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Xi Zhang, Jiang Yang Duan, Zhong Quan Wang, Peng Jiang, Ruo Dan Liu, Jing Cui
Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Tetsuya Okino, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Kumiko Matoba, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Mineki Saito
Methods to maintain the life cycle of pathogenic organisms become powerful tools for studying molecular and cellular bases of infectious diseases. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is a parasitic tapeworm that causes sparganosis in humans. Because S. erinaceieuropaei has a complex life cycle with different stages and host species requirements, there have been no reports to establish the complete life cycle in the laboratory. In this study, using Cyclops as the first intermediate host, mouse as the experimental second intermediate host, and dog as the final host, we succeeded in maintaining S...
April 2017: Parasitology International
Daigo Tsubokawa, Takeshi Hatta, Hiroki Maeda, Fusako Mikami, Yukinobu Goso, Takeshi Nakamura, M Abdul Alim, Naotoshi Tsuji
Sparganosis in humans caused by the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is found worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia and the Far East. Previous studies have suggested that dissolution of plerocercoid body, plerocercoid invasion of host tissue, and migration are important processes for sparganosis progression. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes have yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrated the enzymatic property and involvement of a native 23kDa cysteine protease (Se23kCP), purified from plerocercoids, in sparganosis pathogenesis...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
Ananda K Javaregowda
The present study was conducted to observe the prevalence of endo-parasites in wild carnivores maintained under captive state at Tyavarekoppa Tiger and Lion Safari unit near to Veterinary College, Shimoga. A total of 54 wild carnivores were included in the study and the fresh fecal samples were collected, examined on the same day by direct and sedimentation techniques for endo-parasitic eggs/ova in the laboratory. Out of 15 tigers samples screened, 12 were harboring mixed infections of Strongyle spp., Toxocara spp, oocysts of coccidia and Spirometra spp...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Tongjit Thanchomnang, Chairat Tantrawatpan, Pewpan M Intapan, Oranuch Sanpool, Viraphong Lulitanond, Somjintana Tourtip, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Wanchai Maleewong
The identification of diphyllobothriidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) that infect humans and intermediate/paratenic hosts is extremely difficult due to their morphological similarities, particularly in the case of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra species. A pyrosequencing method for the molecular identification of pathogenic agents has recently been developed, but as of yet there have been no reports of pyrosequencing approaches that are able to discriminate among diphyllobothriidean species. This study, therefore, set out to establish a pyrosequencing method for differentiating among nine diphyllobothriidean species, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, Diphyllobothrium ditremum, Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense, Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum, Diplogonoporus balaenopterae, Adenocephalus pacificus, Spirometra decipiens and Sparganum proliferum, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene as a molecular marker...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qing Hong, Jieping Feng, Haijuan Liu, Xiaomin Li, Lirong Gong, Zhen Yang, Weiming Yang, Xiongfa Liang, Rujiang Zheng, Zhicai Cui, Weiliang Wang, Daixiong Chen
BACKGROUND: Sparganosis is an important parasitic disease in Guangzhou and is mainly acquired through the consumption of frog meat or contact with fresh frogs infected by larval stages (spargana) of the tapeworm species Spirometra mansoni. METHODS: In this study, the prevalence of intestinal S. mansoni infections (with adult parasites) in dogs and cats and of extraintestinal S. mansoni infections (with spargana) in frogs was assessed. In addition, a questionnaire survey was carried out among residents in Guangzhou City in order to evaluate their awareness about the medical and epidemiological relevance of Spirometra and sparganosis...
December 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira, Mirella Lauria D'Elia, Isabela de Oliveira Avelar, Lara Ribeiro de Almeida, Hudson Andrade Dos Santos, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares, Múcio Flávio Barbosa Ribeiro, Walter Dos Santos Lima, Roselene Ecco
An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Hansol Park, Dongmin Lee, Seongjun Choe, Woon-Mok Sohn, Keeseon S Eom
The genus Spirometra belongs to the family Diphyllobothriidae and order Pseudophyllidea, and includes intestinal parasites of cats and dogs. In this study, a plerocercoid labeled as Spirometra mansonoides from the USA was examined for species identification and phylogenetic analysis using 2 complete mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3). The cox1 sequences (1,566 bp) of the plerocercoid specimen (USA) showed 99.2% similarity to the reference sequences of the plerocercoid of Korean Spirometra decipiens (GenBank no...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Fabrício H Oda, Claudio Borteiro, Rodrigo J da Graça, Luiz Eduardo R Tavares, Alejandro Crampet, Vinicius Guerra, Flávia S Lima, Sybelle Bellay, Letícia C Karling, Oscar Castro, Ricardo M Takemoto, Gilberto C Pavanelli
Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively...
