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Ning Xu, Xiaolei Liu, Bin Tang, Libo Wang, Hai N Shi, Pascal Boireau, Mingyuan Liu, Xue Bai
During parasite infection, serine protease inhibitors secreted by parasites play important roles in suppressing host defenses. However, the mechanism of immune regulation is unclear. In this study, a serpin gene from Trichinella pseudospiralis, named Tp-Serpin, was cloned and expressed, in order to reveal its role in the regulation of the host immune response in T. pseudospiralis infection. The results showed that Tp-Serpin encodes a 43 kDa protein that was recognized by serum from T. pseudospiralis infected mice at 60 days post-infection (dpi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chiara Garbarino, Maria Interisano, Alessandro Chiatante, Gianluca Marucci, Enrico Merli, Norma Arrigoni, Giuliana Cammi, Matteo Ricchi, Daniele Tonanzi, Marco Tamba, Giuseppe La Rosa, Edoardo Pozio
In Europe, Trichinella spiralis, the most dangerous species for humans of the genus Trichinella, has a patchy distribution with important foci in Eastern countries and Spain. This zoonotic pathogen was apparently not circulating among wild and domestic animals of Italy. In 2016, muscle larvae belonging to this nematode species were detected in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) shot in the Piacenza province (Northern Italy). This parasite may have been introduced into northern Italy from eastern Europe by hunters, by a hunting dog, or by immigrants, who illegally carried infected meat in their personal baggage...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Chun Ying Liu, Yan Yan Song, Hua Na Ren, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Shao Rong Long, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
BACKGROUND: Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is a widespread multigene family of detoxification enzymes. The vaccination of mice with recombinant GST of 24 kDa from Trichinella spiralis elicited a low immune protection against challenge infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the T. spiralis putative GST gene (TspGST) encoding a 30.8 kDa protein and to evaluate its potential as a candidate antigen for anti-Trichinella vaccine. METHODS: The full-length cDNA sequence of TspGST from T...
September 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
A Nahili Giorello, Malcolm W Kennedy, Marcos J Butti, Nilda E Radman, Betina Córsico, Gisela R Franchini
BACKGROUND: The giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale, is a debilitating and potentially lethal parasite that inhabits and destroys, typically host's right kidney, and may also be found in ectopic sites. It is circumglobally distributed, mainly in dogs, and is increasingly regarded as a threat to other domestic animals and humans. There is little information on the parasite's true incidence, or immune responses to it, and none on its biochemistry and molecular biology. RESULTS: We characterised the soluble proteins of body wall, intestine, gonads and pseudocelomic fluid (PCF) of adult parasites...
September 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Marcela A Calcagno, María A Forastiero, María P Saracino, Cecilia C Vila, Stella M Venturiello
In human trichinellosis, the relevance of the presence and persistence of specific serum IgE and IgG4 during the early and late phases of infection is still controversial.The aim of this work was to determine the percentage of human sera presenting IgE and IgG4 against Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory products as well as their levels during the early and late phases of the infection. The antigen recognition pattern by serum total immunoglobulins (IgGAM), IgE, and IgG4 was assessed over time...
September 20, 2017: Parasitology Research
Marko Dmitric, Dejan Vidanovic, Nikola Vaskovic, Kazimir Matovic, Milanko Sekler, Zoran Debeljak, Nedjeljko Karabasil
Wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus), are the most important reservoirs of Trichinella spp. Although the red fox is considered one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. in Europe, only a few animals have been examined in Serbia. The present study assessed Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes and golden jackals from the six districts in Serbia. Thirty-seven carcasses of red foxes and 13 carcasses of golden jackals shot during the official hunting season were examined...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. Various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. The current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until April 2017, and is shown herein in synoptic tables followed by critical comments of the various findings...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Wichuda Sodthawon, Siranart Jeerawattanawart, Adithap Hansakon, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Yui-Hsi Wang
IL-25, an IL-17 family cytokine, derived from epithelial cells was shown to regulate Th2- and Th9-type immune responses. We previously reported that IL-25 was important in promoting efficient protective immunity against T. spiralis infection; however, the cellular targets of IL-25 to elicit type-2 immunity during infection have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigated IL-25-responding cells and their involvement in mediating type-2 immune response during T. spiralis infection. ILC2 and CD4+ Th2 cells residing in the gastrointestinal tract of T...
2017: PloS One
Chengshui Liao, Xiaoli Wang, Wenjing Tian, Mengke Zhang, Chunjie Zhang, Yinju Li, Tingcai Wu, Xiangchao Cheng
Although there are 125 predicted DNase Ⅱ-like family genes in the Trichinella spiralis genome, plancitoxin-1-like (Ts-Pt) contains the HKD motif, a typical conserved region of DNase Ⅱ, in N- and C-terminal. It is generally believed that histidine is the active site in DNase Ⅱ. To study the nuclease activity of recombinant Ts-Pt with mutations in the active site from T. spiralis, different fragments of the mutated Ts-Pt genes were cloned using overlap PCR technique and inserted into the expressing vector pET-28a(+), and transformed into Escherichia coli Rosseta (DE3)...
