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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721150/phenotype-distribution-of-the-paraoxonase-gene-in-patients-with-cardiac-disease
#1
Hamit Yasar Ellidag, Ozgur Aydin, Esin Eren, Necat Yilmaz, Tugra Gencpinar, Selcuk Kucukseymen, Akar Yilmaz, Fatma Demet Arslan Ince
INTRODUCTION: Paraoxonase (PON1) is an enigmatic enzyme with multiple enzymatic properties including arylesterase and lactonase activities besides its ability to hydrolyze the toxic metabolite of parathion, paraoxon. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype distribution of PON1 in patients with cardiac disease who were classified in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), heart valve disease (HVD), heart failure (HF) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) groups and healthy subjects as a control group...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716158/efficacy-of-single-dose-500-mg-mebendazole-in-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-a-review
#2
J Mrus, B Baeten, M Engelen, S A Silber
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms). Mebendazole is one of the recommended preventive chemotherapy agents for STH. This review summarizes the efficacy data from 29 studies with single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in STH treatment and compares the results with those of a recently conducted phase 3 study of a 500 mg mebendazole chewable tablet against A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706283/structure-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthase-phac-from-chromobacterium-sp-usm2-producing-biodegradable-plastics
#3
Min Fey Chek, Sun-Yong Kim, Tomoyuki Mori, Hasni Arsad, Mohammed Razip Samian, Kumar Sudesh, Toshio Hakoshima
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative bioplastic to replace petroleum-based plastics. Our understanding of PHA synthase PhaC is poor due to the paucity of available three-dimensional structural information. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PhaC from Chromobacterium sp. USM2, PhaC Cs -CAT. The structure shows that PhaC Cs -CAT forms an α/β hydrolase fold comprising α/β core and CAP subdomains. The active site containing Cys291, Asp447 and His477 is located at the bottom of the cavity, which is filled with water molecules and is covered by the partly disordered CAP subdomain...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692918/valorization-of-waste-glycerol-for-the-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-and-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-copolymer-by-cupriavidus-necator-and-extraction-in-a-sustainable-manner
#4
Geeta Gahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar Soni
Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels...
June 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692673/gastrointestinal-parasite-infections-and-self-medication-in-wild-chimpanzees-surviving-in-degraded-forest-fragments-within-an-agricultural-landscape-mosaic-in-uganda
#5
Matthew R McLennan, Hideo Hasegawa, Massimo Bardi, Michael A Huffman
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666412/an-integrated-study-of-human-and-animal-infectious-disease-in-the-lake-victoria-crescent-small-holder-crop-livestock-production-system-kenya
#6
Eric M Fèvre, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, Samuel Kariuki, Claire N Wamae
BACKGROUND: The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design and descriptive epidemiological outputs from an integrated study of human and animal zoonotic and non-zoonotic disease in a rural farming community in western Kenya...
June 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655869/analysis-of-the-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-thaumatin-like-protein-tlp-gene-family-and-demonstration-that-tlp29-contributes-to-disease-resistance
#7
Xiaoxiao Yan, Hengbo Qiao, Xiuming Zhang, Chunlei Guo, Mengnan Wang, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#8
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628835/low-frequency-sonic-waves-assisted-cloud-point-extraction-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-from-cupriavidus-necator
#9
Sivananth Murugesan, Regupathi Iyyaswami
Low frequency sonic waves, less than 10kHz were introduced to assist cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator present within the crude broth. Process parameters including surfactant system variables and sonication parameters were studied for their effect on extraction efficiency. Introduction of low frequency sonic waves assists in the dissolution of microbial cell wall by the surfactant micelles and release of cellular content, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules released were encapsulated by the micelle core which was confirmed by crotonic acid assay...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610937/hookworm-infections-among-migrant-workers-in-malaysia-molecular-identification-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-duodenale
#10
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Benacer Douadi, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, John-James Wilson, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services...
June 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591561/over-expression-of-groesl-in-cupriavidus-necator-for-heterotrophic-and-autotrophic-isopropanol-production
#11
Jillian Marc, Estelle Grousseau, Eric Lombard, Anthony J Sinskey, Nathalie Gorret, Stéphane E Guillouet
We previously reported a metabolic engineering strategy to develop an isopropanol producing strain of Cupriavidus necator leading to production of 3.4gL(-1) isopropanol. In order to reach higher titers, isopropanol toxicity to the cells has to be considered. A toxic effect of isopropanol on the growth of C. necator has been indeed observed above a critical value of 15gL(-1). GroESL chaperones were first searched and identified in the genome of C. necator. Native groEL and groES genes from C. necator were over-expressed in a strain deleted for PHA synthesis...
