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Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira, Mirella Lauria D'Elia, Isabela de Oliveira Avelar, Lara Ribeiro de Almeida, Hudson Andrade Dos Santos, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares, Múcio Flávio Barbosa Ribeiro, Walter Dos Santos Lima, Roselene Ecco
An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Junfei Wei, Ashish Damania, Xin Gao, Zhuyun Liu, Rojelio Mejia, Makedonka Mitreva, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: The intestine of hookworms contains enzymes and proteins involved in the blood-feeding process of the parasite and is therefore a promising source of possible vaccine antigens. One such antigen, the hemoglobin-digesting intestinal aspartic protease known as Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm Necator americanus, is currently a lead candidate antigen in clinical trials, as is Na-GST-1 a heme-detoxifying glutathione S-transferase. METHODS: In order to discover additional hookworm vaccine antigens, messenger RNA was obtained from the intestine of male hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, maintained in hamsters...
September 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Rick Speare, Richard Stewart Bradbury, John Croese
A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Subhamay Panda, Santamay Panda, Leena Kumari
Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
Elizabeth M S Schmidt, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, José J Cerón, Peter D Eckersall
BACKGROUND: Ancylostoma spp. is one of the most prevalent canine intestinal nematode infections which usually causes subclinical disease in adult dogs and has zoonotic implications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and evaluate the possible pathophysiological changes that Ancylostoma spp. could produce in female dogs naturally infected but without clinical signs of disease, by screening a wide variety of biochemical markers for potential changes. Samples of feces and blood of 45 dogs were collected and fecal flotation and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation were performed...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Kaitlin Deardorff, William Ray, Eric Winterstein, MacKenzie Brown, Jocelyn McCornack, Brianda Cardenas-Garcia, Kiah Jones, Sarah McNutt, Shannon Fulkerson, Daneel Ferreira, Charlotte Gény, Xiaoyan Chen, Gil Belofsky, Blaise Dondji
Hookworms are ubiquitous human parasites, infecting nearly one billion people worldwide, and are the leading cause of anemia and malnutrition in resource-limited countries. Current drug treatments rely on the benzimidazole derivatives albendazole and mebendazole, but there is emerging resistance to these drugs. As part of a larger screening effort, using a hamster-based ex vivo assay, anthelmintic activity toward Ancylostoma ceylanicum was observed in the crude extract of aerial parts of Dalea ornata. These studies have led to the isolation and characterization of phenolic metabolites 1-10...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Lucas Trevisan Gressler, Jéssica Caroline Gomes Noll, Ítallo Barros de Freitas, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Wilawan Pumidonming, Doaa Salman, Dulyatad Gronsang, Abdelbaset E Abdelbaset, Khamphon Sangkaeo, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu, Makoto Igarashi
Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Karin Alvåsen, Sandra M Johansson, Johan Höglund, Richard Ssuna, Ulf Emanuelson
The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination-spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride...
2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
N H A Curi, A M O Paschoal, R L Massara, H A Santos, M P Guimarães, M Passamani, A G Chiarello
Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs...
August 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Santosh George, Bruno Levecke, Deepthi Kattula, Vasanthakumar Velusamy, Sheela Roy, Peter Geldhof, Rajiv Sarkar, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elise M O'Connell, Thomas B Nutman
Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bernard Séret, Gavin J P Naylor
A new wedgefish, Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from three specimens collected in the shallow waters of the shoal "Banc d'Arguin", off Mauritania (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new genus is mainly distinguished from its close relatives, members of the genus Rhynchobatus, by its snout shape, more broadly rounded like that of the shark-ray Rhina ancylostoma, instead of being typically wedge-shaped as in Rhynchobatus species. The new species resembles the common West African wedgefish, Rhynchobatus lubberti, in having a similar colour pattern, but differs in snout shape...
2016: Zootaxa
Daisuke Kaya, Masahide Yoshikawa, Toshiya Nakatani, Fumimasa Tomo-Oka, Yuki Fujimoto, Koji Ishida, Yukihisa Fujinaga, Yosuke Aihara, Shinsaku Nagamatsu, Eijo Matsuo, Masaharu Tokoro, Yukiteru Ouji, Eiryo Kikuchi
Ancylostoma (A.) ceylanicum, one of the most common species of hookworms infecting dogs and cats, also causes patent infections in humans and is now considered to be the second most common hookworm species infecting populations in southeast Asia. A Japanese patient who returned from a visit to Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) was presented with intermittent watery diarrhea with eosinophilia. Hookworm eggs were found in feces samples, and adult worms were confirmed to be present in the jejunum with capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Ming-Yan Cai, Yuan Huang, Jia-Xin Xu, Ping-Hong Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Marcin Wiśniewski, Maciej Łapiński, Emilia Daniłowicz-Luebert, Sławomir Jaros, Ewa Długosz, Halina Wędrychowicz
Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Diefrey Ribeiro Campos, Luanna Castro Oliveira, Daniele Fassina de Siqueira, Lívia Reisen Perin, Nayara Camatta Campos, Karina Preising Aptekmann, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the occurrence of endoparasitosis in dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil. For the study, 345 dogs and 160 cats were examined. Faecal samples from the animals were collected, and owners were interviewed about their handling of their animals. For the diagnosis of the infections, the Willis-Molley, simple centrifugal flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques were performed. The data found in the tests were tabulated and analysed with a chi-square test (p <0...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Eligia Rodríguez-Ponce, Jorge F González, Magnolia Conde de Felipe, Julia N Hernández, J Raduan Jaber
The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
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