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Emily C White, Ashley Houlden, Allison J Bancroft, Kelly S Hayes, Marie Goldrick, Richard K Grencis, Ian S Roberts
Intestinal dwelling parasites have evolved closely with the complex intestinal microbiota of their host, but the significance of the host microbiota for metazoan pathogens and the role of their own intestinal microbiota are still not fully known. We have found that the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris acquired a distinct intestinal microbiota from its host, which was required for nematode fitness. Infection of germ-free mice and mice monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron demonstrated that successful T...
March 2018: Science Advances
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rebecca K Shears, Allison J Bancroft, Catherine Sharpe, Richard K Grencis, David J Thornton
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) is one of the four major soil-transmitted helminth infections of man, affecting an estimated 465 million people worldwide. An effective vaccine that induces long-lasting protective immunity against T. trichiura would alleviate the morbidity associated with this intestinal-dwelling parasite, however the lack of known host protective antigens has hindered vaccine development. Here, we show that vaccination with ES products stimulates long-lasting protection against chronic infection in male C57BL/6 mice...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
O Alejadro Aleuy, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Eric P Hoberg, Alasdair Veitch, Norman Simmons, Susan J Kutz
Gastrointestinal helminths can have a detrimental effect on the fitness of wild ungulates. Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are ideal for the study of host-parasite interactions due to the comparatively simple ecological interactions and limited confounding factors. We used a unique dataset assembled in the early seventies to study the diversity of gastrointestinal helminths and their effect on fitness indicators of Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Parasite diversity included nine species, among which the abomasal nematode Marshallagia marshalli occurred with the highest prevalence and infection intensity...
2018: PloS One
Jiang Long-Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of key parasitic diseases in Tongcheng City, so as to provide an epidemiological reference for formulating the scientific planning for "13th Five-year" parasitic diseases prevention and control. METHODS: The villages of different levels in Tongcheng City were sampled to investigate the infection of parasitic diseases of residents aged three or more years. Soil-transmitted nemathelminth, intestinal protozoa and Enterobius vermicularis were investigated by the Kato-Katz technique (a fecal sample seized two), iodine smear method and cellophane tape method, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Clement Isaac, Benjamin Igho Igbinosa, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Catherine Eki Osimen
Some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. This study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (Auchi, Benin, Ekpoma, and Uromi) and environs in Edo state, Nigeria. Six genera ( Apodemus sp., Crocidura sp., Mastomys natalensis , Mus musculus , Rattus sp., and Sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals. Overall, M...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline M Leung, Sarah A Budischak, Hao Chung The, Christina Hansen, Rowann Bowcutt, Rebecca Neill, Mitchell Shellman, P'ng Loke, Andrea L Graham
Genetic and environmental factors shape host susceptibility to infection, but how and how rapidly environmental variation might alter the susceptibility of mammalian genotypes remains unknown. Here, we investigate the impacts of seminatural environments upon the nematode susceptibility profiles of inbred C57BL/6 mice. We hypothesized that natural exposure to microbes might directly (e.g., via trophic interactions) or indirectly (e.g., via microbe-induced immune responses) alter the hatching, growth, and survival of nematodes in mice housed outdoors...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Shimeles Adugna, Tadesse Kebede, Zeleke Mekonnen, Abraham Degarege, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
Background: In this cross-sectional study, we compared the performance of Mini Parasep® solvent-free (SF) faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections among children in Wosha Soyama Primary School, Ethiopia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 381 children and examined for intestinal parasitic infections using Mini Parasep® SF faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
María Ornela Beltrame, Agustín Bellusci, Analía Andrade
The Somuncurá Plateau is a Protected Natural Area located in the middle of the northern extra-Andean arid Patagonia. Inhabited by at least 20 small mammal species, is the place with the uppermost species richness in Patagonia. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains from micromammal coprolites collected in association with a bone sequence recovered at the east of the Somuncurá plateau (site "Alero Las lechuzas"). Coprolites came from the four temporal units previously defined: unit I (4790 ± 100 yrs...
