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Danimar López-Hernández, Sean A Locke, Alan Lane de Melo, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo, Hudson Alves Pinto
Species of the genus Posthodiplostomum are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds with worldwide distribution. Recent molecular surveys have focused on developmental stages from vertebrate hosts, with few sequences from larvae found in molluscs. Moreover, most published molecular data are from collections in North America, Europe and Asia, and there are no data for South American species. In the present study, cercariae found in the freshwater limpet Gundlachia ticaga from Brazil were used for morphological, experimental and molecular studies...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Oranuch Sanpool, Win Pa Pa Aung, Rutchanee Rodpai, Wanchai Maleewong, Pewpan M Intapan
Opisthorchis-like metacercariae were found in cyprinoid fish, Puntius brevis, bought from markets in the Bago region, Central Myanmar. Adult worms recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters resembled Opisthorchis viverrini. DNA was extracted from adults and metacercariae. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The sequences confirmed that the flukes were O...
May 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
Jamie Bojko, Paul D Stebbing, Alison M Dunn, Kelly S Bateman, Fraser Clark, Rose C Kerr, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Ása Johannesen, Grant D Stentiford
The green crab Carcinus maenas is an invader on the Atlantic coast of Canada and the USA. In these locations, crab populations have facilitated the development of a legal fishery in which C. maenas is caught and sold, mainly for use as bait to capture economically important crustaceans such as American lobster Homarus americanus. The paucity of knowledge on the symbionts of invasive C. maenas in Canada and their potential for transfer to lobsters poses a potential risk of unintended transmission. We carried out a histological survey for symbionts of C...
May 7, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Steffie de Gier, Kitty Verhoeckx
Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ana L Sereno-Uribe, Martín García-Varela, Carlos D Pinacho-Pinacho, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
We recently engaged in a two-part study of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 across a geographic range comprising central Mexico southwards to Costa Rica, in Central America. In the first study, we investigated the species boundaries by using DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers, implementing several analytical tools and species delimitation methods. The result of that approach revealed five highly divergent genetic lineages that were interpreted as independent evolutionary units, or species. Here, we present the second part of the study, where we describe three of the five species for which we have sexually mature adult specimens obtained from the mouth cavity of fish-eating birds...
May 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
Emrah Simsek, Alparslan Yildirim, Erdal Yilmaz, Abdullah Inci, Onder Duzlu, Zuhal Onder, Arif Ciloglu, Gamze Yetismis, Gokmen Zafer Pekmezci
The metacercariae of Clinostomum species which known as yellow grubs have zoonotic potential by infecting humans. In the present study, a total of 403 freshwater fish specimens belonging to different genera from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were examined for yellow grub metacercariae infections. Only three specimens belonging to Squalius cephalus were found to be infected with metacercariae with a prevalence on this host species of 2.4% and an overall prevalence of 0.7%. All the metacercariae were morphologically identified as Clinostomum complanatum...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
Hudson A Pinto, Eduardo A Pulido-Murillo, Roberta R Braga, Vitor L T Mati, Alan L Melo, Vasyl V Tkach
Although feline platynosomosis has been commonly reported in several parts of the world, the taxonomy and epidemiological chain related to cat liver flukes remain controversial. In this study, nuclear ribosomal ITS, 28S, and mitochondrial cox1 sequences obtained for Platynosomum illiciens from cat, marmoset, lizard, and snail found naturally infected in Brazil reveal no significant molecular differences between these isolates. Moreover, sequence data confirm that Brazilian P. illiciens from different hosts is conspecific with parasites obtained from cats in Vietnam, supporting wide distribution of the species...
April 29, 2018: Parasitology Research
Minoru Nakao, Mizuki Sasaki, Tsukasa Waki, Jason L Anders, Hirotaka Katahira
In the 1970's and 1980's, an unknown species of the genus Brachylaima (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) had been recorded from the intestines of Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus speciosus in Hokkaido, Japan. The rodent fluke was characteristic in extending a bilateral vitellarium till the level of posterior margin of anterior testis and in keeping almost the same-sized spherical ovary and testes. In this study, the rodent fluke was rediscovered from A. speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Myodes rufocanus in Hokkaido...
April 26, 2018: Parasitology International
J Conner England, Jeffrey M Levengood, Josh M Osborn, Aaron P Yetter, Cory D Suski, Rebecca A Cole, Heath M Hagy
Thousands of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) die during spring and fall migrations through the upper Midwest, USA, from infections with Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema spp. (Class: Trematoda) after ingesting infected intermediate hosts, such as non-native faucet snails (Bithynia tentaculata). The lesser scaup is a species of conservation concern and is highly susceptible to these infections. We collected female lesser scaup from spring migratory stopover locations throughout Illinois and Wisconsin and assessed biochemical and morphological indicators of health in relation to intestinal helminth loads...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
Hudson A Pinto, Nicole Q Gonçalves, Danimar López-Hernandez, Eduardo A Pulido-Murillo, Alan L Melo
Centrocestus formosanus is a foodborne intestinal trematode that is native to Asia and has been introduced into the Americas and Europe. Although there are several studies of C. formosanus in definitive vertebrate hosts (birds and mammals, including humans), and in intermediate vertebrate hosts (fish and amphibians), there is little published information regarding interaction with its transmitting mollusc. In this study we studied the miracidial development of C. formosanus using a mouse as a source of eggs...
