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Li Zeng, Kaixue Li, Hong Wei, Jingjing Hu, Lu Jiao, Shaoyong Yu, Ying Xiong
Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aleksandra Cybulska, Rafał Skopek, Aleksandra Kornacka, Marcin Popiołek, Agnieszka Piróg, Zdzisław Laskowski, Bożena Moskwa
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a North American carnivore introduced to Europe in the 20th Century. Raccoons are believed to be the potential hosts of many parasites, or to be involved in their transmission to other animals. Nematodes of the genus Trichinella can infect many carnivorous and omnivorous animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. infection in raccoons in Central Europe. Muscle samples were collected from various regions of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany during the years 2012-2016...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Y Long, L Du, J J Kim, B Chen, Y Zhu, Y Zhang, S Yao, H He, X Zheng, Z Huang, N Dai
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intestinal permeability regulated by tight junctions (TJs) are associated with immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an important mediator of epithelial TJ. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MLCK in the pathogenesis of IBS using a post infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: Trichinella spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Rajnish Sharma, N Jane Harms, Piia M Kukka, Sarah E Parker, Alvin A Gajadhar, Thomas S Jung, Emily J Jenkins
Trichinella is an important zoonotic parasite found in a range of wildlife species harvested for food and fur in Canada. We compared larval intensity from tongue and diaphragm, the best predilection sites in other animal species, from naturally infected, wild wolverines (Gulo gulo) (n = 95). Muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. were recovered by the pepsin/HCl artificial digestion method (gold standard) using double separatory funnels, and species were identified using multiplex PCR. Prevalence was 83% (79/95)...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jolanta Piekarska, Marianna Szczypka, Alicja Z Kucharska, Michał Gorczykowski
The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3+ , CD4+ cells and CD4+ /CD8+ ratio and decreased total count of CD8+ and CD19+ splenocytes (5th dai)...
March 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jiaqing Luo, Hongchao Sun, Xianfeng Zhao, Suhua Wang, Xunhui Zhuo, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Chaoqun Yao, Aifang Du
The immunochromatographic test (ICT) is a convenient and low-cost method that can rapidly obtain results (10 min) under normal conditions. In this study, we established an ICT assay with two monoclonal antibodies: TgSAG3-3A7 and TgSAG3-4D5 based on the conserved protein of TgSAG3 that can be expressed in all the infective stages of T. gondii. 20 nm gold particles were prepared and conjugated with TgSAG3-3A7 MAb at the concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. TgSAG3-4D5 MAb were used as the capture antibody because of its higher affinity tested by ELISA...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
G La Rosa, R Calero-Bernal, J E Pérez-Martín, D Tonanzi, F Galati, F J Serrano-Aguilera, B M Rosenthal, E Pozio
Recurrent self-mating can result in nearly clonal propagation of biological lineages, but even occasional outcrossing can serve to redistribute variation in future generations, providing cohesion among regional populations. The zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis has been suspected to undergo frequent inbreeding, resulting in genetically uniform larval cohorts which differ markedly from one another. Here, we explored the extent of inbreeding for this parasite by determining how genetic variation (at variable microsatellite markers) is distributed among 1,379 larvae derived from 41 wild boars in Extremadura, Spain...
March 8, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Martijn Bouwknegt, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Heather Graham, Lucy J Robertson, Joke Wb van der Giessen, The Euro-Fbp Workshop Participants
Background and aimsPriority setting is a challenging task for public health professionals. To support health professionals with this and in following a recommendation from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), 35 European parasitologists attended a workshop from 8-12 February 2016 to rank food-borne parasites (FBP) in terms of their importance for Europe and regions within Europe. Methods: Countries were divided into European regions according to those used by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Benson Otarigho, Mofolusho O Falade
We explored 285 completed eukaryotic pathogen genomes for GABA transporter proteins as effective chemotherapy targets. We identified 8 GABA proteins that spread across 4 phyla with 5 different pathogen species; Eimeria mitis Houghton, Neospora caninum Liverpool, S. mansoni, S. haematobium and Trichinella spiralis. Sub-cellular localization prediction revealed that these proteins are integral membrane and are mostly insoluble. It is found that about 81% of these proteins are non-crystallizable and 15% are crystallizable...
