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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670037/expression-and-regulation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-receptor-heterocomplex-in-the-innate-adaptive-immunity-of-pediatric-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Fang-Yi Cheng, Jun-Jen Liu, Yi-Ling Ye
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airway, and it is characterized by a wheezing breathing sound, variable airflow obstruction and the presence of inflammatory cells in the submucosa of the bronchi. Viral infection, pollutants and sensitivity to aeroallergens damage the epithelium from childhood, which causes asthma. The pathogenesis of asthma includes pathways of innate stimulation by environmental microbes and irritant pathogens. Damaged epithelial cells produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and stimulate myeloid dendritic cell maturation through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) heterocomplex...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669351/bronchial-thermoplasty-in-severe-asthma-best-practice-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel
#2
Peter I Bonta, Pascal Chanez, Jouke T Annema, Pallav L Shah, Robert Niven
Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic treatment for patients with severe asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. In this "expert best practice" paper, the background and practical aspects of BT are highlighted. Randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown BT to be safe and effective in reducing severe exacerbations, improving quality of life, and decreasing emergency department visits. Five-year follow-up studies have provided evidence of the functional stability of BT-treated patients with persistence of a clinical benefit...
April 17, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663180/impact-of-powered-and-tissue-specific-endoscopic-stapling-technology-on-clinical-and-economic-outcomes-of-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-lobectomy-procedures-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
Daniel L Miller, Sanjoy Roy, Edmund S Kassis, Sashi Yadalam, Sushama Ramisetti, Stephen S Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resections are complex procedures with a critical role played by endoscopic staplers in the transection of vessels, bronchi, and lung tissue. This retrospective, observational study compared hospital resource use, costs, and complications of VATS lobectomy procedures for whom powered versus manual endoscopic surgical staplers were used. METHODS: Patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing elective VATS lobectomy during an inpatient admission from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016 were identified from the Premier Healthcare Database (first admission = index admission)...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650006/beclomethasone-dipropionate-and-formoterol-fumarate-synergistically-interact-in-hyperresponsive-medium-bronchi-and-small-airways
#4
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Francesco Facciolo, Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids increase the expression of β2 -adrenoceptors (β2 -ARs) and protect them against down-regulation. Conversely, β2 -AR agonists improve the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain whether adding a long-acting β2 -AR agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) results in an additive effect, or there is true synergy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction between the ICS beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) and the LABA formoterol fumarate (FF) in a validated human ex vivo model of bronchial asthma...
April 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649932/optimal-tube-length-of-orotracheal-intubation-for-mice
#5
Nobuyuki Nosaka, Timothy R Crother, Shuang Chen, Moshe Arditi, Kenichi Shimada
Endotracheal tube (ETT) management is an essential technique in handling mice with mechanical ventilators. Malposition into bronchi causes not only lethal complications for them but also less efficient mechanical ventilation. However, in general, it is difficult to know whether the ETT is placed with appropriate depth into the trachea of mice. We measured the distance from incisors to the bifurcation of trachea of multiple mice, and created a new estimation formula to obtain the suitable ETT length for mice with a body weight range from 17 g to 25 g: length (mm) = 0...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627048/pathology-of-primary-tracheobronchial-malignancies-other-than-adenoid-cystic-carcinomas
#6
REVIEW
Darroch Moores, Paresh Mane
Most primary tracheal tumors are malignant. Malignancy of larynx and bronchi are much more likely than trachea. Tracheal tumors are most likely due to direct extension for surrounding tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma make up about two-thirds of adult primary tracheal tumors. Because of their predominantly local growth pattern, malignant salivary gland-type tumors show a better outcome than other histologic types.
May 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627044/fundamental-and-practical-aspects-of-airway-anatomy-from-glottis-to-segmental-bronchus
#7
REVIEW
Reza J Mehran
The surgical anatomy of the airways from the glottis to segmental bronchi is reviewed with a focused review on pertinent anatomic findings surrounding common surgical procedures. The knowledge of the anatomy of the trachea while performing tracheostomy, tracheal and sleeve carinal resection, and bronchoplastic procedures is addressed. Pertinent anatomic relationships as evident on common computed tomographic imagery are emphasized.
