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F Cau, E Pisu, C Gerosa, G Senes, F Ronchi, C Botta, E Di Felice, F Uda, V Marinelli, G Faa, V Fanos, C Moretti, D Fanni
The surfactant complex, thanks to its multiple actions including decrease of surface- tension and antimicrobial activity, plays a fundamental role in newborn survival, lowering the risk of respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this work was to determine if the synthesis of two surfactant proteins (SP), SPA and pro-SPB, shows some inter-individual variability during lung development in the intrauterine life. Immunoreactivity for SPA and pro-SPB was investigated in the lungs of  40 subjects, including 15 fetuses, ranging from 14 to 22 weeks of gestation, and 25 neonates, from 24 to 41 weeks...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Lorenzo Corbetta, Ariela Tofani, Flavio Montinaro, Lucio Michieletto, Loris Ceron, Chiara Moroni, Pier Giorgio Rogasi
BACKGROUND: The poor treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB and extremely and totally drug-resistant TB highlight the urgent need for new antituberculous drugs and other adjuvant treatment approaches. OBJECTIVES: We have treated cavitary tuberculosis by the application of endobronchial one-way valves (Zephyr®; Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, Calif., USA) to induce lobar volume reduction as an adjunct to drug treatment...
October 12, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Jose Luis Ortiz, Amparo Ortiz, Javier Milara, Miguel Armengot, Celia Sanz, Desamparados Compañ, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig...
2016: PloS One
Fiorentina Roviezzo, Rosalinda Sorrentino, Valentina Mattera Iacono, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Michela Terlizzi, Maria Antonietta Riemma, Antonio Bertolino, Antonietta Rossi, Maria Matteis, Giuseppe Spaziano, Aldo Pinto, Bruno D'Agostino, Giuseppe Cirino
Compelling evidence suggests the involvement of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the pathogenesis of asthma. The systemic administration of S1P causes asthma like features in the mouse involving mast cells. In this study we investigated whether disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a preventative treatment as in human therapy, could affect S1P effects on airways. BALB/c mice, treated with DSCG, received subcutaneous administration of S1P. Bronchi and pulmonary tissues were collected and functional, molecular and cellular studies were performed...
October 3, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Steven Rothenberg
PURPOSE: Thoracoscopic lobectomy for congenital cystic lung disease has become an accepted and in many institutions the preferred technique. However, the technical challenges are many. Previous endoscopic staplers (12 mm) used commonly in adults are too large for use in infants This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of using a 5 mm stapling device to seal and divide major pulmonary structures. METHODS: From July 2014 to March 2016, 26 patients of age 6 weeks to 13 months underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy for CPAM or sequestration...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Kaoruko Shimizu, Ruriko Seto, Hironi Makita, Masaru Suzuki, Satoshi Konno, Yoichi M Ito, Rie Kanda, Emiko Ogawa, Yasutaka Nakano, Masaharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies suggested that the site of bronchodilation on CT might differ between inhaled β2 agonists and inhaled anticholinergics in COPD. AIM: To assess and compare the bronchodilation effects of inhaled indacaterol and glycopyrronium/indacaterol by airway generation in large airways using CT. METHODS: CT scans at full inspiration and pulmonary function tests were done in 25 patients with moderate-severe COPD before and 4-5 weeks after daily inhalation of indacaterol and again another 4-5 weeks after inhalation of glycopyrronium/indacaterol...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Khalid Mahmood, Muhammad Ubaid, Aamer Mahmood
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by widespread sand-like intra-alveolar calcifications (calcospherites composed of calcium and phosphorus). Around 800 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of a 35 years old female with prolonged h/o of exertional dyspnoea and mild cough. Clinical examination was mostly normal. Her Chest X-Ray revealed bilateral multiple nodular opacities (sand storm appearance). CT Scan chest showed diffuse micronodular calcifications with septal thickening, compatible with alveolar microlithiasis...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Tekla M Lee-Fowler, Robert C Cole, A Ray Dillon, D Michael Tillson, Rachel Garbarino, Sharron Barney
OBJECTIVES: Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. METHODS: Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Benedict Griffiths, Geraint Lee, Andrew Durward
Central airway obstruction (trachea and major bronchi) in neonates can be caused by malacia, stenosis, or compression by masses or vascular structures. These abnormalities may be present in the neonatal period but are typically not detected until at least 6 months of age. We present four patients (1.6-4.1 kg, 32-41 weeks gestation) with nonspecific symptoms (e.g., poor weight gain, difficulty weaning from CPAP) who underwent bronchoscopy in the neonatal period. Critical airway obstruction (>90%) was identified in these relatively asymptomatic neonates...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Deepak Talwar, Vidya Nair, Arjun Khanna, Vikas Dogra
We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Masayuki Okui, Mitsutomo Kohno, Naoki Hasegawa, Ikuo Kamiyama, Takashi Ohtsuka
Pneumothorax secondary to nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is often intractable and associated with high mortality. An endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS) is a silicon plug developed for bronchoscopic bronchial occlusion. Here we report a case of intractable pneumothorax secondary to nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease successfully treated using EWSs. Occlusion of the multiple ectatic bronchi connected to the bronchopleural fistula was essential for optimal effect of the EWSs.
