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Yan Yan Song, Li Ang Wang, Hua Na Ren, Xin Qi, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
Cysteine protease is a superfamily of widespread proteolytic enzymes and plays a major role in larval invasion, migration, exsheathing, survival and immune evasion in parasites. In the present study, the gene coding cysteine proteinase of the nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) was cloned into pQE-80L and subsequently expressed in E. coli JM109. The rTsCP was purified and its antigenicity was identified by Western blot and ELISA. Using anti-rTsCP serum the native TsCP was identified in muscle larval crude proteins...
May 29, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Nianzhang Zhang, Wenhui Li, Baoquan Fu
Trichinella spiralis, the causative agent of trichinellosis, is able to infect a wide range of carnivores and omnivores including human beings. In the past 30 years, a mass of vaccination efforts has been performed to control T. spiralis infection with the purpose of reduction in worm fecundity or decrease in muscle larval and adult burdens. Here, we summarize the development of veterinary vaccines against T. spiralis infection. During recent years, increasing numbers of new vaccine candidates have been developed on the protective immunity against T...
June 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xiaoli Wang, Liang Li, Xing Wei, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Zhang, Ao Shi, Tao Liu, Xiaodi Yang, Qiang Fang
Trichinella spiralis mainly dwells in the muscle tissue of its host and is the main causative agent of trichinellosis in humans. Nitric oxide (NO), an important intracellular signaling molecule that may restrict pathogen growth in infected hosts, has been known for its anti-pathogenic activity, including resistance to T. spiralis. Herein, we applied label-free analysis to investigate the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor compound) on the proteome of T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML), followed by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway cluster analyses...
2018: PloS One
Samia E Etewa, Ghada M Fathy, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Dalia Abd El-Khalik, Mohamed H Sarhan, Maha S Badawey
Trichinosis is a sharable parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spp., the disease occurred on eating inappropriate cooked pork infected by the parasite encysted larvae. This study aimed to evaluate experimentally the impact of treatment by thiabendazole, praziquantel (PZQ) and prednisone on T. spiralis induced parasitological, serological and apoptotic changes. Forty albino rats were infected orally each by ± 1000 larvae, divided into four groups each of 10 rats, group (A) infected control, group (B) thiabendazole tested, group (C) PZQ tested and group (D) prednisone tested...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maha M Eissa, Cherine A Ismail, Mervat Z El-Azzouni, Amany A Ghazy, Mona A Hadi
Considerable evidence indicates a negative correlation between the prevalence of some parasitic infections and cancer and their interference with tumor growth. Therefore, parasitic antigens seem to be promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of autoclaved Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis antigens against a colon cancer murine model was investigated. Both antigens showed immunomodulatory potential, as evidenced by a significant decrease in serum IL-17, a significant increase in serum IL-10, and the percentage of splenic CD4+ T-cells and intestinal FoxP3+ Treg cells...
May 28, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Rui Zhang, Qing Sun, Yi Chen, Ximeng Sun, Yuan Gu, Zhang Zhao, Yuli Cheng, Limei Zhao, Jingjing Huang, Bin Zhan, Xinping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis worldwide. In the effort to develop vaccine against Trichinella infection, we have identified Trichinella spiralis Heat shock protein 70 (Ts-Hsp70) elicits partial protective immunity against T. spiralis infection via activating dendritic cells (DCs) in our previous study. This study aims to investigate whether DCs were activated by Ts-Hsp70 through TLR2 and/or TLR4 pathways. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After blocking with anti-TLR2 and TLR4 antibodies, the binding of Ts-Hsp70 to DCs was significantly reduced...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ge Ge Sun, Yan Yan Song, Peng Jiang, Hua Na Ren, Shu Wei Yan, Yue Han, Ruo Dan Liu, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis is a serious zoonositc parasitosis worldwide. Because its clinical manifestations aren't specific, the diagnosis of trichinellosis is not easy to be made. Trichinella spiralis muscle larva (ML) excretory-secretory (ES) antigens are the most widely applied diagnostic antigens for human trichinellosis, but the major drawback of the ES antigens for assaying anti-Trichinella antibodies is the false negative in the early Trichinella infection period. The aim of this study was to characterize the T...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Luca Villa, Katharina Riehn, Ahmad Hamedy, Stefano Minazzi, Emanuela Olivieri, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Wild boar is a source of human infections with zoonotic pathogens, including food-borne parasites. With the aim of a characterization of the human exposure risk, a survey on wild boars intended for human consumption was planned, selecting three pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii, Alaria alata, and Trichinella spp., as markers of meat infection. Diaphragm muscle samples from 100 wild boars hunted in Piedmont region (Northern Italy) in two hunting seasons (2015-2016) were collected. Concerning T. gondii, a combined approach of antibody detection and molecular techniques with genotyping was performed...
