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Siti Baidurah, Paramasivam Murugan, Lee Joyyi, Junya Fukuda, Masaya Yamada, Kumar Sudesh, Yasuyuki Ishida
Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) in the presence of an organic alkali was validated for the compositional analysis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] accumulated in whole bacterial cells. Recombinant Cupriavidus necator Re2058/pCB113 was grown in a batch fermentation with different concentration of palm oil and fructose in order to control the molar fraction of 3HHx in P(3HB-co-3HHx) produced in the cells. Trace amounts (30μg) of freeze-dried cells were directly subjected to THM-GC in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) at 400°C...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Paramasivam Murugan, Lizhu Han, Chee-Yuen Gan, Frans H J Maurer, Kumar Sudesh
Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Yoong Kit Leong, John Chi-Wei Lan, Hwei-San Loh, Tau Chuan Ling, Chien Wei Ooi, Pau Loke Show
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Elizabeth C Wittenborn, Marco Jost, Yifeng Wei, JoAnne Stubbe, Catherine L Drennan
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase (PhaC) catalyzes the polymerization of 3-(R)-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A as a means of carbon storage in many bacteria. The resulting polymers can be used to make biodegradable materials with properties similar to those of thermoplastics and are an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastics. A full biochemical and mechanistic understanding of this process has been hindered in part by a lack of structural information on PhaC. Here we present the first structure of the catalytic domain (residues 201-589) of the class I PhaC from Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) to 1...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hamit Yasar Ellidag, Necat Yilmaz, Fatma Kurtulus, Ozgur Aydin, Esin Eren, Ayca Inci, Suleyman Dolu, Fatma Demet Arslan Ince, Özlem Giray, Aylin Yaman
BACKGROUND: The klotho (Klt)-fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-vitamin D axis is the main component of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolisms; on the contrary, it is also secreted from the choroid plexus (CP). PURPOSE: This study is aimed at evaluating serum soluble Klt (sKlt), FGF-23, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Thirty-two relapsing-remitting MS patients (11 males and 21 females; mean age 38...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
R G Yousuf, J B Winterburn
Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated...
September 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Denis Vadlja, Martin Koller, Mario Novak, Gerhart Braunegg, Predrag Horvat
Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π)...
October 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hua Shen, Ioannis Kormpakis, Necat Havlioglu, Stephen W Linderman, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert, Isaac E Erickson, Thomas Zarembinski, Matthew J Silva, Richard H Gelberman, Stavros Thomopoulos
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes following intrasynovial flexor tendon repair are highly variable. Excessive inflammation is a principal factor underlying the formation of adhesions at the repair surface and affecting matrix regeneration at the repair center that limit tendon excursion and impair tendon healing. A previous in-vitro study revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) modulate tendon fibroblast response to macrophage-induced inflammation. The goal of the current study was therefore to explore the effectiveness of autologous ASCs on the inflammatory stage of intrasynovial tendon healing in vivo using a clinically relevant animal model...
September 27, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Junfei Wei, Ashish Damania, Xin Gao, Zhuyun Liu, Rojelio Mejia, Makedonka Mitreva, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: The intestine of hookworms contains enzymes and proteins involved in the blood-feeding process of the parasite and is therefore a promising source of possible vaccine antigens. One such antigen, the hemoglobin-digesting intestinal aspartic protease known as Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm Necator americanus, is currently a lead candidate antigen in clinical trials, as is Na-GST-1 a heme-detoxifying glutathione S-transferase. METHODS: In order to discover additional hookworm vaccine antigens, messenger RNA was obtained from the intestine of male hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, maintained in hamsters...
September 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ivana Seccareccia, Ákos T Kovács, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Markus Nett
Cupriavidus necator is a non-obligate bacterial predator of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we set out to determine the conditions, which are necessary to observe predatory behavior of C. necator. Using Bacillus subtilis as a prey organism, we confirmed that the predatory performance of C. necator is correlated with the available copper level, and that the killing is mediated, at least in part, by secreted extracellular factors. The predatory activity depends on the nutrition status of C...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Bui Khac Hung, Nguyen Van De, Le Van Duyet, Jong-Yil Chai
To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Subhamay Panda, Santamay Panda, Leena Kumari
Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
Zhanhua Tao, Pengfei Zhang, Zhaojun Qin, Yong-Qing Li, Guiwen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Salvador Amaral, Archie Ca Clements
There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for STH and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect WASH and socioeconomic data...
September 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Haldun Kar, Sebnem Karasu, Halis Bag, Necat Cin, Evren Durak, Yasin Peker, Fatma Atalay Tatar
Cases in which congenital anomalies of the colon and colon tumors are observed together are very rare. The aim of this article is to present a splenic flexure tumor case, which possessed the anomaly of the descending colon in the right extraperitoneal space and the sigmoid colon located in the right quadrant. Similar findings have previously been reported in two cases in cadaveric studies.
August 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
Asieh Aramvash, Narges Gholami-Banadkuki, Mansooreh-Sadat Seyedkarimi
There are many published studies presenting ethanol and acetone as PHAs-poor solvents, where these two solvents are shown to dissolve <2% (w/v) of PHAs at low temperatures. In this study, the suitability of ethanol and acetone for the recovery of PHB at different temperatures (from room temperature to near boiling point) in Cupriavidus necator was investigated. Experiments were performed using response surface methodology to examine the effects of different temperatures and heating incubation times on recovery percentage using the two solvents...
August 24, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Bat-Erdene Jugder, Jeffrey Welch, Nady Braidy, Christopher P Marquis
Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni-Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH) produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches...
2016: PeerJ
Leandro Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna-Finkler, José Carlos Pinto, Tito Livio Moitinho Alves
Separation and cells concentration constitute important stages in most biotechnological processes. Particularly, use of flocculation/sedimentation can improve significantly the extraction of biopolymers accumulated by microorganisms and the biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds by cell sludge. In this work the use of tannin and aluminum sulphate (Al2(SO4)3) as flocculating agents for concentration of cells of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 is evaluated. Cells were grown in broth nutrient medium in Erlenmeyer flasks, submitted to orbital agitation of 160 rpm at 30 °C for 21 h...
December 2007: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Zhanhua Tao, Lixin Peng, Pengfei Zhang, Yong-Qing Li, Guiwen Wang
Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be formed in large amounts in Cupriavidus necator and is important for the industrial production of biodegradable plastics. In this investigation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to characterize dynamic changes in PHB content-as well as in the contents of other common biomolecule-in C. necator during batch growth at both the population and single-cell levels. PHB accumulation began in the early stages of bacterial growth, and the maximum PHB production rate occurred in the early and middle exponential phases...
2016: Sensors
Arif Ekiz, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir-Kumral, Mehmet Erşahin, Halil Tuğtepe, Ayliz Velioğlu Öğünç, Dilek Akakın, Demir Kıran, Derya Özsavcı, Necat Biber, Tayfun Hakan, Berrak Ç Yeğen, Göksel Şener, Hale Z Toklu
BACKGROUND & AIM: Alpha lipoic acid (LA) was shown to exert neuroprotection in trauma-induced spinal cord injury (SCI), which is frequently associated with urinary bladder complaints in patients with SCI. Accordingly, the protective effects of LA on biochemical and histological changes in bladder as well as functional studies were assessed. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were divided as control, SCI, and LA (50 mg/kg/day, ip) treated SCI groups (SCI+LA). The standard weight-drop (100 g/cm force at T10) method was used to induce a moderately severe SCI...
August 4, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
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