2018: Bioinformation
Chun Ying Liu, Hua Na Ren, Yan Yan Song, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Shao Rong Long, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
The aim of this study was to identify the biological characteristics and functions of a putative Trichinella spiralis glutathione S-transferase (TspGST). The results of real-time PCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT) showed that the TspGST gene was expressed at all of T. spiralis different developmental stages (muscle larvae, intestinal infective larvae, adult worms and newborn larvae). When anti-rTspGST serum, mouse infection serum, and pre-immune serum were added to the medium, the inhibition rate of the larvae penetrated into the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was 25...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Dustin Heaton, Sandra Huang, Rita Shiau, Shannon Casillas, Anne Straily, Li Kuo Kong, Valerie Ng, Viviana Petru
On January 15, 2017, a hospital physician notified the Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD) in California of a patient with a suspected diagnosis of trichinellosis, a roundworm disease transmitted by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella spp. larvae (1). A family member of the initial patient reported that at least three other friends and family members had been evaluated at area hospitals for fever, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients had attended a celebration on December 28, 2016, at which several pork dishes were served, including larb, a traditional Laotian raw pork dish, leading the hospital physician to suspect a diagnosis of trichinellosis...
March 2, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Paola L Minciullo, Antonio Cascio, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: The association between parasites and urticaria was first suggested in the last century. A wide range, 0-75.4%, of the prevalence of parasitic infection has been reported with chronic urticaria (CU). Moreover, urticaria may be detected in patients with parasitosis. Nematodes are a type of helminth that infect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to collect and review the published studies and cases of urticaria associated with nematode infections...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Nataša Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Jelena Cvetkovic, Sergej Tomic, Dragana Bozidar Vucevic, Carmen Aranzamendi, Miodrag Colic, Elena Pinelli, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Trichinella spiralis, as well as its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), given either alone or via dendritic cells (DCs), induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment in inbred rodents and successfully ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ES L1 directs the immunological balance away from T helper (Th)1, toward Th2 and regulatory responses by modulating DCs phenotype. The ultimate goal of our work is to find out if it is possible to translate knowledge obtained in animal model to humans and to generate human tolerogenic DCs suitable for therapy of autoimmune diseases through stimulation with ES L1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ondřej Máca
Muscular sarcosporidial infections by Sarcocystis lutrae (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the otter (Lutra lutra) and badger (Meles meles) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) were found in the Czech Republic. As part of a diversity evaluation of Sarcocystis in wild carnivores during 2016-2017, samples of diaphragm, tongue and hind-limb muscles were collected from nine districts, examined by compression and characterized molecularly. Cyst walls were thin, with no visible protrusions, and histological sections of infected muscle tissue showed no host responses...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Daniela Antolová, Monika Halánová, Martin Janičko, Peter Jarčuška, Katarína Reiterová, Júlia Jarošová, Andrea Madarasová Gecková, Daniel Pella, Sylvia Dražilová
Trichinellosis and cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are serious parasitic diseases transmissible between animals and humans. Moreover, alveolar echinococcosis is considered one of the most dangerous of human helminthoses. Roma communities are particularly numerous in Central and Eastern Europe. They are often concentrated in economically undeveloped regions and live in segregated localities with unsatisfactory housing and sanitary conditions. The study aimed to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in the Roma population of segregated settlements and to compare it with the seropositivity of the non-Roma population of eastern Slovakia...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luz Ofelia Franco-Sandoval, Enedina Jiménez-Cardoso, Héctor Quezada-Pablo, Ana Laura Guzmán-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is an intestinal and tissue nematode specific for mammalian skeletal muscle, causing a series of physiological alterations. T. spiralis excretory-secretion products play an important role in the appearance and regulation of these alterations. However, the effect of these products on the infection and invasion of the parasite to the host is unknown. METHODS: Differences and similarities between antigenic proteins and surface proteins of four accidental hosts isolates (dogs) of T...
November 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
A Uspensky, L Bukina, I Odoevskaya, S Movsesyan, M Voronin
Trichinellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella, is still a public health concern in the Arctic. The aims of this study were to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Trichinella IgG in aboriginal peoples of two settlements in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian Federation) on the Arctic coast of the Bering Sea, and to evaluate the survival of Trichinella nativa larvae in local fermented and frozen meat products. A seroprevalence of 24.3% was detected in 259 people tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
José Luis Muñoz-Carrillo, José Luis Muñoz-López, José Jesús Muñoz-Escobedo, Claudia Maldonado-Tapia, Oscar Gutiérrez-Coronado, Juan Francisco Contreras-Cordero, María Alejandra Moreno-García
The immune response against Trichinella spiralis at the intestinal level depends on the CD4+ T cells, which can both suppress or promote the inflammatory response through the synthesis of diverse cytokines. During the intestinal phase, the immune response is mixed (Th1/Th2) with the initial predominance of the Th1 response and the subsequent domination of Th2 response, which favor the development of intestinal pathology. In this context, the glucocorticoids (GC) are the pharmacotherapy for the intestinal inflammatory response in trichinellosis...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Mohammad Javad Ranjbar, Bahador Sarkari, Gholam Reza Mowlavi, Zeinab Seifollahi, Abdolali Moshfe, Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi, Iraj Mobedi
Background: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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