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Lunar cycle

Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbours Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and the force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tomohiro Yonezawa, Mona Uchida, Michiko Tomioka, Naoaki Matsuki
There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase...
2016: PloS One
Ryan Joseph Lowe, Xavier Pivan, James Falter, Graham Symonds, Renee Gruber
Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes...
August 2016: Science Advances
A R A Lima, M Barletta
The influence of the lunar cycle on prey availability, diet shifts and overlap between larval Anchovia clupeoides and Cetengraulis edentulus was evaluated in mangrove creeks of the Goiana Estuary. Copepod eggs were highly abundant in the first and last quarter, at the full moon and zoea of Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) in the new moon. The Engraulidae larvae fed on microcrustaceans, algae and early planktonic stages of benthic organisms. The relative importance of prey varied according to prey availability in all moon phases...
October 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Kai-Tuo Wang, Qing Tang, Xue-Min Cui, Yan He, Le-Ping Liu
The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carla A Monteiro, Cristina Paulino, Rita Jacinto, Ester A Serrão, Gareth A Pearson
Prezygotic isolating mechanisms act to limit hybridization and maintain the genetic identity of closely-related species. While synchronous intraspecific spawning is a common phenomenon amongst marine organisms and plays an important role in reproductive success, asynchronous spawning between potentially hybridizing lineages may also be important in maintaining species boundaries. We tested this hypothesis by comparing reproductive synchrony over daily to hourly timescales in a sympatric assemblage of intertidal fucoid algae containing selfing hermaphroditic (Fucus spiralis and Fucus guiryi) and dioecious (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) species...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iván Pastor-Fernández, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Gema Álvarez-García, Virginia Marugán-Hernández, Paula García-Lunar, Andrew Hemphill, Luis M Ortega-Mora
BACKGROUND: NTPases (also NTPDases) are enzymes with apyrase activity. They are widely distributed among eukaryotes, and also among members of the family Sarcocystidae. In Toxoplasma gondii, the TgNTPase accumulates in the dense granules, and has been commonly associated with the strain virulence. In the closely related Neospora caninum, the NcNTPase lacks nucleoside diphosphate hydrolase activity and appears to be more abundant in virulent isolates, indicating that it may contribute to the pathogenicity of neosporosis...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Swagata D Tavhare, K Nishteswar, Vinay J Shukla
INTRODUCTION: Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. AIM: To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm × 60 cm (l × b)...
July 2015: Ayu
David M Green
Global climate warming is predicted to hasten the onset of spring breeding by anuran amphibians in seasonal environments. Previous data had indicated that the breeding phenology of a population of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus fowleri) at their northern range limit had been progressively later in spring, contrary to generally observed trends in other species. Although these animals are known to respond to environmental temperature and the lunar cycle to commence breeding, the timing of breeding should also be influenced by the onset of overwintering animals' prior upward movement through the soil column from beneath the frost line as winter becomes spring...
June 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
L S Bueno, A A Bertoncini, C C Koenig, F C Coleman, M O Freitas, J R Leite, T F De Souza, M Hostim-Silva
In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle...
July 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Swagata Dilip Tavhare, Karra Nishteswar, Vinay J Shukla
INTRODUCTION: Suśruta, Caraka and other ācāryas advocate the collection of medicinal plants keeping in view the part used, season, soil in which the herb grows and the desired pharmacological actions or therapeutic benefits. The logic behind such recommendations is being validated by modern scientific research. AIM: To assess the effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) w.s.r. to lunar cycles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The plant specimens were collected from Jamnagar identified pharmacognostically and cultivated under a defined habitat in a herbal garden of IPGT and RA on 7 Oct 2013...
January 2016: Ancient Science of Life
Aisling K Brady, Bette L Willis, Lawrence D Harder, Peter D Vize
Many broadcast spawning corals in multiple reef regions release their gametes with incredible temporal precision just once per year, using the lunar cycle to set the night of spawning. Moonlight, rather than tides or other lunar-regulated processes, is thought to be the proximate factor responsible for linking the night of spawning to the phase of the Moon. We compared patterns of gene expression among colonies of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora at different phases of the lunar cycle, and when they were maintained under one of three experimentally simulated lunar lighting treatments: i) lunar lighting conditions matching those on the reef, or lunar patterns mimicking either ii) constant full Moon conditions, or iii) constant new Moon conditions...
