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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774300/epidemiology-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-three-departments-of-south-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-before-the-implementation-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#1
Gaoussou Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Kouassi Dongo, Eveline Hürlimann, Fidèle K Bassa, Naférima Koné, Clémence Essé, Richard B Yapi, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K N'Goran
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770664/-survey-and-analysis-of-major-human-parasitic-diseases-in-chongqing-city
#2
Li Shan-Shan, Luo Fei, Xie Jun, Yuan Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemic of major human parasitic diseases in Chongqing City, so as to provide a reference for developing prevention and control strategies. METHODS: According to the unified methods formulated by the national investigation scheme and stratified cluster random sampling, 36 rural pilots and 50 urban pilots were selected in Chongqing City. The number of the objects investigated in individual pilot was defined over 250. RESULTS: Totally 22 263 residents were detected...
March 2, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#3
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746467/disentangling-complex-parasite-interactions-protection-against-cerebral-malaria-by-one-helminth-species-is-jeopardized-by-co-infection-with-another
#4
Jessica L Abbate, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Jean-François Guégan, Marc Choisy, Mathieu Nacher, Benjamin Roche
Multi-species interactions can often have non-intuitive consequences. However, the study of parasite interactions has rarely gone beyond the effects of pairwise combinations of species, and the outcomes of multi-parasite interactions are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of co-infection by four gastrointestinal helminth species on the development of cerebral malaria among Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. We characterized associations among the helminth parasite infra-community, and then tested for independent (direct) and co-infection dependent (indirect) effects of helminths on cerebral malaria risk...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746004/extracellular-vesicles-induce-protective-immunity-against-trichuris-muris
#5
R K Shears, A J Bancroft, G W Hughes, R K Grencis, D J Thornton
Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), are a major source of morbidity in humans and their livestock. There is a paucity of commercially available vaccines against these parasites, and vaccine development for T. trichiura has been impeded by a lack of known host protective antigens. Experimental vaccinations with T. muris (murine whipworm) soluble Excretory/Secretory (ES) material have demonstrated that it is possible to induce protective immunity in mice, however the potential for extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of antigenic material has remained relatively unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744702/the-helminth-community-component-species-of-the-wood-mouse-as-biological-tags-of-a-ten-post-fire-year-regeneration-process-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem
#6
Sandra Sáez-Durán, Ángela L Debenedetti, Sandra Sainz-Elipe, M Teresa Galán-Puchades, Màrius V Fuentes
Serra Calderona Natural Park, a Mediterranean ecosystem, has been in post-fire regeneration for 10 years. To elucidate which helminth community component species of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, can be considered biological tags of this process, the influence of intrinsic (host density; host sex and age) and extrinsic factors (site, year, and period of capture; vegetation recovery) on their prevalence and abundance has been analysed, comparing a burned and an unburned area. A total of 564 wood mice (408 from the burned and 156 from the unburned area), from the 2nd to the10th post-fire year, was included in this helminthoecological study...
May 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721657/long-term-occurrence-of-trichuris-species-in-wild-ruminants-in-the-czech-republic
#7
Stanislava Nechybová, Pavel Vejl, Vlastimil Hart, Martina Melounová, Daniela Čílová, Jakub Vašek, Ivana Jankovská, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Iva Langrová
The aim of this study was to identify Trichuris species in wild ruminants from 32 localities in the Czech Republic using morphological and molecular methods (ITS1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region polymorphisms). Trichurids were obtained from 176 wild ruminants (roe deer, sika deer, red deer, fallow deer and mouflons) that were culled between 2009 and 2017. Trichuris discolor is the predominant trichurid of all of the above-mentioned wild ruminants, whereas Trichuris ovis was identified less frequently in roe deer, fallow deer, sika deer and mouflons...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705768/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-and-nutritional-status-in-ecuador-findings-from-a-national-survey-and-implications-for-control-strategies
#8
Ana L Moncayo, Raquel Lovato, Philip J Cooper
OBJECTIVE: The estimation of prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections at a country-level is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of a rational control programme. The aim of this present study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of STH infections and malnutrition in school-age children in rural areas of Ecuador. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012. SETTING: Eighteen rural schools were randomly selected from the three ecological regions of Ecuador (coastal, highlands and Amazon basin)...
April 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705361/diversity-and-prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-two-wild-galago-species-in-gabon
#9
Larson Boundenga, Cyr Moussadji, Illich Manfred Mombo, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Jean-Pierre Hugot
In this study, we characterize the diversity and estimated infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in two galago species, Galago demidoff and G. thomasi in two sites situated in the Southeastern forests of Gabon. Our study reveals that eleven parasites including nine helminthes (Ascaris spp, Ankylostoma spp, Dicrocoelium spp, Gongylonema spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Lemuricola spp, Strongyloides spp Trichostrongylus spp and Trichuris spp) and two protozoans (Balantidium spp and Entamoeba spp) may infect Galago spp with high infection rates...
April 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704091/cross-sectional-prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-helminth-parasites-in-cattle-in-lira-district-uganda
#10
Gabriel Atwoki Kagenda, Harriet Angwech
The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasite infections and associated risk factors was studied in traditionally reared East African short-horned zebu cattle in Lira District, Uganda. Fecal samples were collected from 205 cattle and coprologically examined for the presence of helminth parasites using the simple salt flotation method complemented with the sedimentation method. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites (GITPs) in cattle in Adekokwok, Lira District, was 32.2%. Of these, 12 (18...
