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Rumana Ahmad, Tahmeena Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Aparna Misra, Anil K Balapure
Tapeworms (cestodes) are segmented flatworms responsible for causing diseases that may prove fatal and difficult to treat in the absence of proper treatment and efficient drugs. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major contributor to epilepsy caused by the metacestode (larva) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, characterized by a range of pathological symptoms including epileptic seizures, headaches, and hydrocephalus. Cysticercosis is considered as a "biological imprint" of the socioeconomic development of a community in general and a country in particular...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Danilo Solano, Juan Carlos Navarro, Antonio León-Reyes, Washington Benítez-Ortiz, Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo
Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Alain de Chambrier, Carlos Daniel Pinacho-Pinacho, Jesus Servando Hernà Ndez-Orts, Tomà ŠScholz
Cichlidocestus n. gen. is proposed to accommodate 2 new species of proteocephalidean cestodes, Cichlidocestus gillesi n. sp. from Cichlasoma amazonarum in Peru Amazonia (type species) and Cichlidocestus janikae n. sp. from Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (all Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Costa Rica. The new genus is unique among all but 1 proteocephalidean genera in the position of the ovary that occupies the middle and posterior thirds of proglottids (versus the ovary in the posterior third of proglottids near their posterior margin in all but 1 remaining taxa)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Emilia Vendelova, Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Karina Rodrigues Lorenzatto, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Thomas Mueller, Jyotishman Veepaschit, Clemens Grimm, Klaus Brehm, Gabriela Hrčková, Manfred B Lutz, Henrique B Ferreira, Justin Komguep Nono
Accumulating evidences have assigned a central role to parasite-derived proteins in immunomodulation. Here, we report on the proteomic identification and characterization of immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products from the metacestode larva (tetrathyridium) of the tapeworm Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae). We demonstrate that ES products but not larval homogenates inhibit the stimuli-driven release of the pro-inflammatory, Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Theodore E Nash, Javier A Bustos, Hector H Garcia
Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) is present in most developing countries, where it is a frequent cause of seizures and other neurological disease. Parasitic larvae invade the human brain, establish, and eventually resolve, leaving a calcified scar. While these lesions are common in endemic regions, and most of these are clinically silent, a proportion of individuals with calcified cysticerci develop seizures from these lesions, and 30-65% of these cases are associated with perilesional edema (PE), likely due to host inflammation...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Tomáš Scholz, Alain de Chambrier, Takeshi Shimazu, Alexey Ermolenko, Andrea Waeschenbach
The parasite fauna of loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitoidea), a group of small bottom-dwelling freshwater fishes with a mostly Eurasian distribution, remains a largely unknown quantity. Here we revise the taxonomy of tapeworms of the genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) that had been found in loaches from the Palaearctic Region (Central Europe, Japan and Russia [Primorsky Region]). Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on two nuclear (ssr- and lsrDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and rrnL) revealed a monophyletic group consisting of four valid species nesting within the Proteocephalus-aggregate: (i) Proteocephalus sagittus (Grimm, 1872) from Barbatula barbatula (Europe, Russia and Tajikistan), (ii) Proteocephalus demshini n...
October 1, 2016: Parasitology International
Lisa A Last, Heather Fenton, Jessica Gonyor-McGuire, Matthew Moore, Michael J Yabsley
Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jerome B Taxy, William E Gibson, Michael W Kaufman
Echinococcus is the smallest of the major tapeworms. Humans are incidental hosts who become infected by exposure to soil contaminated with ova from the feces of the canine definitive hosts. The major species are E. granulosus (cystic echinococcosis) and E. multilocularis (alveolar or sylvatic echinococcosis), both common worldwide but unusual and not reportable in the United States. Human disease is characterized by slowly growing visceral cystic masses often containing daughter cysts and hydatid sand. In nonendemic areas, the clinical evaluation includes imaging, serology, and surgery; metastatic tumor is a major consideration...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
José L Reyes, Fernando Lopes, Gabriella Leung, Nicole L Mancini, Chelsea E Matisz, Arthur Wang, Emma A Thomson, Nicholas Graves, John Gilleard, Derek M McKay
Awareness of the immunological underpinnings of host-parasite interactions may reveal immune signaling pathways that could be used to treat inflammatory disease in humans. Previously we showed that infection with the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, used as a model helminth, or systemic delivery of worm antigen (HdAg) significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Extending these analyses, intraperitoneal injection of HdAg dose-dependently suppressed dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis and this was paralleled by reduced IFNγ, IL-17 and TNFα and increased IL-10 production from mitogen-activated splenocytes...
