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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342825/association-between-parasitic-infections-and-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-refugees
#1
Nathaniel S Watts, Mucho M Mizinduko, Elizabeth D Barnett, Laura F White, Natasha S Hochberg
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50...
March 22, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340144/preventive-chemotherapy-in-one-year-reduces-by-over-80-the-number-of-individuals-with-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-causing-morbidity-results-from-meta-analysis
#2
Chiara Marocco, Mathieu Bangert, Serene A Joseph, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Antonio Montresor
The morbidity due to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura is caused by infections of moderate and heavy intensity while hookworm infections of all intensities are recognized to cause morbidity.This study aims to evaluate the effect of repeated rounds of preventive chemotherapy on the proportion of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections causing morbidity. We identified studies from 17 countries, reporting changes in the proportion of STH infection causing morbidity between baseline and follow-up...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316402/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-gastrointestinal-parasitism-in-traditionally-maintained-goat-flocks-of-south-gujarat
#3
L M Sorathiya, A B Fulsoundar, T K S Rao, Niranjan Kumar
A total of 360 faecal samples of goat belonging to Ahir community were collected randomly from eight villages on monthly basis. On same day, collected samples were subjected to qualitative faecal examination and positive samples were categorized into mild, moderate and heavy infected groups. The risk factors considered for study were age, pregnancy, lactation, seasons, wet land grazing and hygiene in housing. Overall 41.11 % animals were found positive for helminth eggs and among them 24.17, 10.56 and 6.39 % of goats were mildly, moderately and heavily infected, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#4
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302147/soil-transmitted-helminths-and-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-among-individuals-living-in-different-agroecosystems-in-two-rural-communities-in-the-mount-cameroon-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Gladys Belanka Nkemnji, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Plasmodium falciparum infections remain public health problems in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mount Cameroon area to determine the prevalence and intensity of STHs and P. falciparum infections in individuals living in different agroecosystems; to assess the influence of these infections on haematological parameters; and to identify the risk factors associated with STH infections. METHODS: STH and malaria parasites were detected using the Kato-Katz method and Giemsa staining of blood films, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290266/improved-diagnosis-of-trichuris-trichiura-by-using-a-bead-beating-procedure-on-ethanol-preserved-stool-samples-prior-to-dna-isolation-and-the-performance-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-intestinal-parasites
#6
Maria M M Kaisar, Eric A T Brienen, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Jaco J Verweij, Taniawati Supali, Lisette VAN Lieshout
For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289849/geo-helminthiasis-among-migrants-in-sicily-a-possible-focus-for-re-emerging-neurocysticercosis-in-europe
#7
Ildebrando Patamia, Piermario Nicotra, Davide Amodeo, Loretta Giuliano, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Alessandra Nicoletti
A dramatic increasing immigration flow was recorded in Europe during the last years. Only in Sicily 120,239 people arrived in 2014. Immigrants may carry neglected tropical diseases endemic in their origin countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of geo-helminthiasis, and in particular of intestinal taeniasis, in a sample of migrants hosted in a large asylum seeker centre in the province of Catania. A stool sample was obtained from all the enrolled subjects and a coproparasitological examination was performed...
March 13, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284979/effect-of-polymorphisms-on-tgfb1-on-allergic-asthma-and-helminth-infection-in-an-african-admixed-population
#8
Ryan Dos Santos Costa, Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo, Maurıcio Lima Barreto, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Alvaro A Cruz, Candelaria Vergara, Nicholas Rafaels, Cassandra Foster, Joseph Potee, Monica Campbell, Rasika A Mathias, Kathleen C Barnes
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a complex disorder that results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Studies suggest that helminth infections can activate a regulatory network characterized by the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and subsequently protect against immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma. On the other hand, TGF-β1 is increased in the lungs of individuals with asthma and may modulate airway inflammation...
March 8, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284226/enhanced-susceptibility-of-triple-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-3xtg-ad-mice-to-acute-infection
#9
Rebecca Montacute, Kerry Foley, Ruth Forman, Kathryn Jane Else, Sheena Margaret Cruickshank, Stuart McRae Allan
BACKGROUND: Infection is a recognised risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can worsen symptoms in established disease. AD patients have higher rates of infection and are more likely to require hospital admissions due to infections than individuals without dementia. Infections have also been found to increase the risk of those over 84 years of age being diagnosed with dementia. However, few studies have investigated immune responses to infection in AD. METHODS: Here, we investigated the immune responses of the triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mouse model of AD to infection with the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trichuris muris...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246451/gastrointestinal-parasitism-of-goats-in-hilly-region-of-meghalaya-india
#10
Meena Das, R Laha, A Goswami, A Goswami
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229042/an-investigation-of-parasitic-infections-and-review-of-molecular-characterization-of-the-intestinal-protozoa-in-nonhuman-primates-in-china-from-2009-to-2015
#11
Junqiang Li, Haiju Dong, Rongjun Wang, Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Yankai Chang, Chenrong Wang, Meng Qi, Longxian Zhang
Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222192/blastocystis-subtyping-and-its-association-with-intestinal-parasites-in-children-from-different-geographical-regions-of-colombia
#12
Juan David Ramírez, Carolina Flórez, Mario Olivera, María Consuelo Bernal, Julio Cesar Giraldo
Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219472/immunodiagnosis-of-paramphistomosis-using-monoclonal-antibody-based-sandwich-elisa-for-detection-of-paramphistomum-gracile-circulating-16-kda-antigen
#13
Panat Anuracpreeda, Kullanid Tepsupornkul, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul
In this study, we have produced a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg), and developed an accurate sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) for the detection of circulating 16 kDaAg in the serum and fecal samples from cattle naturally infected with P. gracile. MoAb 1D10 was immobilized on a microtitre plate, and the antigen in the samples was captured and detected with biotinylated rabbit anti-16 kDaAgPg antibody. The lower detection limit of sandwich ELISA was 3·5 pg mL-1, and no cross-reaction with other parasite antigens was evaluated...
