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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640666/first-report-of-an-adult-tapeworm-cestoda-diphyllobothriidea-in-a-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis
#1
Colleen Young, Melissa A Miller, Roman Kuchta, Jan Brabec, Seth D Newsome, Murray Dailey
We present a novel case of an intestinal cestode infection in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). The cestode species Diplogonoporus tetrapterus was confirmed genetically. Stable isotope analysis of whiskers collected from the sea otter did not confirm the consumption of fish as the route of exposure.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634145/taeniasis-caused-by-taenia-saginata-in-gianyar-townand-taenia-solium-in-karangasem-villagesof-bali-indonesia-2011-2016-how-to-detect-tapeworm-carriers-anamnesis-or-microscopy
#2
Kadek Swastika, Toni Wandra, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I Made Sudarmaja, John Master Saragih, Luh Putu Eka Diarthini, Luh Ariwati, Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi, Nengah Kapti, Putu Sutisna, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akira Ito
From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630663/presentation-of-secondary-parasitic-infection-37-years-after-primary-infection
#3
Gary Sharp, David Yeo, Cherry Koh
Echinococcus granulosus (EG) is a neglected pathology that causes cystic echinococcosis and primarily affects the liver and lung. EG infects ~6 million worldwide and mortality is quoted as 2-4% per 100 000 inhabitants. The increase in human traffic from endemic regions demands clinician's awareness. Dogs are the most common definitive host for the EG tapeworm. Human infection requires ingestion of fecal parasitic eggs. Primary infection causes cysts to appear in affected organs, rupture of which leads to secondary infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626973/role-of-parasite-transmission-in-promoting-inbreeding-ii-pedigree-reconstruction-reveals-sib-transmission-and-consequent-kin-mating
#4
Jillian T Detwiler, Charles D Criscione
Even though parasitic flatworms are one of the most species rich groups of hermaphroditic organisms, we know virtually nothing of their mating systems (selfing or kin-mating rates) in nature. Hence, we lack an understanding of the role of inbreeding in parasite evolution. The natural mating systems of parasitic flatworms have remained elusive due to the inherent difficulty in generating progeny-array data in many parasite systems. New developments in pedigree reconstruction allow direct inference of realized selfing rates in nature by simply using a sample of genotyped individuals...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626938/role-of-parasite-transmission-in-promoting-inbreeding-i-infection-intensities-drive-individual-parasite-selfing-rates
#5
Jillian T Detwiler, Isabel C Caballero, Charles D Criscione
Among parasitic organisms, inbreeding has been implicated as a potential driver of host-parasite coevolution, drug-resistance evolution, and parasite diversification. Yet, fundamental topics about how parasite life histories impact inbreeding remain to be addressed. In particular, there are no direct selfing-rate estimates for hermaphroditic parasites in nature. Our objectives were to elucidate the mating system of a parasitic flatworm in nature and to understand how aspects of parasite transmission could influence the selfing rates of individual parasites...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615981/human-taeniasis-current-insights-into-prevention-and-management-strategies-in-endemic-countries
#6
REVIEW
Anna L Okello, Lian Francesca Thomas
Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata ("beef tapeworm"), Taenia solium ("pork tapeworm") or Taenia asiatica ("Asian tapeworm"). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings...
2017: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615852/therapecutic-efficacy-of-the-leaf-extract-of-croton-joufra-roxb-against-experimental-cestodiasis-in-rats
#7
Shyamalima Gogoi, Arun K Yadav
The leaves of Croton joufra have been used as a traditional medicine in Assam (Northeast India) to treat the intestinal helminthic infections. The aim of this study was to establish the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of the leaf extract of this plant on Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic tapeworm. The plant extract was also screened for its chemical constituents. The in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of the plant was evaluated by physical motility test on adult cestodes, following their exposure to 10, 20, 30 mg/ml concentrations of the crude leaf extract, while the in vivo effect was determined based on the eggs per gram (EPG) counts and worm recovery rates, using an experimentally induced model of H...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606444/comparative-mitochondrial-genomics-among-spirometra-cestoda-diphyllobothriidae-and-the-molecular-phylogeny-of-related-tapeworms
#8
Xi Zhang, Jiang Yang Duan, Ya Li Shi, Peng Jiang, De Jun Zeng, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
The larva of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei can parasitize humans, causing a serious parasitic zoonosis known as sparganosis. Although it is medically important, our knowledge about the phylogenetic position of S. erinaceieuropaei and its evolutionary history is fragmentary. In this study, complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 4 geographically distinct isolates of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana collected from 4 frog hosts (Hylarana guentheri, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugulosa, R. temporaria) were characterized using an Illumina sequencing platform...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606321/characterization-of-glutathione-s-transferase-and-its-immunodiagnostic-potential-for-detecting-taenia-multiceps
#9
Ying Sun, Yu Wang, Xing Huang, Xiaobing Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Taenia multiceps is a widespread zoonotic tapeworm parasite which infects cloven-hoofed animals around the world. Animal infection with Coenurus cerebralis, the coenurus larvae of T. multiceps (Tm), is often fatal, which is a major cause of economic losses in stockbreeding. This study amplified the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from the total RNA of C. cerebralis. The resulting protein, Tm-GST, consisted of 201 amino acids, and had a predicted molecular mass of 23.1kDa. Its amino acid sequence shares 77...