May 11, 2018: Parasitology Research
Aliakbar Shamsian, Edoardo Pozio, Abdolmajid Fata, Zahra Navi, Elham Moghaddas
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox (Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals (Canis aureus), and one wild boar (Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Eun-Kyung Moon, Su-Hwa Lee, Yunsoo Soh, Yuan-Ri Guo, Ying Piao, Fu-Shi Quan
Trichinella spiralis infection induces Trichinella-specific IgG antibody and high level of blood eosinophil. However, the kinetics induced by different parasite burdens during infectious periods remains unclear. In this study, rats were infected with 100, 1000, or 3000 larvae of T. spiralis (100 TS, 1000 TS, or 3000 TS). Correlates of eosinophils, antibody responses, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) with worm burdens were evaluated at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months postinfection...
May 3, 2018: Immunological Investigations
A M Bronstein, A N Lukashev
Although there have been occasional reports of rare and low-level trichinellae infestation in beavers, no human cases of beaver-associated trichinellosis have been described. This report presents a possible case of human trichinellosis linked to beaver meat. Increasing consumption of beaver meat necessitates raising awareness of this potential source of trichinellosis.
May 3, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Wen-Cai Liu, Yi-Xin Ren, Ai-Yu Hao, Sun Yu, Xuan Shi, Xue-Qiang Zhang, Yan Xing, Zhi-Long Xiu, Yu Cui, Yue-Sheng Dong
Biotransformation of wortmannilactone F (3) using the marine-derived fungus DL1103 generated wortmannilactone M (1), a novel analog of wortmannilactone, which was a reduction product of 3 at the C-3 carbonyl group. The in vitro inhibitory activities of 10 wortmannilactones, including 1, against electron transport enzymes indicated that all the wortmannilactones were selective inhibitors of NADH-fumarate reductase and NADH-rhodoquinone reductase. The structure-activity relationship analysis showed that the relative configuration of C1" and C5", the positions of double bonds, the oxygen atoms in the dihydropyran moiety, and the keto-carbonyl group in the oxabicyclo-[2...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Li Zeng, Kaixue Li, Hong Wei, Jingjing Hu, Lu Jiao, Shaoyong Yu, Ying Xiong
Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aleksandra Cybulska, Rafał Skopek, Aleksandra Kornacka, Marcin Popiołek, Agnieszka Piróg, Zdzisław Laskowski, Bożena Moskwa
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a North American carnivore introduced to Europe in the 20th Century. Raccoons are believed to be the potential hosts of many parasites, or to be involved in their transmission to other animals. Nematodes of the genus Trichinella can infect many carnivorous and omnivorous animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. infection in raccoons in Central Europe. Muscle samples were collected from various regions of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany during the years 2012-2016...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Y Long, L Du, J J Kim, B Chen, Y Zhu, Y Zhang, S Yao, H He, X Zheng, Z Huang, N Dai
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intestinal permeability regulated by tight junctions (TJs) are associated with immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an important mediator of epithelial TJ. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MLCK in the pathogenesis of IBS using a post infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: Trichinella spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Rajnish Sharma, N Jane Harms, Piia M Kukka, Sarah E Parker, Alvin A Gajadhar, Thomas S Jung, Emily J Jenkins
Trichinella is an important zoonotic parasite found in a range of wildlife species harvested for food and fur in Canada. We compared larval intensity from tongue and diaphragm, the best predilection sites in other animal species, from naturally infected, wild wolverines (Gulo gulo) (n = 95). Muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. were recovered by the pepsin/HCl artificial digestion method (gold standard) using double separatory funnels, and species were identified using multiplex PCR. Prevalence was 83% (79/95)...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jolanta Piekarska, Marianna Szczypka, Alicja Z Kucharska, Michał Gorczykowski
The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3+ , CD4+ cells and CD4+ /CD8+ ratio and decreased total count of CD8+ and CD19+ splenocytes (5th dai)...
May 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jiaqing Luo, Hongchao Sun, Xianfeng Zhao, Suhua Wang, Xunhui Zhuo, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Chaoqun Yao, Aifang Du
The immunochromatographic test (ICT) is a convenient and low-cost method that can rapidly obtain results (10 min) under normal conditions. In this study, we established an ICT assay with two monoclonal antibodies: TgSAG3-3A7 and TgSAG3-4D5 based on the conserved protein of TgSAG3 that can be expressed in all the infective stages of T. gondii. 20 nm gold particles were prepared and conjugated with TgSAG3-3A7 MAb at the concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. TgSAG3-4D5 MAb were used as the capture antibody because of its higher affinity tested by ELISA...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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