April 2016: Biological Bulletin
L B Liddle
The brown alga Zonaria farlowii which exhibits an alternation of isomorphic generations has been found to be a particularly suitable organism for a comparative study of game to gene sis, sporogenesis, and embryonic development. The germinations of the zygote and spore have been compared and found to be similar. The development of the oogonium and sporangium has been studied with the light and electron microscopes, in an attempt to discern ontogcnetical similarities or differences. The timing and periodicity of oogenesis and sporogenesis were found to differ: oogonial development requires a lunar month from the time of its initiation to the time of egg release which occurs around the first quarter of the moon, whereas the sporangium does not follow this periodicity...
December 1968: Journal of Phycology
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Madyson Weippert, Allana G LeBlanc, Mads F Hjorth, Kim F Michaelsen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mark S Tremblay, Tiago V Barreira, Stephanie T Broyles, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao, Anders M Sjödin
In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference), half moon (±5-9 days), and new moon (±10-14 days) from nearest full moon...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Carla Monteiro, Aschwin H Engelen, Ester A Serrão, Rui Santos
Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive species that is firmly established on intertidal and subtidal rocky shores of Europe and the Pacific coast of North America. Local success and spread of S. muticum is thought to rely on its reproductive potential that seems dependent on exogenous factors like tidal and lunar cycles. This study is the first to compare the reproductive patterns (periodicity of egg expulsion and embryo settlement) of this invader in two different habitats: the middle and low intertidal...
February 2009: Journal of Phycology
Claudia Pacelli, Laura Selbmann, Laura Zucconi, Jean-Pierre De Vera, Elke Rabbow, Gerda Horneck, Rosa de la Torre, Silvano Onofri
The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1...
April 1, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Mossadok Ben-Attia, Alain Reinberg, Michael H Smolensky, Wafa Gadacha, Achraf Khedaier, Mamane Sani, Yvan Touitou, Néziha Ghanem Boughamni
Cereus peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) is a large erect and thorny succulent cactus characterized by column-like (cereus [L]: column), that is, candle-shaped, appendages. For three successive years (1100 days), between early April and late November, we studied the flowering patterns of eight cacti growing in public gardens and rural areas of north and central Tunisia, far from nighttime artificial illumination, in relation to natural environmental light, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation parameters...
2016: Chronobiology International
Alain Reinberg, Michael H Smolensky, Yvan Touitou
Biological rhythmicity is presumed to be an advantageous genetic adaptation of fitness and survival value resulting from evolution of life forms in an environment that varies predictably-in-time during the 24 h, month, and year. The 24 h light/dark cycle is the prime synchronizer of circadian periodicities, and its modulation over the course of the year, in terms of daytime photoperiod length, is a prime synchronizer of circannual periodicities. Circadian and circannual rhythms have been the major research focus of most scientists...
2016: Chronobiology International
Anne F Van Loon, Bram Te Brake, Marjolein H J Van Huijgevoort, Roel Dijksma
Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species...
2016: PloS One
Tzong-Yueh Chen, Jen-Hua Tai, Chia-Ying Ko, Chih-Hao Hsieh, Chung-Chi Chen, Nianzhi Jiao, Hong-Bin Liu, Fuh-Kwo Shiah
This study demonstrated the potential effects of internal waves (IWs) on heterotrophic bacterial activities for the first time. Nine anchored studies were conducted from 2009∼2012 in the South China Sea areas with different physical conditions, i.e. areas subjected to elevation IWs, to depression IWs, and to weak/no IWs. The latter two areas were treated as the Control sites. Field survey results indicated that within the euphotic zone, the minima of the depth-averaged bacterial production (IBP; ∼1.0 mgC m(-3) d(-1) ) and growth rate (IBμ; ∼0...
March 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
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