samar, the Philippines in order to determine the prevalence of single and multiple species helminth infections, their geospatial distribution and underlying risk factors. METHODS: A total of 10,434 individuals who had completed both a medical questionnaire and a stool examination were included in the analysis. Barangay specific prevalence rates were displayed in ArcMap...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979381/differential-effect-of-mass-deworming-and-targeted-deworming-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-control-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Naomi E Clarke, Archie C A Clements, Suhail A Doi, Dongxu Wang, Suzy J Campbell, Darren Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are a major global health issue, causing substantial morbidity in the world's poorest populations. Regular delivery of anthelmintic drugs is the mainstay for global soil-transmitted helminth control. Deworming campaigns are often targeted to school-aged children, who are at high risk of soil-transmitted-helminth-associated morbidity. However, findings from modelling studies suggest that deworming campaigns should be expanded community-wide for effective control of soil-transmitted helminth transmission...
December 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955788/mass-deworming-to-improve-developmental-health-and-wellbeing-of-children-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
Vivian A Welch, Elizabeth Ghogomu, Alomgir Hossain, Shally Awasthi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Chisa Cumberbatch, Robert Fletcher, Jessie McGowan, Shari Krishnaratne, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Salim Sohani, Shalini Suresh, Peter Tugwell, Howard White, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, considered among the neglected tropical diseases by WHO, affect more than a third of the world's population, with varying intensity of infection. We aimed to evaluate the effects of mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths (with or without deworming for schistosomiasis or co-interventions) on growth, educational achievement, cognition, school attendance, quality of life, and adverse effects in children in endemic helminth areas...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942456/fecal-parasite-identification-by-microscopy-and-pcr-in-scimitar-horned-oryx-oryx-dammah-managed-at-two-sites
#14
Cassandra Dawn Pauling, Anna R Oller, Victoria Jackson
The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ)...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927910/validation-of-various-parasite-detection-tests-for-use-in-the-australian-marsupials-quenda-isoodon-obesulus-and-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#15
Alison E Hillman, Amanda L Ash, Amanda R Kristancic, Aileen D Elliot, Alan J Lymbery, Ian D Robertson, R C Andrew Thompson
We aimed to validate the use of 1) the modified agglutination test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol in detecting Toxoplasma gondii infection in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) and brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula); 2) immunofluorescence microscopy of feces and a PCR and sequencing protocol in detecting Giardia spp. infection in quenda; and 3) a fecal flotation protocol in detecting gastrointestinal helminth infections of quenda. Quenda and brushtail possum carcasses, and samples from trapped quenda, were tested with 2 parasite detection tests per parasite, and results were modeled using Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate test sensitivity and specificity...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908696/erratum-to-molecular-approach-to-detect-albendazole-resistance-in-trichuris-trichiura-among-orang-asli-in-malaysia-international-journal-of-infectious-diseases-volume-45-supplement-1-april-2016-page-369
#16
Mehru Nisha, Verasingam Kumarasamy, Stephen Ambu, Fabian Davamani, Mak Joon Wah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905107/co-operative-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-plant-proanthocyanidins-and-products-from-the-parasitic-nematode-trichuris-suis
#17
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
November 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903301/high-prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-school-aged-children-in-a-rural-highland-of-north-western-ethiopia-the-role-of-intensive-diagnostic-work-up
#18
Aranzazu Amor, Esperanza Rodriguez, José M Saugar, Ana Arroyo, Beatriz López-Quintana, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Endalew Yizengaw, Derejew Zewdie, Zimman Ayehubizu, Tadesse Hailu, Wondemagegn Mulu, Adriana Echazú, Alejandro J Krolewieki, Pilar Aparicio, Zaida Herrador, Melaku Anegagrie, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891580/acute-infection-with-the-intestinal-parasite-trichuris-muris-has-long-term-consequences-on-mucosal-mast-cell-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity
#19
Daniel Sorobetea, Jacob Bak Holm, Henrietta Henningsson, Karsten Kristiansen, Marcus Svensson-Frej
A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888125/initiating-ntd-programs-targeting-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-two-provinces-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-establishment-of-baseline-prevalence-for-mass-drug-administration
#20
Achille Kabore, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Jean Jacques Tougoue, Sylvain Mupoyi, Martin Ndombe, Scott Shannon, Eric A Ottesen, Faustin Mukunda, Naomi Awaca
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB)...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
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