May 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626716/pharmacological-mechanisms-leading-to-synergy-in-fixed-dose-dual-bronchodilator-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
Long-acting β2 adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) can elicit functional and clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LABA/LAMA combinations synergistically relax human isolated airways at the level of the medium and small bronchi. LABAs and LAMAs both modulate the bronchial tone via different pathways localized at the level of presynaptic parasympathetic fibers and airway smooth muscle cells. The exact nature of the interactions between these pathways is not completely understood, but there is cross-talk at many levels in airway smooth muscle cells that is also regulated by the activity of calcium-activated potassium channels and protein tyrosine kinases...
April 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626633/serum-lipoproteins-are-not-associated-with-the-severity-of-asthma
#9
Federica Scaduto, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Alida Benfante, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchi with a complicated and largely unknown pathogenesis. In this context, an emerging role is attributed to the apolipoproteins which serve as structural components of plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of the asthmatic airways; in particular, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles were associated with increased oxidative susceptibility compared to medium and large sized LDL...
April 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622320/laryngomalacia-tracheomalacia-and-bronchomalacia
#10
Erik B Hysinger
Airway malacia can occur in the larynx (larygomalacia), trachea (tracheomalacia), or bronchi (bronchomalacia). As a group these are the most common congenital abnormalities of the pediatric airway and are characterized by increased airway compliance, resulting in excessive dynamic collapse during the respiratory cycle. While a diagnosis can be suspected based on clinical history and physical examination, definitive evaluation is based of nasopharyngolaryngoscopy and/or bronchoscopy. Observation and conservative management are typically all that are required...
April 3, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617785/extended-bronchoplasty-for-locally-advanced-left-lower-lobe-lung-cancer-surgical-technique-and-outcomes
#11
Tomoyuki Hishida, Keiju Aokage, Junji Yoshida, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Masahiro Tsuboi
Extended bronchoplasty combined with left lower lobectomy plus lingulectomy can be indicated for some locally advanced left lower lobe cancers to avoid pneumonectomy, but its outcome has not been well studied. We retrospectively analysed the surgical outcomes of 10 patients since 2008, when we introduced this procedure. The median age was 67 years (range 42-80). Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology. The indication for this procedure was bulky or extranodal metastasis in an interlobar node in 9 patients and massive tumour invasion to the lingula in 1 patient...
April 2, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616140/effect-of-idiopathic-thoracic-scoliosis-on-the-tracheobronchial-tree
#12
James Farrell, Enrique Garrido
Introduction: High prevalence of obstructive lung disease has been reported in patients undergoing surgical correction of thoracic scoliosis. Airway narrowing due to spine morphology is analysed as a contributing factor. Methods: Preoperative surgical planning CTs of 34 patients with right-sided thoracic scoliosis (age: 17.6±9.0) were retrospectively analysed and compared with 15 non-scoliotic controls (age: 16.3±5.1). Three-dimensional models of spine and airway lumen were reconstructed...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613852/pulmonary-infection-of-cystic-fibrosis-mice-with-staphylococcus-aureus-requires-expression-of-%C3%AE-toxin
#13
Simone Keitsch, Joachim Riethmüller, Matthias Soddemann, Carolin Sehl, Barbara Wilker, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Martin Fraunholz, Erich Gulbins, Nd Katrin Anne Becker
Pulmonary infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occur very early in the disease. The molecular details that cause infection-susceptibility of CF patients to and mediate infection with S. aureus are poorly characterized. Therefore, we aimed to identify the role of α-toxin, a major S. aureus toxin, for pulmonary infection of CF mice. Infection with S. aureus JE2 resulted in severe pneumonia in CF mice, while wildtype mice were almost unaffected. Deficiency of α-toxin in JE2-Δhla reduced pathogenicity of S...