December 2016: Acta Tropica
Lucas Trevisan Gressler, Jéssica Caroline Gomes Noll, Ítallo Barros de Freitas, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Wilawan Pumidonming, Doaa Salman, Dulyatad Gronsang, Abdelbaset E Abdelbaset, Khamphon Sangkaeo, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu, Makoto Igarashi
Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Mariusz Miniuk, Iwona Ruczyńska, Małgorzata Tokarska
From February to March 2016 we found plerocercoids of Spirometra sp. in four wild boar hunted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, north-eastern Poland. Plerocercoids were located subcutaneously and in muscle tissue. A sequence of a nuclear 18S rRNA gene was used for genetic specification of the samples. The analyzed gene fragment showed 100% identity with the Spirometra erinacei sequence. Thus, the emerge of human sparganosis due to consumption of undercooked or smoked wild boar meat is likely in the areas where wild boar is an approved food source, especially in the absence of routine guidelines for vets...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Reena Leeba Richard, Init Ithoi, Mohamad Azlan Abd Majid, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Tian Chye Tan, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim
The occurrence of waterborne parasites coupled with water parameters at various processing sites of two drinking water treatment plants (A and B) and seven distribution system (DS) sites in Sarawak, Malaysia were studied. Ten liters of water underwent immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique to detect the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts. The remaining supernatant was used to detect other parasites whilst 50 mL of water sample was each used in the detection of free-living amoebae and fecal coliforms...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gregório Guilherme Almeida, Daniel Coscarelli, Maria Norma Melo, Alan Lane Melo, Hudson Alves Pinto
Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1)...
October 2016: Parasitology International
Joong Keun Kim, Dong Hoon Baek, Bong Eun Lee, Gwang Ha Kim, Geun Am Song, Do Youn Park
Human sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by infection with the tapeworm Sparganum, the migrating plerocercoid (second stage) larva of Spirometra species. Sparganosis usually involves subcutaneous tissues and/or muscles of various parts of the body, but involvement of other sites such as the brain, eye, peritoneopleural cavity, urinary track, scrotum, and abdominal viscera has also been documented. Infections caused by sparganum have a worldwide distribution but are most common in Southeast Asia such as China, Japan, and South Korea...
May 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Hansol Park, Dongmin Lee, Seongjun Choe, Kyu-Heon Kim, Woon-Mok Sohn, Keeseon S Eom
Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval forms (procercoid/plerocercoid) of Spirometra spp. The purpose of this study was to identify Spirometra spp. of infected snakes using a multiplex PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the spargana of terrestrial snakes obtained from Korea and China. A total of 283 snakes were obtained that included 4 species of Colubridae comprising Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (n=150), Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum (n=64), Elaphe davidi (n=2), and Elaphe schrenkii (n=7), and 1 species of Viperidae, Agkistrodon saxatilis (n=60)...
April 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Xi Zhang, Han Wang, Jing Cui, Peng Jiang, Mei Long Lin, Yun Lu Zhang, Ruo Dan Liu, Zhong Quan Wang
The larval plerocercoid of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei can parasitize humans, causing a serious food borne parasitic zoonosis known as sparganosis. Sparganosis have increased in China in recent years. In this study, the prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs in 9 geographical areas in southwest China was firstly investigated. Of 276 caught frogs, 55 frogs were found to be infected with sparganum. Then, the population genetic structure of these sparganum isolates was explored based on four molecular markers (cytb, cox1, rrnS and 28S rDNA D1)...
April 2016: Acta Tropica
Giorgia Bracaglia, Stefania Ranno, Livia Mancinelli, Maristella Santoro, Lorenzo Cerroni, Cesare Massone, Omar Sangueza, Francisco G Bravo, Andrea Diociaiuti, Emanuele Nicastri, Maurizio Muraca, May El Hachem, Renata Boldrini, Francesco Callea, Lorenza Putignani
Many waterborne helminthes are opportunistic parasites that can travel directly from animals to man and may contain forms capable of penetrating the skin. Among these, Sparganum is the pseudophyllidean tapeworm that belongs to the genus Spirometra, which is responsible for parasitic zoonosis; it is rarely detected in Europe and is caused by the plerocercoid infective larva. Thus far, only six cases of cutaneous and ocular sparganosis have been reported in Europe; two and four cases have occurred in France and Italy, respectively...
2015: Pathogens and Global Health
Elden T Holldorf, Shane R Siers, Jonathan Q Richmond, Page E Klug, Robert N Reed
BACKGROUND: Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported...
2015: PloS One
Lucy Sabu, Bindu Lakshmanan, K Devada, P Sundaresh Kumar
Human sparganosis is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of Spirometra sp. A seven cm worm recovered from a painful swelling in the right inguinal region of a 9 year old boy from Kunnamkulam in Thrissur District, Kerala was identified as sparganum based on morphology. This is the first case report of the disease from Kerala state. Possible mode of infection and control measures are suggested. Increased public awareness about risks associated with drinking contaminated water is important to prevent further incidence in the locality...
December 2015: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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