February 27, 2018: Parasitology International
Moudachirou Ibikounlé, Ablavi Onzo-Aboki, Justin Doritchamou, Jean-Jacques Tougoué, Pélagie Mimonnou Boko, Boris S Savassi, Edoux Joel Siko, Aboudou Daré, Wilfrid Batcho, Achille Massougbodji, Dorothée Akoko Kindé-Gazard, Achille Kaboré
BACKGROUND: National mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) was conducted for the first time in all of the 77 districts of Benin (West Africa) from 2013 to 2015. This mapping aimed to provide basic epidemiological data essential for the implementation of the national strategy against the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the context of achieving the WHO target of controlling these infections by 2020. METHODS: In each district, 5 schools were purposively selected in 5 villages and 50 school-children (25 girls and 25 boys) from ages 8 to 14 years were randomly enrolled in each school...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas W Hopwood, Sarah Hall, Nicola Begley, Ruth Forman, Sheila Brown, Ryan Vonslow, Ben Saer, Matthew C Little, Emma A Murphy, Rebecca J Hurst, David W Ray, Andrew S MacDonald, Andy Brass, David A Bechtold, Julie E Gibbs, Andrew S Loudon, Kathryn J Else
Resistance to the intestinal parasitic helminth Trichuris muris requires T-helper 2 (TH 2) cellular and associated IgG1 responses, with expulsion typically taking up to 4 weeks in mice. Here, we show that the time-of-day of the initial infection affects efficiency of worm expulsion, with strong TH 2 bias and early expulsion in morning-infected mice. Conversely, mice infected at the start of the night show delayed resistance to infection, and this is associated with feeding-driven metabolic cues, such that feeding restriction to the day-time in normally nocturnal-feeding mice disrupts parasitic expulsion kinetics...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Geneviève Turgeon, Susan J Kutz, Manigandan Lejeune, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Fanie Pelletier
The Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou ) population is a small isolated relict herd considered endangered according to the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA). This population has low recruitment and survival rates but the potential role of parasites on individual fitness is unknown. In this context, we explored the parasite status of this population with the aim of 1) assessing the occurrence and intensity of parasite infections and the spatial, temporal and individual variations, 2) quantifying parasite richness and investigating factors such as sex and host body condition that may be associated with this variable and 3) evaluating the effects of parasite infections on survival in the Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou population...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Eveline Hürlimann, Kigbafori D Silué, Fabien Zouzou, Mamadou Ouattara, Thomas Schmidlin, Richard B Yapi, Clarisse A Houngbedji, Kouassi Dongo, Bernadette A Kouadio, Siaka Koné, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Cinthia A Acka-Douabélé, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy with donated anthelminthic drugs is the cornerstone for the control of helminthiases. However, reinfection can occur rapidly in the absence of clean water and sanitation coupled with unhygienic behaviour. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants' knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
K S Akinwande, O A Morenikeji, O G Arinola
Adequate nutrition is essential for normal growth of children but helminth infection is proposed to cause nutritional deficiencies. This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of helminth infected school aged children in semi-urban communities of South-West Nigeria. Two hundred children from primary schools in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements were analyzed using the WHO AnthroPlus software. Kato Katz method was used to detect ova of helminths in the stool while serum levels of iron, zinc, selenium, ferritin, transferrin, vitamin A, vitamin C and haptoglobin were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry as appropriate...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Poovendhree Reddy, Razak Seidu, Thor Axel Stenström
Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zeng Xiao-Jun, Jiang Wei-Sheng, Xie Shu-Ying, Ge Jun, Li Zhao-Jun, Hang Chun-Qin, Liu Yue-Min, Yi Fang-Yu, Chen Hong-Gen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Jiangxi Province from 1989 to 2014, so as to provide the evidence for generating the strategy of soil-transmitted nematode prevention and control. METHODS: The data of three epidemiological surveys on human parasitic diseases (in 1989, 2002 and 2014) were classified and analyzed. The stool examination by Kato-Katz's thick smear method was adopted for the investigation of soil-transmitted nematode infections...
December 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Ni Bi-Xian, Xu Xiang-Zhen, Wang Xiao-Ting, Sheng Ming-Xue, Dai Yang, Jin Xiao-Lin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the prevention and control technique training of human important parasitic diseases for basic professional and technical personnel in Jiangsu Province in 2017. METHODS: A workshop including theory courses and practical operations was carried out for the basic professional and technical personnel. At the end of the workshop, the effects were evaluated through the theoretical and microscopic examinations. RESULTS: There were 132 trainees from 13 cities, and all of them took part in the final examinations...
July 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Deng Yue-Jiao, Xie Lun-Geng, Huang Chun-Yan, Zhang Shi-Wu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of 3 investigations (2002-2004, 2008-2009, and 2016) of major parasitic diseases in Shixing County, so as to provide the evidence for formulating further control strategies. METHODS: With the stratified cluster sampling method, 5 administrative villages were investigated. A total of 200 residents aged above 3 years were sampled in each village to investigate the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes with Kato-Katz technique, and the swab method was applied for detecting the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-9 years...
July 28, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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