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Li Huan-Zhang, Zang Xin-Zhong, Qian Men-Bao, Xue Jing-Bo, Zhou Chang-Hai, Chen Ying-Dan, Tian Tian, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu
Cysticercosis refers to a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium . It is a parasitic zoonosis and listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Cysticercosis is spreading all over the world through globalization and it mainly epidemic in developing countries. In the southwest and minority nationality areas of China, as a result of the low level of medical and health care, and the unchangeable diet custom, there are still many cases of cysticercosis, which is manifested as a local high prevalence...
February 27, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Jiang Long-Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of key parasitic diseases in Tongcheng City, so as to provide an epidemiological reference for formulating the scientific planning for "13th Five-year" parasitic diseases prevention and control. METHODS: The villages of different levels in Tongcheng City were sampled to investigate the infection of parasitic diseases of residents aged three or more years. Soil-transmitted nemathelminth, intestinal protozoa and Enterobius vermicularis were investigated by the Kato-Katz technique (a fecal sample seized two), iodine smear method and cellophane tape method, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Hansol Park, Dongmin Lee, Seongjun Choe, Keeseon S Eom
Morphological and molecular characteristics of spirometrid tapeworms, Spirometra decipiens , were studied, which were recovered from a heavily infected stray cat road-killed in Eumseong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea). A total of 134 scolices and many broken immature and mature proglottids of Spirometra tapeworms were collected from the small intestine of the cat. Morphological observations were based on 116 specimens. The scolex was 22.8-32.6 mm (27.4 mm in average) in length and small spoon-shape with 2 distinct bothria...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Martina Orosova, Marta Spakulova
The history and value of cytogenetic features for addressing questions of the evolution and systematics of tapeworms (Cestoda) are briefly reviewed along with instructions for collecting karyological data. As a supplement to worm morphology, chromosome number and morphology have been helpful in determining the systematic status of some genera in the Diphyllobothriidae and species in the Bothriocephallidea. In addition, many new techniques for chromosome analysis have been recently applied in morphological and molecular studies of invertebrates, including tapeworms...
February 23, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
María D Flores, Luis M Gonzalez, Carolina Hurtado, Yamileth Monje Motta, Cristina Domínguez-Hidalgo, Francisco Jesús Merino, María J Perteguer, Teresa Gárate
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata tapeworms cause human taeniasis and are the origin of porcine and bovine cysticercosis. Furthermore, T. solium eggs can cause human cysticercosis, with neurocysticercosis being the most serious form of the disease. These helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases and are endemic in several countries in the Americas, Asia and Africa. As a result of globalization, migration in particular, the infections have been extending to non-endemic territories...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Eva Bazsalovicsová, Ivica Králová-Hromadová, Bing-Wen Xi, Jan Štefka
The monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), an intestinal parasite of the common carp, is characterized by its invasive character and potential to colonize new territories. It was initially described from North America and has also been found in several European countries. The most recent findings of A. huronensis originated from China and South Africa; however, no data on genetic relationships of these populations were available. The current study provides the first molecular characterisation of A...
February 24, 2018: Parasitology International
Dolores A Ayón-Núñez, Gladis Fragoso, Clara Espitia, Martín García-Varela, Xavier Soberón, Gabriela Rosas, Juan P Laclette, Raúl J Bobes
The larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticerci) is the causal agent of human and swine cysticercosis. When ingested by the host, T. solium eggs are activated and hatch in the intestine, releasing oncospheres that migrate to various tissues and evolve into cysticerci. Plasminogen (Plg) receptor proteins have been reported to play a role in migration processes for several pathogens. This work is aimed to identify Plg-binding proteins in T. solium cysticerci and determine whether T. solium recombinant enolase (rTsEnoA) is capable of specifically binding and activating human Plg...