August 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Adam L MacLean, Maia A Smith, Juliane Liepe, Aaron Sim, Reema Khorshed, Narges M Rashidi, Nico Scherf, Axel Krinner, Ingo Roeder, Cristina Lo Celso, Michael P H Stumpf
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche provides essential microenvironmental cues for the production and maintenance of HSCs within the bone marrow. During inflammation, hematopoietic dynamics are perturbed, but it is not known whether changes to the HSC-niche interaction occur as a result. We visualize HSCs directly in vivo, enabling detailed analysis of the 3D niche dynamics and migration patterns in murine bone marrow following Trichinella spiralis infection. Spatial statistical analysis of these HSC trajectories reveals two distinct modes of HSC behavior: (a) a pattern of revisiting previously explored space and (b) a pattern of exploring new space...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells
Kelly Konecsni, Cheryl Scheller, Brad Scandrett, Patrik Buholzer, Alvin Gajadhar
The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Hanaa Y Bakir, Rasha Ah Attia, Abeer E Mahmoud, Zedan Ibraheim
BACKGROUND: The protective response developed against Trichinella spiralis infection provokes immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T helper cells. We aimed to evaluate the effect of albendazole or myrrh on the expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis. METHODS: This study was done at the Animal House of Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University (Assiut, Egypt) from April to December 2015. Mice were infected with 300 T...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Peng Jiang, Zi Fang Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang, Ruo Dan Liu, Xi Zhang, Ge Ge Sun, Xin Qi, Li Wang, Jing Cui
BACKGROUND: The intraperitoneal injection is a common method for establishing the experimental animal model infected with parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate if the intraperitoneal injection was another route of Trichinella spiralis infection. METHODS: From June to July 2015, twenty BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 300 T. spiralis muscle larvae in Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, China. The larvae per gr (LPG) muscle from the infected mice and the reproductive capacity index (RCI) of T...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Christina M Bredtmann, Jürgen Krücken, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Tetiana Kuzmina, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Human and animal health is globally affected by a variety of parasitic helminths. The impact of co-infections and development of anthelmintic resistance requires improved diagnostic tools, especially for parasitic nematodes e.g., to identify resistant species or attribute pathological effects to individual species or particular species combinations. In horses, co-infection with cyathostomins is rather a rule than an exception with typically 5 to 15 species (out of more than 40 described) per individual host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kerri Pedersen, Nathan E Bauer, Sandra Rodgers, Luis R Bazan, Brian T Mesenbrink, Thomas Gidlewski
The zoonotic risk posed to employees by slaughtering feral swine (Sus scrofa) at two abattoirs in Texas was assessed by testing feral swine serum samples for exposure to influenza A virus, Leptospira, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii. Blood was collected from a total of 376 feral swine between the two facilities during six separate collection periods in 2015. Antibodies to one or more serovars of Leptospira were identified in 48.9% of feral swine tested, with Bratislava and Pomona as the most commonly detected serovars, and antibodies to influenza A virus were detected in 14...
August 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Yuri P Springer, Shannon Casillas, Kathryn Helfrich, Deanna Mocan, Marscleite Smith, Gabriela Arriaga, Lyndsey Mixson, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin
During 1975-2012, CDC surveillance identified 1,680 trichinellosis cases in the United States with implicated food items; among these cases, 1,219 were attributed to consumption of raw or pork products, and 461 were attributed to nonpork products. Although trichinellosis in the United States has historically been associated with consumption of pork, multiple nonporcine species of wild game also are competent hosts for Trichinella spp. and have been collectively implicated in the majority of trichinellosis cases since the late 1990s (1-4) (Figure 1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Binrui Chen, Shuwen Zhu, Lijun Du, Huiqin He, John J Kim, Ning Dai
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal dysmotility and immune activation are likely involved in the pathogenesis of small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed at investigating the role of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and intestinal inflammation in the development of SIBO using a post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NIH mice were randomly infected with Trichinella spiralis. Visceral sensitivity and stool pattern were assessed at 8-weeks post-infection (PI)...
July 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Pewpan M Intapan, Rutchanee Rodpai, Oranuch Sanpool, Tongjit Thanchomnang, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Wanchai Maleewong
Intestinal capillariasis, a fish-borne nematodiasis, is an important emerging zoonotic disease. Patients present clinical symptoms of borborygmus chronic diarrhea, intermittent abdominal pain, weight loss, and several degrees of painless lower-leg edema. Death may occur in cases of misdiagnosis and improper treatment. Diagnosis is difficult because of the atypical clinical symptoms and diagnostic confusion with diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal cancer, opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients, and hyperthyroidism...
June 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
Rosario Lovera, María Soledad Fernández, Jens Jacob, Nidia Lucero, Gabriel Morici, Bibiana Brihuega, María Isabel Farace, Jorge Caracostantogolo, Regino Cavia
BACKGROUND: Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meng Wang, Linxiang Wu, Rennan Weng, Weihong Zheng, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyue Lv
Helminths have accompanied human throughout history by releasing immune-evasion molecules that could counteract an aberrant immune response within the host. In the past decades, helminth infections are becoming less prevalent possibly due to the developed sanitation. Meanwhile, the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing, which cannot be exclusively explained by the changes of susceptibility genes. While the hygiene hypothesis casts light on the problem. The infections of helminths are believed to interact with and regulate human immunity with the byproduct of suppressing the autoimmune diseases...
August 2017: Parasitology Research
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