August 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606189/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemisia-absinthium-against-hymenolepis-nana-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-in-comparison-with-the-anthelmintic-praziquantel
#10
E V N Beshay
Hymenolepis nana is a common intestinal tapeworm that affects humans. Drugs are available for the treatment of this infection, including praziquantel (PZQ), nitazoxanide and niclosamide. Although the drug of choice is praziquantel, due to its high cure rates, indicators of the development of PZQ resistance by different parasites have begun to appear over recent decades. Therefore, this study was a trial to find an alternative to PZQ by assessing the activity of the crude aqueous extract of the medicinal herb Artemisia absinthium against H...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605969/control-of-hymenolepis-nana-infection-as-a-measure-to-improve-mouse-colony-welfare
#11
Alenka Dovč, Gordana Gregurić Gračner, Iztok Tomažič, Ksenija Vlahović, Marina Pavlak, Renata Lindtner Knific, Klemen Kralj, Mateja Stvarnik, Aleksandra Vergles Rataj
After cannibalism had appeared in the reproductive units of a white mouse colony, treatment against confirmed Hymenolepis nana, a tapeworm with zoonotic potential, was performed on 67 mice in the reproductive and nursery units. Faecal droppings were evaluated by flotation and sedimentation methods. The sedimentation method revealed a higher number of positive results before, during and after the treatment, but the flotation method yielded some additional positive cases. In the reproductive unit, H. nana eggs were confirmed in 50% of the tested mice by the flotation and in 70% by the sedimentation method...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594283/a-common-eurasian-fish-tapeworm-caryophyllaeides-fennica-cestoda-in-western-north-america-further-evidence-of-amphi-pacific-vicariance-in-freshwater-fish-parasites
#12
Mikuláš Oros, Anindo Choudhury, Tomáš Scholz
The freshwater fish fauna of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions shows similarities but also notable differences, resulting in diverse distributions of their parasites. Relatively few parasite species occur in both regions and fewer still have been examined using molecular data. We report a rare example of 'amphi-Pacific' distribution, involving the common Palaearctic parasite, the caryophyllidean cestode Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902), in the chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus Agassiz and Pickering, 1855, an endemic cyprinid in northwestern Nearctic, Oregon, USA...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588142/recent-evolution-of-extreme-cestode-growth-suppression-by-a-vertebrate-host
#13
Jesse N Weber, Natalie C Steinel, Kum Chuan Shim, Daniel I Bolnick
Parasites can be a major cause of natural selection on hosts, which consequently evolve a variety of strategies to avoid, eliminate, or tolerate infection. When ecologically similar host populations present disparate infection loads, this natural variation can reveal immunological strategies underlying adaptation to infection and population divergence. For instance, the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus persistently infects 0-80% of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes on Vancouver Island...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571568/environmental-temperature-variation-influences-fitness-trade-offs-and-tolerance-in-a-fish-tapeworm-association
#14
Frederik Franke, Sophie A O Armitage, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Jörn P Scharsack
BACKGROUND: Increasing temperatures are predicted to strongly impact host-parasite interactions, but empirical tests are rare. Host species that are naturally exposed to a broad temperature spectrum offer the possibility to investigate the effects of elevated temperatures on hosts and parasites. Using three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., and tapeworms, Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776), originating from a cold and a warm water site of a volcanic lake, we subjected sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations to cold and warm conditions in a fully crossed design...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561740/a-new-genus-of-proteocephalid-tapeworm-cestoda-from-the-marbled-swamp-eel-synbranchus-marmoratus-bloch-synbranchiformes-synbranchidae-in-the-river-paran%C3%A3-basin-argentina
#15
Nathalia J Arredondo, Philippe Vieira Alves, Alicia A Gil de Pertierra
Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastiné, a tributary of the middle River Paraná in Argentina. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known monticelliine genera by the following combination of characters: (i) scolex robust, with a conical apex, without metascolex; (ii) biloculate suckers with a conspicuous septum separating unequally-sized loculi and a robust non-adherent area, lacking free posterior margin; (iii) vitelline follicles in two narrow lateral bands, extended throughout the nearly entire proglottid length; (iv) vagina always anterior to the cirrus-sac, with an inconspicuous vaginal sphincter; (v) a genital pore pre-equatorial...