September 26, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Seongjun Choe, Dongmin Lee, Hansol Park, Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Youngsun Lee, Ki-Jeong Na, In-Yong Lee, Keeseon S Eom
Parasites are recorded from the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, the Republic of Korea. A total of 5 road-killed squirrels were thoroughly examined for internal and external parasites from November 2011 to May 2014. Total 4 parasite species, including 1 tapeworm and 3 ectoparasite species were recovered. They were morphologically identified as Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae), Hirstionyssus sciurinus, Leptotrombidium pallidum, and Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) indages. Among them, C...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Bedros Taslakian, Houssein Darwish
Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
R Ghasemikhah, M Shahdoust, H Sarmadian, M Rezaei, B Ghorbanzadeh, A Gorji, M Zare-Bidaki
Objective: Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst in humans and livestock is resulted from the larval stage of dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. Although Iran is considered as an endemic focus of echinococcosis in the world, however, the status of three well-known aspects of the infection, ie canids, livestock and humans populations, is not still completely elucidated in Arak city, the capital of the Markazi province. This study aimed to elucidate the livestock infection in the region. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, after necessary coordination with the provincial administration of Iranian Veterinary Organization, totally 860 171 livestock slaughtered in industrial slaughterhouse of Arak city, including 364 682 sheep, 117 495 cattle and 377 994 goats were investigated during 2006 to 2012...
October 14, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Fabrício H Oda, Claudio Borteiro, Rodrigo J da Graça, Luiz Eduardo R Tavares, Alejandro Crampet, Vinicius Guerra, Flávia S Lima, Sybelle Bellay, Letícia C Karling, Oscar Castro, Ricardo M Takemoto, Gilberto C Pavanelli
Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively...
September 6, 2016: Acta Tropica
Qing Yuan, Bo Li, Shiping Jiang, Qiang Zhao, Ji Duo, Xiang Huang
Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. Protoscoleces are sometimes released during surgical treatment for hydatid cysts, causing the recurrence of echinococcosis. Protoscoleces may be susceptible to radiation therapy. In this study Echinococcus protoscoleces were cultured in vitro and then divided into four different γ-ray irradiation dose groups (10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 80 Gy) and a blank group. The protoscoleces were then implanted into the abdominal cavity of mice...
2016: BioMed Research International
Vijaya, Arun K Yadav
A large number of medicinal plants are used as herbal remedy for the treatment of helminthic diseases in the developing countries, however, far too little attention has been paid to assess the anthelmintic potentials of chemical compounds that are present in these plants. This study was carried out to assess the in vitro anthelmintic effects of biochanin A, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol which are the major phytochemicals of Trifolium repens, Houttuynia cordata and Lasia spinosa, the traditionally used anthelmintic plants of Northeast India...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Mallé Ndom, Gora Diop, Yann Quilichini, Tetsuya Yanagida, Cheikh Tidiane Ba, Bernard Marchand
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Aijiang Guo
BACKGROUND: The cloacal tapeworm Cloacotaenia megalops (Hymenolepididae) is one of the most common cestode parasites of domestic and wild ducks worldwide. However, limited information is available regarding its epidemiology, biology, genetics and systematics. This study provides characterisation of the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of C. megalops. METHODS: The complete mt genome of C. megalops was obtained by long PCR, sequenced and annotated. RESULTS: The length of the entire mt genome of C...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Suranjana Nandi, Bidisha Ukil, Saptarshi Roy, Suman Kundu, Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem
CONTEXT: Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae) is a shrub, widely used amongst the natives of India against various diseases. OBJECTIVE: Crude extract of the plant was tested in vitro on a tapeworm Raillietina tetragona Molin (Davaineidae) to evaluate its potential anthelmintic efficacy and ultrastructural changes in the parasite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parasites were exposed to different concentrations of ethanolic leaf extract (10-80 mg/mL) and praziquantel (0...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Aijiang Guo
BACKGROUND: Tapeworms Cladotaenia spp. are among the most important wildlife pathogens in birds of prey. The genus Cladotaenia is placed in the family Paruterinidae based on morphological characteristics and hosts. However, limited molecular information is available for studying the phylogenetic position of this genus in relation to other cestodes. METHODS: In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cladotaenia vulturi was amplified using "Long-PCR" and then sequenced by primer walking...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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