February 21, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212668/association-of-community-sanitation-usage-with-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-among-school-aged-children-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#15
William E Oswald, Aisha E P Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Matthew C Freeman, W Dana Flanders, Thomas F Clasen, Christine L Moe
BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212667/assessing-the-interruption-of-the-transmission-of-human-helminths-with-mass-drug-administration-alone-optimizing-the-design-of-cluster-randomized-trials
#16
Roy Anderson, Sam Farrell, Hugo Turner, Judd Walson, Christl A Donnelly, James Truscott
BACKGROUND: A method is outlined for the use of an individual-based stochastic model of parasite transmission dynamics to assess different designs for a cluster randomized trial in which mass drug administration (MDA) is employed in attempts to eliminate the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in defined geographic locations. The hypothesis to be tested is: Can MDA alone interrupt the transmission of STH species in defined settings? Clustering is at a village level and the choice of clusters of villages is stratified by transmission intensity (low, medium and high) and parasite species mix (either Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm dominant)...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210845/whipworm-diversity-in-west-african-rodents-a-molecular-approach-and-the-description-of-trichuris-duplantieri-n-sp-nematoda-trichuridae
#17
Alexis Ribas, Christophe Diagne, Caroline Tatard, Mamoudou Diallo, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Carine Brouat
Whipworms were collected from rodents (Muridae) from six West African countries: Burkina-Faso, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, and the Republics of Benin, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. Molecular sequences (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA gene) and morphometric characters were analysed in Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) specimens found in seven host species: Arvicanthis niloticus, Gerbilliscus gambianus, Gerbillus gerbillus, G. tarabuli, Mastomys erythroleucus, M. huberti and M. natalensis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades, one recognised as Trichuris mastomysi, previously recorded in M...
February 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192541/immune-driven-alterations-in-mucin-sulphation-is-an-important-mediator-of-trichuris-muris-helminth-expulsion
#18
Sumaira Z Hasnain, Paul A Dawson, Rohan Lourie, Peter Hutson, Hui Tong, Richard K Grencis, Michael A McGuckin, David J Thornton
Mucins are heavily glycosylated proteins that give mucus its gel-like properties. Moreover, the glycans decorating the mucin protein core can alter the protective properties of the mucus barrier. To investigate whether these alterations could be parasite-induced we utilized the Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection model, using different infection doses and strains of mice that are resistant (high dose infection in BALB/c and C57BL6 mice) or susceptible (high dose infection in AKR and low dose infection in BALB/c mice) to chronic infection by T...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192437/species-dependent-impact-of-helminth-derived-antigens-on-human-macrophages-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-direct-effect-on-the-innate-anti-mycobacterial-response
#19
Naomi Aira, Anna-Maria Andersson, Susmita K Singh, Derek M McKay, Robert Blomgran
BACKGROUND: In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis there is high coincident of helminth infections that might worsen disease outcome. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gives rise to a pro-inflammatory Th1 response, a Th2 response is typical of helminth infections. A strong Th2 response has been associated with decreased protection against tuberculosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the direct effect of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages, hypothesizing that helminths would render macrophages less capable of controlling Mtb...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182663/dihydrobenz-e-1-4-oxazepin-2-3h-ones-a-new-anthelmintic-chemotype-immobilising-whipworm-and-reducing-infectivity-in-vivo
#20
Frederick A Partridge, Emma A Murphy, Nicky J Willis, Carole J R Bataille, Ruth Forman, Narinder Heyer-Chauhan, Bruno Marinič, Daniel J C Sowood, Graham M Wynne, Kathryn J Else, Angela J Russell, David B Sattelle
Trichuris trichiura is a human parasitic whipworm infecting around 500 million people globally, damaging the physical growth and educational performance of those infected. Current drug treatment options are limited and lack efficacy against the worm, preventing an eradication programme. It is therefore important to develop new treatments for trichuriasis. Using Trichuris muris, an established model for T. trichiura, we screened a library of 480 novel drug-like small molecules for compounds causing paralysis of the ex vivo adult parasite...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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