April 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607975/pseudomembranous-invasive-tracheobronchial-aspergillosis-with-fulminant-hepatitis-and-hemophagocytic-syndrome
#14
Suguru Majima, Shotaro Okachi, Motoyo Asano, Keiko Wakahara, Naozumi Hashimoto, Mitsuo Sato, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis (ITBA), a rare form of invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection (IPA), is predominantly confined to the tracheobronchial tree. We herein report a case of ITBA with severe necrotic pseudomembrane in a 57-year-old woman with fulminant hepatitis and hemophagocytic syndrome. Bronchoscopic findings revealed a widespread pseudomembranous formation of the trachea and bronchi. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial lavage fluid, and the histological findings of an endobronchial biopsy revealed necrosis and invasive hyphae...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607184/thoracoscopic-right-s6-sleeve-segmentectomy-for-squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-from-the-b6-central-bronchus
#15
Takuya Nagashima, Kenji Inui, Kenji Kanno, Hiroyuki Ito, Haruhiko Nakayama
We describe a patient with low respiratory function who underwent thoracoscopic sleeve segmentectomy to preserve lung function as much as possible. The patient had already used home oxygen therapy because of chronic obstructive lung disease. There was a squamous-cell carcinoma at inlet of right B6 bronchus, and cT1aN0M0 disease was diagnosed. Because respiratory function was poor, right S6 segmentectomy was scheduled. Moreover, to preserve the respiratory muscles as much as possible, a thoracoscopic approach was selected...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602647/bronchiectasis-chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-and-protracted-bacterial-bronchitis
#16
Dan T Benscoter
Bronchiectasis is a structural airway disease characterized by dilated bronchi and bronchioles due to severe or recurrent lower airways inflammation. Bronchiectasis can occur as a result of chronic pulmonary aspiration. Bronchiectasis may also be associated with a wide variety of systemic diseases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Children with bronchiectasis typically have a chronic or recurrent productive cough and carry a significant burden of disease with a considerable impact on quality of life...
March 27, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600049/three-dimensional-computed-tomography-reconstruction-for-operative-planning-in-robotic-segmentectomy-a-pilot-study
#17
Julien Le Moal, Christophe Peillon, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Jean-Marc Baste
Background: The objective of our pilot study was to assess if three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction performed by Visible Patient™ could be helpful for the operative planning, efficiency and safety of robot-assisted segmentectomy. Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, 3D reconstructions were provided by the Visible Patient™ online service and used for the operative planning of robotic segmentectomy. To obtain 3D reconstruction, the surgeon uploaded the anonymized computed tomography (CT) image of the patient to the secured Visible Patient™ server and then downloaded the model after completion...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587145/spatial-temporal-lineage-restrictions-of-embryonic-p63-progenitors-establish-distinct-stem-cell-pools-in-adult-airways
#18
Ying Yang, Paul Riccio, Michael Schotsaert, Munemasa Mori, Jining Lu, Dong-Kee Lee, Adolfo García-Sastre, Jianming Xu, Wellington V Cardoso
Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582435/combining-long-acting-bronchodilators-with-different-mechanisms-of-action-a-pharmacological-approach-to-optimize-bronchodilation-of-equine-airways
#19
L Calzetta, P Rogliani, E Pistocchini, M Mattei, G Cito, P Alfonsi, C Page, M G Matera
The ultra long-acting β2 -adrenoceptor agonist olodaterol plus the ultra long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium bromide are known to relax equine airways. In human bronchi combining these drugs elicits a positive interaction, thus we aimed to characterize this information further in equine isolated airways stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and using the Concentration-Reduction Index (CRI) and Combination Index (CI) equations. The drugs were administered alone and together by reproducing ex vivo the concentration-ratio delivered by the currently available fixed-dose combination (1:1)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569463/gradient-echo-based-3d-sub-millisecond-echo-time-pulmonary-mr-imaging-a-preliminary-usability-study-on-clinical-and-preclinical-mr-scanners
#20
Soon Ho Yoon, Chanhee Lee, Jinil Park, Jin Mo Goo, Jang-Yeon Park
OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily investigate a technical feasibility of a sub-millisecond echo-time concurrent-dephasing-and-excitation (CODE) sequence for pulmonary MR imaging on clinical and preclinical MR scanners Methods: CODE imaging (echo time, 0.14~0.18ms) was performed with ACR phantom at 3T, seven healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, ten rabbits at 3T, and two rodents at 9.4T. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was compared in phantom. Image quality of human MRI was visually assessed on a five-point scale for comparison between CODE and conventional lung MRI sequences...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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