February 18, 2018: Acta Tropica
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Kayoko Hayakawa, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Yuichi Katanami, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari, Yasuyuki Kato
BACKGROUND: Tapeworm (cestode) infections occur worldwide even in developed countries and globalization has further complicated the epidemiology of such infections. Nonetheless, recent epidemiological data on cestode infections are limited. Our objectives were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of diphyllobothriosis and taeniosis in Tokyo, Japan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 cases of human intestinal cestode infection from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary referral hospital in Tokyo, Japan...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tamio Ohno, Takuya Kai, Yuki Miyasaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Akira Ishih, Hideto Kino
Hymenolepis diminuta is a parasitic tapeworm of the rat small intestine and is recognized as a useful model for the analysis of cestode-host interactions. In this study, we analyzed factors affecting the biomass of the tapeworm through use of rat strains carrying genetic mutations, namely X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (xscid; T, B and NK cells deficiency), nude (rnu; T cell deficiency), and mast cell deficient rats. The worm biomass of F344-xscid rats after infection with 5 cysticercoids was much larger than control F344 rats from 3 to 8 weeks...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology International
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Patricia Pensel, Alejandro Paredes, Clara M Albani, Daniel Allemandi, Sergio Sanchez Bruni, Santiago D Palma, María C Elissondo
Human alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is usually fatal if left untreated. Medical treatment with albendazole (ABZ) remains an effective option. However, due to its low aqueous solubility, ABZ is poorly and erratically absorbed following oral administration resulting in low drug levels in plasma and liver distribution. Thus, there arises the need to find a simple, efficient and scalable method to produce new ABZ formulations with increased bioavailability...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ning Wang, Yu Wang, Qinghua Ye, Yingdong Yang, Jie Wan, Cheng Guo, Jiafei Zhan, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Yue Xie, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Taenia multiceps is a tapeworm that leads to the death of livestock, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. The adult stage of this parasite invades the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the present study, we developed a direct PCR assay to detect T. multiceps eggs isolated from dog feces to help curb further outbreaks. The genomic DNA was rapidly released using a lysis buffer and the PCR reaction was developed to amplify a 433-bp fragment of the T. multiceps mitochondrial gene encoding NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) from eggs isolated from dog feces...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Emma C Hobbs, Kabemba E Mwape, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Sarah Gabriël, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Moses Mambwe, Isaac K Phiri, Maxwell Masuku, Gideon Zulu, Angela Colston, Arve Lee Willingham, Dirk Berkvens, Pierre Dorny, Emmanuel Bottieau, Niko Speybroeck
The tapeworm Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, however its socioeconomic cost is unknown. During a large-scale interventional study conducted in Zambia, baseline economic costs of human and porcine T. solium infections were measured. Questionnaire surveys were conducted within three neighbourhoods in Zambia's Eastern province in 2015 and 2016. A human health questionnaire, capturing costs of clinical symptoms commonly attributable to human cysticercosis and taeniasis, was conducted in randomly selected households (n = 267)...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Marcello Otake Sato, Megumi Sato, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jitra Waikagul, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Yasuhito Sako, Surapol Sanguankiat, Tipparayat Yoonuan, Sengchanh Kounnavang, Satoru Kawai, Akira Ito, Munehiro Okamoto, Kazuhiko Moji
Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Brabec Jan, Scholz Tomáš, Štefka Jan
We describe the development of ready-to-use set of fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers to benefit future population biology and phylogeographic studies on the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi. The microsatellite loci were selected from partial Illumina shotgun genome sequences of three parasite specimens and their universality tested on a set of 12 geographically distant populations of the parasite. Particularly low levels of heterozygosity have been detected in the Chinese population pointing towards possible hidden population structure that deserves further attention in future population genetic studies...
February 1, 2018: Parasitology International
Suraj Dhakal, Sebastian Micki Buss, Elizabeth Jane Cassidy, Nicolai Vitt Meyling, Brian Lund Fredensborg
Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta-flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model-has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host-parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere...
February 3, 2018: Insects
Chris T McAllister, Vasyl V Tkach, David Bruce Conn
Free pre-tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp. are described, for the first time, from samples obtained from the coelomic cavity of a ground skink, Scincella lateralis from Oklahoma, USA. Closer examination of these early stage tapeworms revealed they were transitional metamorphosis stages between a post-hexacanth procercoid form to the full metacestode of Mesocestoides. A series of transitional stages from before the suckers and apical organ are developed, through full development of both structures were found...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Juergen Hench, Gieri Cathomas, Matthias S Dettmer
RATIONALE: There is evidence that parasitic helminths can ameliorate colitis in animal models and humans. Although infections with Hymenolepis sp. are clinically benign, the immunomodulatory interactions between host and parasite are largely unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study we examined the intestinal mucosa of an adult asymptomatic patient harboring adult and larval dwarf tapeworms (Hymenolepis nana) who underwent surgery for an unrelated reason. INTERVENTIONS: Routine histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize the host's response to the parasite...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aisha Khan, Kashf Naz, Haroon Ahmed, Sami Simsek, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Waseem Haider, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Sumaira Farrakh, Wu Weiping, Guan Yayi
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. It is considered a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the larval form (hydatid cyst) of Echinococcus spp. tapeworm. There are limited studies on echinococcosis in Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to find out recent knowledge, attitudes and practices on the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in butchers and dog owners in both urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi/Islamabad regions, Pakistan...
January 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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