September 10, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
K Karaman, S Karaman, A Üner, I Ece
Objectives: We aimed to assess whether the widened carina angle displayed on X-ray supports the presumptive presence of patent ductus arteriosus. Methods: The study group was arranged by 60 infants under 37 weeks diagnosed with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. The control group was constituted by 60 infants with no clinical or echocardiographic evidence of patent ductus arteriosus. In both groups, the location of the left main bronchus was assessed by measuring the angle between two main bronchi at the level of carina...
January 8, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
K Loza, I Föhring, J Bünger, G A Westphal, M Köller, M Epple, C Sengstock
The inhalation of particles and their exposure to the bronchi and alveoli constitute a major public health risk. Chemical as well as particle-related properties are important factors for the biological response but are difficult to separate from each other. Barium sulfate is a completely inert chemical compound, therefore it is ideally suited to separate these two factors. The biological response of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) was analyzed after exposure to barium sulfate particles with three different diameters (40 nm, 270 nm, and 1...
September 10, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Janiana Raíza Jentsch Matias de Oliveira, Michel Fleith Otuki, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Indiara Brusco, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Juliano Ferreira, Eunice André
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and renal disease, and are considered relatively safe and generally well-tolerated drugs. However, adverse effects of ACEIs have been reported, including non-productive cough and angioedema, which can lead to poor adherence to therapy. The mechanisms by which ACEIs promote adverse effects are not fully elucidated, although increased bradykinin plasma levels following ACEI therapy seem to play an important role...
September 7, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Bikram Shrestha, Bernard Kim, Alison Huffstetler
MALT: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma is a relatively rare disease; nevertheless, it is the third most common lymphoma type, accounting for 5-7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Case series and retrospective analysis published in the literature have suggested that extra gastrointestinal (GI) MALT-type lymphoma can occur simultaneously with MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI tract. We report the case of a healthy, 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with progressive fatigue, non-productive cough, and worsening exertional shortness of breath for 3 months who was subsequently diagnosed with gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or MALToma with simultaneous metastasis to the lung (bronchi) based on biopsy reports...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
M Ulusoy, I I Uysal, A S Kıvrak, S Ozbek, A K Karabulut, Y Paksoy, N U Dogan
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are the identification of differences in the diameter, length, area and branching angles of the trachea and bronchi with gender and age, and the identification of trachea types by using MDCT images. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The thoracic MDCT images of 253 patients (0-74 years old, 142 male and 111 female) were evaluated. Tracheal diameter, tracheal cross-sectional area, diameter and length of bronchi, and several angles of the bronchial tree [e...
August 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
H Hoffmann, D Gompelmann, C P Heußel, H Dienemann, R Eberhardt
Patients with diffuse airway instability due to tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse are typically highly symptomatic, with marked dyspnoea, recurrent bronchopulmonary infections and excruciating intractable cough. Silicone stents achieve immediate symptom control, but are - due to the typical complications associated with stent treatment - usually not an option for long-term treatment. The aim of surgical intervention is definitive stabilisation of the trachea and of both main bronchi by posterior splinting of the Paries membranaceus with a polypropylene mesh...
September 2016: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Rajesh V Patel, Brandon A Van Noord, Dakshesh Patel, Elizabeth J Hong, Eric Bourne, Reema R Patel, Janak Chandrasoma, Linda Chan, Janos Szenohradszki, Philip D Lumb
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the true inclination angle of the main bronchi relative to the median sagittal plane, using CT imaging to help increase accuracy of double-lumen tube (DLT) placement. DESIGN: In this retrospective study, 2 investigators independently measured normal chest CT scans from 50 male and 50 female patients. To determine the true AP axis, a mid-sagittal plane reference line (MSPRL) was drawn, intersecting the midsternum and the vertebral spinous process at the level of mid-carina...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Panagiotis Boglou, Nikolaos Papanas, Anastasia Oikonomou, Stamatia Bakali, Paschalis Steiropoulos
Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS), or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical and radiologic condition characterized by pronounced tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Tracheobronchomegaly presents when the defect extends to the central bronchi. MKS can be diagnosed in adult women when the transverse and sagittal diameters of the trachea, right mainstem bronchus, and left mainstem bronchus exceed 21, 23, 19.8, and 17.4 mm, respectively. Its diagnosis is based on chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT)...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
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