April 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702653/efficacy-and-safety-of-co-administered-ivermectin-plus-albendazole-for-treating-soil-transmitted-helminths-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-individual-patient-data-analysis
#11
Marta S Palmeirim, Eveline Hürlimann, Stefanie Knopp, Benjamin Speich, Vicente Belizario, Serene A Joseph, Michel Vaillant, Piero Olliaro, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694887/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-suppresses-protective-immunity-to-gastrointestinal-helminth-infection
#12
Rafid Alhallaf, Zainab Agha, Catherine M Miller, Avril A B Robertson, Javier Sotillo, John Croese, Matthew A Cooper, Seth L Masters, Andreas Kupz, Nicholas C Smith, Alex Loukas, Paul R Giacomin
Inflammasomes promote immunity to microbial pathogens by regulating the function of IL-1-family cytokines such as IL-18 and IL-1β. However, the roles for inflammasomes during parasitic helminth infections remain unclear. We demonstrate that mice and humans infected with gastrointestinal nematodes display increased IL-18 secretion, which in Trichuris-infected or worm antigen-treated mice and in macrophages co-cultured with Trichuris antigens or exosome-like vesicles was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3-deficient mice displayed reduced pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokine responses and augmented protective type 2 immunity, which was reversed by IL-18 administration...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694397/ancient-dna-from-latrines-in-northern-europe-and-the-middle-east-500-bc-1700-ad-reveals-past-parasites-and-diet
#13
Martin Jensen Søe, Peter Nejsum, Frederik Valeur Seersholm, Brian Lund Fredensborg, Ruben Habraken, Kirstine Haase, Mette Marie Hald, Rikke Simonsen, Flemming Højlund, Louise Blanke, Inga Merkyte, Eske Willerslev, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel
High-resolution insight into parasitic infections and diet of past populations in Northern Europe and the Middle East (500 BC- 1700 AD) was obtained by pre-concentration of parasite eggs from ancient latrines and deposits followed by shotgun sequencing of DNA. Complementary profiling of parasite, vertebrate and plant DNA proved highly informative in the study of ancient health, human-animal interactions as well as animal and plant dietary components. Most prominent were finding of soil-borne parasites transmitted directly between humans, but also meat-borne parasites that require consumption of raw or undercooked fish and pork...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668139/-zoonotic-intestinal-nematodes-in-dogs-from-public-parks-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-m%C3%A3-xico
#14
Rodrigo Adán Medina-Pinto, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas, Manuel Emilio Bolio-González
INTRODUCTION: Dogs represent a potential public health risk because of the natural transmission of zoonotic parasitic infections. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and to determine factors associated with the presence of intestinal nematode eggs in dog feces collected in public parks of Mérida,Yucatán, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 dog fecal samples collected from 20 public parks in two areas of Mérida were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627858/first-detection-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-g1-in-dogs-in-central-sudan
#15
Rihab Ali Omer, Arwid Daugschies, Sandra Gawlowska, Ayman Elnahas, Peter Kern, Sofia Bashir, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim Ali, Amin Osman, Thomas Romig
Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000...
April 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622908/soil-contamination-rate-prevalence-intensity-of-infection-of-geohelminths-and-associated-risk-factors-among-residents-in-bazou-west-cameroon
#16
Blandine Ngatou Tchakounté, Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Josué Wabo Poné
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soil contamination rate and prevalence of infestations of geohelminth among residents in Bazou. Methods: Four hundred (400) soil samples and 182 stool specimens were collected respectively from four sites and from inhabitants aged 1 to 40 years and above in 12 households. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate risk factors of STH-infections...
January 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617737/efficacy-and-safety-of-ivermectin-against-trichuris-trichiura-in-preschool-and-school-aged-children-a-randomized-controlled-dose-finding-trial
#17
David Wimmersberger, Jean T Coulibaly, Jessica Schulz, Maxim Puchkow, Jörg Huwyler, Yves N'Gbesso, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
Background: Although trichuriasis affects millions of children worldwide, recommended drugs lack efficacy and new treatment options are urgently needed. Ivermectin has promising potential to complement the anthelminthic armamentarium. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in rural Côte d'Ivoire to provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of ascending oral ivermectin dosages in preschool-aged children and in schoolchildren infected with Trichuris trichiura...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574798/modulation-of-human-dendritic-cell-activity-by-giardia-and-helminth-antigens
#18
Anneka Summan, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite known to modulate host immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function. Co-infections of intestinal pathogens are common, and thus DCs may be concurrently exposed to antigens from multiple parasites. Here, we investigated the effects of G. duodenalis products on human monocyte-derived DC function independently and in combination with helminth antigens (Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis). All antigens individually induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in DCs, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12p70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion...
March 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546242/manipulation-of-host-and-parasite-microbiotas-survival-strategies-during-chronic-nematode-infection
#19
Emily C White, Ashley Houlden, Allison J Bancroft, Kelly S Hayes, Marie Goldrick, Richard K Grencis, Ian S Roberts
Intestinal dwelling parasites have evolved closely with the complex intestinal microbiota of their host, but the significance of the host microbiota for metazoan pathogens and the role of their own intestinal microbiota are still not fully known. We have found that the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris acquired a distinct intestinal microbiota from its host, which was required for nematode fitness. Infection of germ-free mice and mice monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron demonstrated that successful T...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543807/association-between-gastrointestinal-tract-infections-and-glycated-hemoglobin-in-school-children-of-poor-neighborhoods-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#20
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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