July 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588567/biofilm-vs-planktonic-lifestyle-consequences-for-pesticide-2-4-d-metabolism-by-cupriavidus-necator-jmp134
#12
Thomas Z Lerch, Claire Chenu, Marie F Dignac, Enrique Barriuso, André Mariotti
The development of bacterial biofilms in natural environments may alter important functions, such as pollutant bioremediation by modifying both the degraders' physiology and/or interactions within the matrix. The present study focuses on the influence of biofilm formation on the metabolism of a pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), by Cupriavidus necator JMP134. Pure cultures were established in a liquid medium with 2,4-D as a sole carbon source with or without sand grains for 10 days. Bacterial numbers and 2,4-D concentrations in solution were followed by spectrophotometry, the respiration rate by gas chromatography and the surface colonization by electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585326/chicken-feather-hydrolysate-as-inexpensive-complex-nitrogen-source-for-pha-production-by-cupriavidus-necator-on-waste-frying-oils
#13
P Benesova, D Kucera, I Marova, S Obruca
The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol. % of FH prepared by microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l(-1) feather was added. In this case the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation...
June 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577450/n-acetylcysteine-induced-vasodilatation-is-modulated-by-katp-channels-na-k-atpase-activity-and-intracellular-calcium-concentration-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Özden Vezir, Ülkü Çömelekoğlu, Nehir Sucu, Ali Erdinç Yalın, Şakir Necat Yılmaz, Serap Yalın, Fatma Söğüt, Selma Yaman, Kezban Kibar, Merih Akkapulu, Meryem İlkay Koç, Didem Seçer
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular calcium levels on the vasodilatory effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in thoracic aorta by using electrophysiological and molecular techniques. METHODS: Rat thoracic aorta ring preparations and cultured thoracic aorta cells were divided into four groups as control, 2mM NAC, 5mM NAC, and 10mM NAC. Thoracic aorta rings were isolated from rats for measurements of relaxation responses and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553300/run1-and-ren1-pyramiding-in-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-cv-crimson-seedless-displays-an-improved-defense-response-leading-to-enhanced-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-erysiphe-necator
#15
Mario Agurto, Rudolf O Schlechter, Grace Armijo, Esteban Solano, Carolina Serrano, Rodrigo A Contreras, Gustavo E Zúñiga, Patricio Arce-Johnson
Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#16
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew R DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509826/sclerostin-antibody-treatment-enhances-rotator-cuff-tendon-to-bone-healing-in-an-animal-model
#17
Shivam A Shah, Ioannis Kormpakis, Necat Havlioglu, Michael S Ominsky, Leesa M Galatz, Stavros Thomopoulos
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are a common source of pain and disability, and poor healing after repair leads to high retear rates. Bone loss in the humeral head before and after repair has been associated with poor healing. The purpose of the current study was to mitigate bone loss near the repaired cuff and improve healing outcomes. METHODS: Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment, previously shown to increase bone formation and strength in the setting of osteoporosis, was used in the current study to address bone loss and enhance rotator cuff healing in an animal model...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496205/characterisation-of-a-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-inducible-system-from-pseudomonas-putida-for-orthogonal-gene-expression-control-in-escherichia-coli-and-cupriavidus-necator
#18
Erik K R Hanko, Nigel P Minton, Naglis Malys
3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical used as a precursor for production of added-value compounds such as acrylic acid. Metabolically engineered yeast, Escherichia coli, cyanobacteria and other microorganisms have been developed for the biosynthesis of 3-HP. Attempts to overproduce this compound in recombinant Pseudomonas denitrificans revealed that 3-HP is consumed by this microorganism using the catabolic enzymes encoded by genes hpdH, hbdH and mmsA. 3-HP-inducible systems controlling the expression of these genes have been predicted in proteobacteria and actinobacteria...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495518/prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-diclofenac-sodium-does-not-affect-total-neuron-numbers-in-spinal-segment-t13-in-rats
#19
Murat Çetin Ragbetli, Mikail Kara, Neşe Çölçimen, Necat Koyun, Gamze Çakmak, Veysel Akyol, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the total number of neurons in segment T13 of the spinal cord of offspring of pregnant rats using stereological methods. Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats weighing 150-200g were used. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups; a control group, a sham group and a DS (1mg/kg, intramuscular) exposed group. The DS and sham groups received injection from the 5(th) day of gestation to the 19(th). 28 days after birth, the offspring rats were perfused with 4% buffered formalin...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489889/an-environmental-assessment-and-risk-map-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-necator-americanus-distributions-in-manufahi-district-timor-leste
#20
Rebecca Wardell, Archie C A Clements, Aparna Lal, David Summers, Stacey Llewellyn, Suzy J Campbell, James McCarthy, Darren J Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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