May 5, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561739/inactivation-of-proteolytic-enzymes-by-eubothrium-rugosum-cestoda-from-the-gut-of-burbot-lota-lota
#16
Galina I Izvekova, TatyanaV Frolova, Evgeny I Izvekov
Parasitic organisms inhabiting the alimentary canal should permanently resist the destructive action of host digestive enzymes. The intestinal parasites were shown to produce specific protease inhibitors protecting them from proteolysis. However, little is known about this adaptive mechanism in cestodes so far, especially for the tapeworms dwelling inside the fish intestines. Here, we explored the ability to inactivate proteolytic enzymes in the fish tapeworm Eubothrium rugosum (Batsch, 1786) (Bothriocephalidea) parasitising the intestine of wild burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus)...
May 9, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531871/echinococcosis-mimicking-liver-malignancy-a-case-report
#17
Radek Pohnan, Miroslav Ryska, Vladislav Hytych, Radek Matej, Petr Hrabal, Jiri Pudil
INTRODUCTION: Human Alveolar Echinococcosis - Alveolar Hydatid disease (AE) is an omitted zoonotic infection presenting with focal liver lesions. Cause of AE is a larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworms. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report an extraordinary case of a 38 year-old female examined due to 2 liver tumors and 2 pulmonary nodules is described. The patient underwent pulmonary and liver surgery for suspected advanced cholangiocellular carcinoma and surprisingly AE was found...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530073/-red-herring-complaints-in-an-eighteen-years-old-female-with-a-hydatid-cyst-of-the-lung
#18
Nasser Nadim
Brain and eye hydatid cysts are early symptomatic, as opposed to those developing in other organs, including lungs, where they remain asymptomatic through adolescence, even to adulthood, due to their slow growth. Hence, discovering that patients have lung hydatid cyst occurs, frequently, during random chest imaging. Up to thirty percent of pulmonary echinococcal cysts may rupture spontaneously, after chest or abdominal trauma. The main lung hydatidosis complaints, such as dyspnea and chest pain, are caused by the reduction of the functional area of the lung, expectoration of the tapeworm cystoides into the bronchial tree, or by compression of surrounding structures...
November 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529629/the-antihelminthic-drug-niclosamide-effectively-inhibits-the-malignant-phenotypes-of-uveal-melanoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Jingfeng Zhou, Bei Jin, Yanli Jin, Yizhi Liu, Jingxuan Pan
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a lethal intraocular malignancy with an average survival of only 2~8 months in patients with hepatic metastasis. Currently, there is no effective therapy for metastatic UM. Here, we reported that niclosamide, an effective repellence of tapeworm that has been approved for use in patients for approximately 50 years, exhibited strong antitumor activity in UM cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that niclosamide potently inhibited UM cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and reduced migration and invasion...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528580/update-on-the-distribution-of-the-co-invasive-schyzocotyle-acheilognathi-bothriocephalus-acheilognathi-the-asian-fish-tapeworm-in-freshwater-fishes-of-mexico
#20
G Pérez-Ponce de León, O Lagunas-Calvo, L García-Prieto, R Briosio-Aguilar, R Aguilar-Aguilar
The Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) represents a threat to freshwater fish, mainly cyprinids, across the globe. This tapeworm possesses an extraordinary ability to adapt to different environmental conditions and, because of that, from its natural geographical origin in mainland Asia, it has colonized every continent except Antarctica. It is thought that this pathogenic tapeworm was first co-introduced into Mexico in 1965 from China, with the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, although the first formal record of its presence was published in 1981...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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