2018: PloS One
Smarn Tesana, P Khampoosa, S Piratae, S Prasopdee, B Sripanidkulchai
The human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea) uses snails of the genus Bithynia as first intermediate host. Peculiarly among trematodes, the eggs of O. viverrini hatch within the digestive tract of its snail host. It remains uncertain whether hatching in this species is mediated through mechanical fracture of the eggshell or by digestion with specific digestive enzymes. This study aimed to characterize enzymes with specific inhibitor and factors involved in the hatching activity of O...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Joseph P Morton
Parasites are well-known to alter the behavior of their hosts, but there is still a paucity of knowledge about how parasites modify the behavior of many ecologically influential host species. I studied the keystone grazer, the salt marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata), to determine the influence of infection by the digenetic trematode, Parorchis acanthus, on its grazing behavior. Comparative laboratory grazing studies of wild-collected and experimentally infected snails revealed that Parorchis decreased grazing on live Spartina by more than 80%...
2018: PeerJ
Carolina Lenis, Alicia Galiano, Imelda Vélez, Iván Darío Vélez, Carlos Muskus, Antonio Marcilla
Paragonimiasis is a subacute to chronic inflammatory granulomatous lung disease caused by the genus Paragonimus. In Latin America Paragonimus mexicanus Miyazaki & Ishii, 1968 is the only confirmed species to cause human infections. Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 is an uncommon species often regarded as a synonym of P. mexicanus. Recently, the study of two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from Costa Rica has provided new molecular and morphological evidence that P. caliensis is a separate species from P...
March 26, 2018: Acta Tropica
Wayne Rossiter, Harley M Davidson
The white grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) is a common parasite of centrarchid fishes, frequently reaching high prevalence and intensity values in local populations. However, significant variation in infection has been observed across sunfish species (Lepomis spp.), which are common and abundant hosts for this parasite. Previous observations suggest both extrinsic factors (habitat-specific characteristics and environmental parameters) and intrinsic factors (e.g., host size, behavior, susceptibility, etc.) as important predictors of infection in this parasite-host system...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Jong-Yil Chai, Woon-Mok Sohn, Jaeeun Cho, Keeseon S Eom, Tai-Soon Yong, Duk-Young Min, Eui-Hyug Hoang, Bounlay Phommasack, Bounnaloth Insisiengmay, Han-Jong Rim
Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30-40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Waraporn Phalee, Anawat Phalee, Chalobol Wongsawad
The family Thapariellidae has been reported in only 3 countries since 1990. The objective of this study was to identify Thapariella anastomusa metacercariae in snails in Thailand based on morphological traits using a light (LM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 94 Filopaludina snails were collected and identified as 50 F. martensi martensi and 44 F. doliaris . Metacercariae of T. anastomusa were recovered from the snails by the crushing method. The overall prevalence was 22.3% (21/94), and the mean intensity was 17...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
T F Quirino, A J M G Ferreira, M C Silva, R J Silva, D H Morais, R W Ávila
Forty five specimens representing nine species of reptile (Salvator merianae, Enyalius bilineatus, Amphisbaena alba, Xenopholis undulatus, Chironius fuscus, Helicops angulatus, Chironius flavolineatus, Erythrolamprus viridis and Crotalus durissus) collected in five Brazilian states were examined for helminths. Twelve helminth species were found as follow: nine Nematoda (Physaloptera tupinambae, Strongyluris oscari, Paracapillaria sp., Dracunculus brasiliensis, Physaloptera liophis, Serpentirhabias sp. 1, Serpentirhabias sp...
February 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Rosario Briosio-Aguilar, Hudson Alves Pinto, Maria Amparo Rodríguez-Santiago, Karina López-García, Martin Garcia-Varela, Gerardo Perez-Ponce de Leon
The phylogenetic position of Clinostomum heluans Braun, 1899 within the genus Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is reported in this study based on sequences of the barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1). Additionally, molecular data are used to link the adult and the metacercariae of the species. The metacercariae of C. heluans were found encysted infecting the cichlid fish Australoheros sp. in Minas Gerais, Brazil, whereas the adults were obtained from the mouth cavity of the Great White egret Ardea alba, in Campeche, Mexico...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Konstans Wells, David I Gibson, Nicholas J Clark, Alexis Ribas, Serge Morand, Hamish I McCallum
Changes in species distributions open novel parasite transmission routes at the human-wildlife interface, yet the strength of biotic and biogeographical factors that prevent or facilitate parasite host shifting are not well understood. We investigated global patterns of helminth parasite (Nematoda, Cestoda, Trematoda) sharing between mammalian wildlife species and domestic mammal hosts (including humans) using >24,000 unique country-level records of host-parasite associations. We used hierarchical modelling and species trait data to determine possible drivers of the level of parasite sharing between wildlife species and either humans or domestic animal hosts...
February 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Alba Cortés, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, María Álvarez-Izquierdo, Javier Sotillo, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode, broadly employed to study the host-dependent mechanisms that govern the evolution of intestinal helminth infections. Resistance against E. caproni homologous secondary infections has been reported in mice and appears to be related to the generation of a local Th2 response, whereas Th1 responses promote the development of chronic primary infections. Herein, the ability of E. caproni to modulate its secretome according to the host environment is investigated...
April 2018: Parasitology Research
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